Skip to main content

Full text of "Franz Kobler Collection 1909-1965"

See other formats


coti'Tßie^iA'tsof^ of r^^ 'Zeux, ro r^^'^u\ of i(\u)- t^m\sc{ifpr 


Maximilian Koesaier 


Wir haben Im vorigen "Auf- 
bau" ein Buch von Maximilian 
Koeesler, ''Maeterpieces of Legal 
Fiction", besprochen. Leider hat 
der Autor unsere begeisterte Re- 
zension nicht lesen können, denn 
er ist plötzlich in San Carlos 
(Kalifornien) gestorben« als er 
dort auf der Bahnstatton auf 
einen Zug nach San Francisco 
wartete. Eine Herzattacke hatte 
ihn überfallen. Als er dem San 
Matteo Covaaiy General Hospital 
eingeliefert wurde, war er be- 
reits verschieden. 

In Oesterreich geboren und 
nach einem Studium an den Uni- 
versitäten von Czemowltz und 
Wien In die Vereinigten Staaten 
gekommen, hatte Koessler, der 
75 Jahre alt geworden ist, an der 
New Yorker Ctolumbia Universi- 
tät seinen Masters Degree ge- 
macht. Er erhielt ferner während 
seines Studiums hier den Con- 
verse-Preis und den Kent Scho- 

Während der Kriegsverbre- 
cherprozesse gehörte Dr. Koess- 
ler zum Stab der Verfolgungs- 

Nach Beendigung der Prozesse 
kehrte Koessler nach den Ver- 
einigten Staaten zurück, arbei- 
tete hier für sprachwissenschaft- 
liche Zeitschriften sowie für 2^1- 
tungen und war seit 1950 Senior 
Editor der "Bancroft Whitney 
Law Publications"-Firma in San 
Francisco tätig. Erst vor einem 
Jahr ging Koessler In Pension. 

Der Verstorbene, der ein Mit- 
glied der New York State und 
der CaUfomia State Bar Associa- 
tion war, hinterlässt eine Witwe, 
Frau Martha Koessler. 



<.ktAvJ»_V i.i 


Kobler 9 c Manuscript 

Contrilrution cx the J^vrs to the 
realn ot Lav/ 



- 1 - 


The hi Story of the Jewish contribution to the realm of law 

offers a striking paradox. While the liipact of the Decalojue on mankindl 

cannot be ©verestimatecl and the Old Testament served as basis of the 

oanon law, post-biblical Jewish law, though Its development, exegesls 

and appllcation forwed the incessant task of Jewish scholars for 

Mlllennla, reuained to the greatest extent ^n internal feature of the 

Jewish people. It is true that the influence,«: which, according to 

a modern theory, Talmud ic law has exerted on Svrian law and through It 

öh the Byzantlne Codes as wellafl on xxtx the classic Jurist? of that 

era , and, likewise, the Hebrew ori^in of some legal institutions and 

modern le^al prlnciples have to be taken into account when the hlstorv 

of vestern legal devolopment Is being traced down the ajres. ßut in 

comparison with the permanent ef f ectiveness of Roman and Ger^an law 

on the European lepal Systems and practice on the one hand and the 

permeation of Jewish life by the Talmudic law on the other hand, only 

a secondary sip:nifii8ance can be ascribed to the sporadic link? betwe<^n 

Jewish a'^d ^Vestern legal thouf[;hts durin^ antiquity, the Middle A/res 

and the first centuries of modern times. The pubordinate role which 

the Jews played within the legal sphere in thepe epochs becomes 

especially manifest, If contrasted with the outstanding contribution 

made by Jews to med leine throughout the aame periods. 'i'he wo?ld that did 

not refrain from availing itseif of Jewiph physicians had no use for 

the masters of Jewish law who by their]OpiJinances ,d«0i^i09i and responsa 

were able to cement the Jewish communities and knitted tog- ther the 


dispersed people of Israel. Onlji when the powerful voice of Spinoza 
madö Itaeif.hÄfiltd outside the Jewish communitv, the profound views of 
the Jewish philosophe^; on the State and the rights of the inÄividual 

- 2 - 

aroused attention,thoüglj,at the same tlme, so fierce an Opposition 
that they remained "barred from any influenae on the world for more than 
handred years. - 

A spect^cular chan^e of the negative relation between the Jews 
and the legal sphere of their environmenibts took place vrlth the advent 
of the EmaHcipation.era* The impact against the separating harrier 
Game from the Jews. Their emancipation was in itself a part of a 
revolutlonary ^ process which, as a product of enllprhtcnment , aimed 
at the establishment of civic rights and the abolition of oppressive 
measurea. The prospect of participating in the creation -ind maintenance 
of ü new legal order was therefore for no part of the population more 
enticing than for the ^ev/s. Their longin^, after civic equality, their 
strong sense of Justice, deeply rooted in Judaisu, their training in 
the interpretaticn of law - all these factors ^ave a micrhtv iaipalse 
to the desire to have an active part in IcgiPlation and in the 
administratlon of Justice as well as in all branches of Jurisprudence. 
This desire was indecd part and parcel of Jewish enli«htenment which 
heralded and accoapanied the emancipation of the Jew:^. It is therefore 
not surprlsing that the sector of European Jewry which gave birth to 
the rreat ploneers of enli^htenÄent, Moses Mendels söhn and his followers^ 
also produced the first aoölem Jewish matfters of Jurisprudence: 
Eduard Gans and Friedrich Julius St ahhl , who, thougii botla ©f them 
eDQj^braced Christianlty , represent - not lastly Just owlng to their 
baptism - the very type of the transformed new Jewish greneration of 
which the modern Jewish Jurist was a favorite speciffiBn. 

It was also from the itock of German Jewry that the man hailed 
who was to become epoch making not only in the field of Jewish 
particlpatlon in the le^al develooment of Austria but who by t'nis 
participation onticipated the important role Jews were about to play 

- 3 - 

In the hiatory of Austrlan law and Jurlaprudence. 

At the beginning of the thirties of the elfrhteenth Century 
- ahortly after i^-^opes Mendelspohn' s blpth -,the son of Rabbi Yechlel, 
pumamed Harlö \ the Pioue ), Ll]iman Perlin ( meaninr früm Berlifl ) 
etf.4}frated wlth his wlfe to Eiaenstadt, then in West Hunf^ary, and later 
to Nikolsburg in Moravia, both cities with old and renovmed communities. 
In Nikolsburg two sons, Joseph and Franz, were bom to Lipman Perlin 
in 1732 and 1735 reapectively. A few years later he became converted 
to Catholicis.T and chknged hia name to Alois Wlejier. The sons, too, 
were then baptized, while their mother retained her Jewlsh faith. 
In an amazinjly ahort time, Alois Wiener, by virtue of his extensive 
knovlAcBife of Qufeental lan?;uaj;e?, succeeded in becoming appointed 
profeapor of these languages at the Univeraity of Vlenna and offlcial 
Interpreter in Hebrew. In 17^6, he was ennobled under the naire "von 
So nnenfels." V 

The aplendiid career of the firat Sonnenfela was surpassed by that 
of his son Joseph. After having studied law at the University of Vienna 
in the yevrs 175^ to 1756 and practised in a law «ffice for sevetal 
years, Joseph von Sonnenfels became already in I763 professor of 
"Polizei xjind Kameralwissenschaften" (li.e. applied political science ) 
at the University of Vienna. In 1779, he was appointed Aulic 
Councillor, memiÖDer and rapporteur of the "Studien und Zensur-Hof- 
kommiasion ( Commie^ion on Studies and Cepaorship ), and aoon after- 
wards vicepresident of the comiriisslon of Judicial Reform. He served 
as a meMber of this comnl^sion for decKades under the rei^rns of 
Maria Theresa, Joseph II, Leopold II and Franz. The voi^k of thit 
cominission comprised the codification of both, the Austrian ßlVil anci 


- 4 - 
crlmlnal . code, and Sonnenfels participätdä in each of these great 


Aa a disclple of Karl v. Martini and J.P. Riegger, the 
outatanding teachera of Natural Law at the Univerait.-yf'of Vienna, 
Sonnenfels was an ardent follower of thisBchool. His Juridical credo 
wasunequivocally expreased in the dictum: "Law is as old as human 
nature, it is embedded in our f©-^lin^s/' Sonnenfels 's share in 
the Austrian codlfication was conaiderable. The civil code of 1811 
owes to his ideas several provisions of marital settlement and the 
evaluation of personal Services of intrinsic values. ßut the Chief 
merit of Sonnenfels regarding the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch 
which remained the Austrian code up to the present tiiue consists in 
his successful e^orta that the new law ahould be written in a clear, 
sinpi^e and pure language. In this respect Sonnenfels had the advantage 
of having been both an eminent IJurist and n remarkable man of lfe.tterG. 
His declared ambition was to prove that the .austrian authors are 
equal to the German writers, and he made even up his mind to aet this 
example by his own literary production. His ef.'orta were highly 
successful. He was not only in his own days considered as one of the 
foremost Austrian writers and therefore as early as I78I ( thus in the 
a^e of 26 years ) elected of the German Literary Society of 
Vienna, but also by a modern literary auth:'rity as Erich chaidt, 
with regaMto the Journale "Der Mann ohne Vorurteil" ( The man wlthout 
Pre Judice ) which had been founded and editjfced by Sonnenfels for 

several years, recognized as "a skilful and courajeous Journalist." 

to be found 
The most lastin?? fruits of hi^ literar^' ability are, however,j/in the 

formulation of the Austrian c^Titfel code. The precipion and formal 

elegance of its lang:uage made the code a German classic. In ""act the 

style of the Austrian code can well coppete with that of the Code 

iMapolöen and had not beÄikfeurpassed -^ver since. 

- 5 - 

Important as Sonnenfels* s contrlbution to the civil code 

hBB been, it was vastly overshadovred by his achievement in the field 

of the crimlnal law. In fact, thia feat rankes far above all the 

actlvities of his long and f ruitful .lif e . and has secured him an 

honorable place amonfr. the great humanitariana of all a5!;es. In hi:' fig:ht 

for the abolition of torture, he' was inspired by the neblest Impulses 

of hls character and of hia herita^e. Koreover, he risked for the 

sake of hie jr.oal, if not his pwpsonal freedom, certainly his career 

and p. rhaps his livelihood in Austria. For hie adversaries kftxlxacdtxtBi 

jElxKK in his strug^rle wcre not only the powerful men- of the Imperial 

administration , but also celebrated universlty Professors and dhurchmen, 

among them the influentil Carüinal Couiöt Migazzi. Although the Kmpress 

Matla Theresa was favorably disposed towards Sonnenfels, in the greatest 

cause of his career he had to face alFo her Opposition. V/hen he after 

the Promulgation of the new Gonstitutio .Crlmirialiis continued his 

attacks apainst torture, sh: ctantually yielded to the pres;^ure of his 

inveterate opponents, Vice Chancellor Gount Kolowrat, Gourt Ghancellor 

Chotek and the Cardinal who denounced ^önnenfels to fcJÄK Maria Theresa 

as "the determined foe of the God-willed order itself": with her 

missive of 21 August 1772, the Jimpress ordered Sonnenfels to abstain 

from further discusrion of the questions of torture and capital 

punishaent to which he, an admirer of i^eccaria, also was opposed . 

Sonnenfels was, however, not deterred by this movp from pursuing the 

iasue further. ' His response was addreased to the Empress herseif. 

He inaplored her to order an inquirv into the matter with each partv 

presentin^ its views by a special repreeentative, and he closed hhe :: 

address with the movinfc appeal: 

I am not bllnded as to my limited abilities knowing well 
that the cause of humanit^jis entrusted to powerles? -^nd 
tremblings hands. ßut I lift myself by the hope taat my zeal 

^ ^: 

- 6 - 

will rise me above myself and that Providence will send rescue 
' through a feeble one in order that one may reco^nifee that She 
has perforiried it. 

Whatever mgy be the result of the inquiry. - if I would 
be convicted of havin/?: erred, 1 vow at Her l-ajesty'a feet that I '"^\ 
will revoke- bef ore the eves of the wof»ld wT^i^t I have writte*^.... 

±f I would be PO fortunatr t^ öxpottn^ ' ^^y 'i^easons before 
Your throne, the world would not" be'j;t3oubtB about the decision 
which the tenderness of )^our heart would prompt Your Majesty 
to take. . . . 

The appeal was not lost upon the Empress» Already in the next 

year the govemment reopened the official deliberations on the qucFtion. 

Sonnenfels contributed to thi'S^d<*batahtMpl«ndld Votum Separatun which 

was published in 1775 under tne titü "Uebe r d ie Abschaffun g d er Fo lter" 

and haa becoaae the most famous and most sucessful anionr hls writin^s. 

For it was in the followin^ ye3r that Karla Theresa is-'ued the decree of 

January 2, 17760a^erin^ the abolitlon of torture ( except fcn the lands 

of the Hunfarian crown ). The other goal Sonnenfels had pur^ued , the 

reatriction of capital puniahment and abolition of its barbarou? forma 

was reached only after the death of the -^impresF when Joa^h II irrferoduced 

" ) 
these reforms. -y 

ThiJS long before the new "Custrian criminal code wa? draf ted , 

th« huroanliatlon of the origiiBallav ati4 prooedure tnntiixttj, had been 

secured aainly by the efforts of Sonnenfels. It was hia greatest triumph 

which carried the name Joseph v. Sonnenfels to late generations. ßven on 

tne monument which has be n erected for him in Vienna the br'^ken instru- 

ments of tortureflayingc at his feet indicated the bfatte reaaon of his 

immortality . 

it is not an exa^rp-eratioä to State that the appearance of 

.Sonnenfels marka a glorious beginning of the pr^rticipation of the Jews 

4n the legislation and jurisprudence in Austria and, indeed, even outside 

of the Habsburg monarchy. For in no othc State a man of Jewish descent 

has pl^yed a similar role at that tiine. Cn the eve of emancipation , 

even before any part of the Weatern World Jews had attained civic rights, 

- 7 - 

a Jew had helped to codify a new law ^nd to purge legislation from 
the moat cruel Institution. The Juristic ability of the Jew, hia aense 
of Justice and huii]en«»«sg which have manifcsted themsflvea in the life 
of hia own people, had proved to be ready for the pervices of mankind 
at large. 

The rise of Sonnenfels created, to be sure, also a regrettable 
precedent in the history of Jewiah participation in the realm of 
Austrian law: the Jew who only if separated from the Jewish Community 
is acquiring the Chance to make his talents useful to hia non- Jewish 
envoronment without reatriction has entered the acene of Auatrian 
public life. 

Several dttoadts had to pass after the death of Sonnenfels, which 
occurred in 1817> until another Jew became associated in a prominent 
roanner with the lepral affairs of Austria. But while in the casp of 
Sonnenfels th« door to the high Position he was to attain in the 
monarchv of Maria Theresa has been thrown wide open through early 
baptiam, the aolitary Jew who at the time when the revolution of 1848 
for a ahor^ Irhiie swept away the discriminatory anti-Jewish measures 
took his Position among the Gentile Juttats was a profeseing Jew, 
in fact, - by a stränge contraat - a man outstanding a^ an Hebrew 
Scholar as well as a lawyer. He was Wolf gang Wessely , bom in 1801 
In Trebltsch, Moravla, who, after having in his youth received a 
traditio nal education, atudied at the Un'veraity of Prague and graduated 
there as Ph.D ( 1826 ) and aa LLD, ( 183^ ). He aerved firöt aa a teacher 
of religion on Jewiah achools and as axaminator 6f bettoo^bhed couples - 
aa required by Austrian law at that time -, but was appointed later on 
lecturer of the Hebrew language and literature at the University of 
Prague. y 


- 8 - 

It happened after the Promulgation of the Constitution of 

18A9 wheii the ministry of Justice was in the hands of Schmerling, a 

devout liberal, that the youn^ Emperor Franz Joseph, conaciously 

devlating from the practiipes of Maria Thereaa and Frans, apüointed 

Wesaely a lecturer of Law at the University of PraRue. Thus started 

a career which was without precedent in Austrian history, Wesf^ely 

hiaaelf , on the zenith of his fruitful life , summaralzed the raain 

events of his career in a letter to the Je^ish scholar, Leopold Low, 

of January 23, 1862: 

It aeems that Providenc^has chosen me as an instruinent 
in Order to £"«(Rire victory to the liberal prinoiple in the 
question of emancipation . I was the first J»w ivho served asa 
court tranlator in Hebraicfes, who wa^ aummoned to the 
consultation about the OT*paT:il./^aMon of the courts in 
ßohenia in 1848, who was permitted to practise law at a 
criminal court, who was admitted to and passed the 
examination for the Judiciary office and who wap made a 
lecturer at an Austrian unirersitv, to become later an 
extraordinary ( assistant ) ^ofessorand finally Ä^.rull 
xxxxxxxx Professor at a law faculty. .i^ 

But Piren more important than all these firsts was the fact 

that Wessely was entrusted together with other Jurists with the task 

to investigate for the Aurtrian govemment the reforms in criminal'* 

procedure in the Rhine Province and ßelgium, and that a<= a consequence 

of his report the Jury system was Introduced in Austria,thou^h only 

for a Short time. Thus V^essely contlnued as it were the work which 

Sonnenfels had ii:Jitiated of liiperalizinfT Austrian Judicial procedure, 

The Innovator was, hpwever, this time a pious Jew -M&on^ whose writings 

beaides of j^nistic momographc such as treatises aboat the means of 

evidence in the Austrian civil procedure or about emerf'.ency and self- 

defence, also a prayer book with G^rman tUanalation in Hebrew 

characters can be f ound . 

- 9 - 


Wolf^ang Wessely ( who dl' d In IÖ70 } became a wondrous 
counterpart of Sonnenfels a|@oln another respect: ju^^t as oonnenfels, 
the baptized Jewish reformator of Mari» Theraa' s rei^n found no 
auccessor in the next deca^e» ,Wesrely remainedJTor a long time 
the only confeadLng Jew who held a chair of Law at an Austrlan 
Univeraity. In vain tried the out stand Ing German- Jewish Jurist 
Levln Goldschmidt to get an appointmentat the University of Vienna. 
The annulment of the Constitution of 1849 by the decree of 
December 31» I85I had thrown the Jews b^ftklnto the condition 
prevailinp: bcfore l848.However the knowled^e whlch the firnt Jewish 
Austrian läwyers -had acquired was now put to work in the stru^p-le 
for the restoration of the lost riirhts. In fact^ aimilarly as Gabriel 
Riesser had.foiii^ht in Germaity for the civic rights of the Jews, 
Dr. Heinrich Jacques, a^'jifted lawver and writer, born In Vienna 
in 1831, who had studied philopophv at Heidelberir and tätlB^ö .c 
obtained the degree of a Doctor of Law at the University of Vienna, 
engaged in a forceful canipaign ag:ainat the renewed diacrimination 
offthe Jews. He subjected the legal Status of Austrian Jewry to an 

acute criticism in his 'Ipe nkschri f t !lber d ie Stellung^ der Juden_in 

Oes terrei ch" ( Memorial on the Status of the Jews in Austria ) , 
Vienna lö59f which went through four editionün the course of a few 
weeks. One of the main idtt&s xxx Jacques put forth in the bock 
was that Austria, by excludingthe Jews from the basic civil rights, 
especla ly from the attainment of civil and polit^al Offices not only 
alloweda subatantial part of material national capital to be idle, 
but "permits the spiritual wealth of the Jews ev^aporate ainiles?ly 
and ineffectually when by its own laws it forces them to devote 

- 10 - 

their energiegto a quest for pospesslona and richea." It is true that, 

«axljiÄHSx^ttotxKxkxxxRMtxxtxxiaKKMy.'iEi'.spite of thka proud assertilon of 

Jewlsh cultural qualities,:ieinrich Jacques, as Hans Tictz« put it, 

advocated an imcr'onclitinal sapbordöjhation of äpeötfiic Jewiah valuea 

and Jewiah pecullarity to the Auatrlan State i Nevertielesp he was th^ 
eloquen t^ 
^s'poke'sman of the new jgeneration wjiose prenuine desire to pat*tictpÄte ; in 

public affairs was linked withe th^certalnty 4)f being able to contribute 

to the c«Mmon good. It waa indeed this urge which inspired particu^arly 

that substantial part of the ^iewish youth of those daya an^the next 

^ecades which took up the le^al profession. 

i^r. Jacques' a Kemorial which proved to be the firat of his many 

Juristic worka ( aee below p... ) influenced undoubtedly public opinlon -^nd 

thua contributed conaiderably to the abolitionVthe Jewiah disabilities . 

After some liberal innovations by the Inperial Patent of February 26, 

1861 the Constitution of L)ece«bjer31> 1867 by the prochmation of the 

Fundamental Bights of all Citizens brou^ht the long sought legal civic 

enuality to the Jews» Above alli the Offices of all kinds were made 

accessible to every Citizen. In principle, the Jews were from onward able 

to practise law as lawyera aa well aa Judgea and administrative officials 

of all ranka. 

Lnfortunately the application of the law waa to be found to be 

in a Sharp contraat to the apirit of the Cönatitution. Wherever appointment:j 

were left to the diacretion of administrativ^ bodies, an evident 

discrimination took place to the diaadvantap-e of the Jewish applicanta. 

Particularly the Superior Courts which were conpetent- for the nonination 

of judgea showed reluctance to recomaend Jewish candid^tes to the 

Kinistry of Justice, apartfuf the latter* s own lack iif inclination 

to appoint Jewish Judgea ( aee alao below p.... ). Ä simllat»:practice 

- 11 - 

prevailed as far as administrative Offices and profepsorahipr^ at the 

unlversities wwre concerned. The rights of the ^ewiß in all these resoects 

remained therefore to a g;reat extent merely on the paper. 

In gpite of these obstacles ,the Jewish element toecame rather 

conspicuous within the realm of law txoiK since the onstitution of 186? 

iDoth numerically and by the outstanding qualities of some Jeiflnh Juri st 5? 

and continued to loe so up to the end of the Monarchy and of the Republlc, 

Apart from the profes':^lon of/attorney to vrhich every Citizen wa^ entitled 

after the acquision of the degrec of a doctor of lawafter the prescribed 

practlce and after passing a special examination ( P-ee below.pp... ), 

the Jews were not deterrd by the dellberate and verv oCfean openly 9ti%3ixi:t 

anti-^enjyb-c discrimination from attempts to serve in the capacity of 

judJies or Judiclal offlcials ( se below p]t... ). The desire to attain 

auch positions !?annot be sufficiently explalned by fjr&djstic motives or 

merely by ambltion. There was indeed in the Austrian Jewsthat aferong 

desire present of which Heinrich Jacques had spoken so emphatically . 

It was thia desire which prompted many juristicaily minded amhng them to 

pave their wa^^p to public Offices by embracing CThristianity. Moreover, 

tiBies had chanfei since the days o"^ Wolff^ng Wessely. Assimilation was 

in füll Swing. In the centürv of risinp natur?^listic and materialistic 

trnde, Judaisßi had lost its hold in wide strata of the Jewish intelllf?^- 

entsia. For those who feit no attachment to the traditional creed 

baptism seemed to be a mere formality. Auftrlam p?triot?lsm and the link 

with German BRxxMattKiÄRÄßLiterature , philosophy and science, in many 

instances attachment tö socialism .had replaced the feelingsof solidarity 

with the Jewish people. All these circuirstances , combined with the 

prospects which an activity at the courts, in hi^h admins/trative Offices 

and at the univer^ities offered to younj^ Jews brought about an influx of 

neo-Christians to the legal proferrion which percentually probably 

- 12 - 

exceeds any other branch of social life. The palfeful contradictions 

Inherent In the Jewish existence within the tLuropean society prior to 

the cataströphe which engulfed Continental Jewry towarda the middle 

of the twentieth Century ha#<^erhaps manlfested themselves nowathere 

more irastically than in the pl^Jenomena accompanying the participation 

of the Austrian Jews in the sphere of law and Juriaprudcnce . Cf this 

the first act of that dramatic developrr: nt is a tellinf^ Illustration. 


It happened yet in the Itfetlme of 'A^olfpang Eeasely that two 

Juristlö: geniuses, Julius Glaser anllJoeefh Unjef ,etiefr|Ked almost at th#, 
;from the mldst of Austrian Jewry. The aiaoultaneous exiatence of the two 

Ben may somewhat ren^lnd of the great Rabblnic twina of the first Century 
fi«G;fi., Hillel and Shamai» who excelled throuph their akill in the 
Interpretation of the Torah as well as in their actirities. In a truly 
amazin^; manner the two Austrian Jewiah juriats, betwe^ n whom an intimate 
and frultful friendship developed, supplemented each other: Joseph 
Unger taking the Position in the field of civil law while Julius Glaser 
^^tüLtivated that of criminal law. JBoth were dosest contemporaries, 
Unger, kKiwg born in Vienna in 1828, being only three years senior of 
Glaser, bfcrn in Postelberf., Boheiuia, in 1831« Both men were called to 
the hig;hr,st posts of the Empire, both earned a lastin?^ faae as Jurists 
and statesmen far beyond the borders of Auptria. If Glaser has been 
considered the father of crinilnal preceedin(5, Unger galned the same 
title with regard to the civil jurisprudence. By a bitter irony even 
their estrangement from the Jewish fold iw^ a common f^ature of the two 
friends. Moreover their baptism took place in each case in early youth, 
thüs crcatinr, like In the case of Sonnenfels, a fa it ac com p li which 
facilitated their astoundinp care'^ri'. 

GlaserjjWas th« first and only Jew^ to becoine Minister of Justice 

- 13 - 

in an Austrian fiabinet, that of count Adolf von Auf^ersperp;. He served 
in th(^s capacity from I87I to 1879, and was then immediatcly appointed 
Attorney General of the Pupreme Criminal Coiirt. The ^eneral esteCn in 
which he was held even dutaide of Austria wag iranifested when, in I876 , 
the Convention of German Jurists ^- '*Ber deutsche Juristentag" - , held 
in Salzburg, elected Glaser Honorary President of that repre^sentative 
gathering. He was one of the most outstandinfr and most prolific authors 
on law, the bibliorrttphy of hip works - arranged posthumously by'hts 
wldow - conprising no lesp than 487 items. As a young man of 20 years 
Glaser pübilshed the pionecring book "Das en glisch-schottisch e 
Strafve rfah gpn ( £nrlisb-rScotchl-i Criminal Proceeding j, l£90 » which 
was also intendedas. weapon in the strugf?.le for introducing the Bnglish 
method of crimnal procedure into the /mstrlan legislation whichGlaser 
was destlned to accomplish. In the same year appeared also Glaser* s 
German trans^ation of ßeccaria*9 famous- study "O n crime 3 and punishment V 
It was a tribute to the great Italian humanist who had inspired Sonnenfelij 
Like the latter Glaser too waslimbued with the spirit permeating that 

work , particularlyconcemin^, the rejection of capital punishment. 


Glaser' s piiblic carecr oroceeded with extraordinary spe d. 
In 1854 - only ?5 years oM -he became "Dozent" ( lecturer ) at the 
University of Vieira, six years later, in 1860, when he had not yet 
reached his thirtieth year, he was appointed füll professor. In the years 
1868/69 xX he served as Minister in the Cabinet of the Count Carl von 
Auersperg. The year I87O saw him again at the University and alsc as 
member of the Reichsrat in the Austrian Parliament. In the next year 
Started the glorious period of his activities as Minister of Justice*.' 

One of Glaser s laain aims wasithe restoration of the Juries 
which had been introduced in 1849 after Wessely's report ( see above 
p....) but shortly afterwards abollshed. Glaser devoted a special "böök 

- 14 - 

^Anklage, W^ih rspru ch und Rec^its mltt el Im ■ np;l lach en Schwurye ric hts- 
verfahreni" ( Accusation, verdict anc apoeal in t'ne Enjrlish Jury 
procedure ) aI^I" remitiried an unsurpassed master piece^jp to date. Änt 
the revlval of the Jury-aystem was, however, only one pari of the rreat 
reform of criminal procedure which Glaser pursued . He rejected the 
methods of the secret, inqulaltlve and written procedure and advocated 
the pronciples of public, immediate and oral proceejUn^ with the partles, 
the attomey of State and the defendant, contendln^. Above all, he 
aimed at the a-olition of the rij^id rules of evidence which were to 
be superseded by a free eveal'ation of the Judicial proofg. The 
advocacy of all these meanures was based on Glaser* s philosophical 
and ethical convictlon thaife the task of criminal procedure Ir tÄ secure 
the finding of truth. '*;■. 

Glaser wen a complete victory. Cn January 1, 187*^ - almost 
exactly one hundred yeara after the abolition od törture thanks to the 
efforts of SonnenfelB^ a new 6ode of öriminal ßrocedure was pronulgated 
in Auatria as the outcome of Giaser' s untiring endeavcrs. It was the 
rnost modern lej^islation then in ^xistence. In an essay|Cievoted to Glaser 
by Karl Lammaach,ttltle «^reat expert oh the Auatrian criminal law., 
declared: "Austria, the State that had been a decade earlier consider-^d 
as one of the most backward oneafas far as public institutions were 
concemed, by one stroke had been .pushed in the first rank of thoses 

Fowere waose lejislation became an example for others . "Gliiaer' s Qode 

of Austria 
of Criminal Procedure remained in force until the seizure^ by the Nazis. 

Cbviously a bloodthlrsty tyranny which outstripped the cruelty of 

Inquisition had to abolish the humanitarlan law t|?itiated by a Jew. . 

As a macabre addition to this wanton deed Siasfcr's tw^Cait; dauprhters 

were deported. They did not return , but Glasrer's britnöi.chiia* ..the 

Code of Criminal Procedwara, was re-installed after tJae liberation of 


- 15 - 

It waa not enough for Glaser to have created the most 
advanced code of crimlnal procedure. He also produced a scientific 
standardwork on this matter, the " Handbuch des S traf prozesses"which 
gainedv recognition airionp .Austrlan and international lawyers and 
remained a landaark in Jurisprudence up to date. Glaser died pre- 
aaaturely in bhe year 1864 in his 53rd year. He wap moumed b.v whole 
Austrla. But nobody has «nlogized him more sincerely and more eloquently 
tinax than his f ri end Joseph ünger,praiainß him in x a masterly obituarv 
as the most ardent and most skilful def ender of Humanity. • 

Llke Glaser , üniqsr already in his youth exhibited his extra- 
ordinarv gilifts. As early as I65C - in an age of only 2? - he graduated 
in philosophy^t the University of K'*niptsberg.AH hlstoricl and philo- 
sophical work about marriape, published in the same ye-^r, was aoppi^oved 
by the faculty as his thesis. THree years later, after havinji; acquired 
the defrree of a Doctor of law at the Univeriity of Vienna, he lectured 
on law'at the University of Praj^üe to become in 1855 Ä«xJt»^«»^x»)e^^«»««3P 
assistant profiSssor at the University of Vienna. He was appolnted füll 
Professor in I87I and became Ä a luminarv of the university XJCxaCKDc« --' 
His brilliant lectures ano his famous wit 3C attracted vant crowds of 
students . 

Ihf^er wa^ only 28 years old when 'ne published the first 
volurae of hia System des öaterreichlachen ?riVÄt rechts ( Sy-teni of 
the Austrian Civil Law ) which was followed by another volume in 1857- 
This work proved to be one of the finest and most inspirinfr juris' ic 
works of those.'and even of future days. There was in Austria prior to 
the appearance of Unf!;er' s Sys tem no methodical prepara^ory work whatso- 
'jvrm'T done for a science of civil law. This law had been treated for 
decades as an object of a merely practical discioline, but not as a 
coherent whole. There did not exist a book tha' explained the principles 

- 16 - 

of law, none tliat taucht thelr hlstory. Needlea^ to say that no 
scit^ntific critlcism waf^orthcomlnjt, To be sure, In all these respects 
G-eririan Jurisprudence had made already ,<^reat strifeG f orward . Untrer who 
froiri his youth had been abaorbed in German culture was th- flrst 
Austrian Jurist who was ekjer and able to applv the scientific methods 
of German Jurisprudence to the Austrian civil law. In his System , 
Unger, drawin^ heavlly on Homanistic ^tudiep, demonstrated the develop- 
ment of legal inf^titutuons and, at the same time, looked upon the law 
a a coherent whole. The doctrine of corporate persons was presented in 
it as well as that of the protection of subjective I*igh45,' ^thuiJ'"''ÄVen 
mattÄers which belonf^ed to the sphere of civil procedurc/^^ 

Unger wap a follower of the historical school of S^aviprny whose 
greatest disciple he has be n olled. rie was the first Jurist who 
applied Savignv's method to the Austrian law. He did also pior|eerinic 
werk on special fields as the c^nt^^acts in favor of third persons, 
daaajes for guiltlesrkcts and actions on one's own risk. It was in these 
monographic studies that he took cognizance also of GermÄanlstic concep- 
tiona within the Austrian civii law. His work orained so great a-1 
recognition in üermany that it wap rightly sai€ of him that he fully 
repaid Austria's debt to German Jurisprudence. On the occasion of his 
70th birthday in the year 1898 the JaWfaculty of the Univer^ity of 
Viennajfedited a special "Festschrift "4 In th'^ introductory letter 
Unger was praised not only as the Innovator of Austrian Jurlsprudenc? 
who "with the weapons of critlcism, philosophy gnd historv aboliöhed. 
what was invetarate and replaced it by a beautifil new edifice", but 
also as an academic teac ler.^Thousands of stjdents'^:" read the letter,': 
" for whom each of your lectures was a Stimulus have been imbued with 
love and warm interest for Jurisprudence. ^y 

- 17 - 

Urifcr served simultaneoualv wit'n Glaser as a minister without 
portfolio in the Cabinet of Count Adolph von Auersperpr from I87I 
to 1879. In the year^ 1880, he was appointed President of the 
"Reichsgericht" ( Courtof the Empire ) , the higheat Austrian tribunal 
which has been adjucating queptions of the public law. Unger held 
this po?ltion until his death which occurred in 1913» in the 
85th year of his a^e. ^ J 

Unger and ölaser were collaborators in many fields. The »ost 
lastinu?: common werk was the collection of the decisions of the 
Austrian SupreaiÄCourt which were published in series of voluraes 
since 1869. The collection becamc proverbial unter the name 
"Glaser- Unger" ( GU ) and was to prove an invaluable, indeed 
indispensaMe , tool for Jurists all over Austria. The collection 
was continued after Glser's and even Unp:er's death. One of the new 
two editors was Joseph Schey v. Koromla, an outstandino; Jurist of 
Jewish Äescent ( see below pp. ) who, tO|;ether with Stepan, edited 
the collection until 191^. Glaser' s and Unger 's companoi^onshlp found 
also a splendüid literary was, in fact, the hiarhest 
honor which possibly could been beatowed upon them, when the most 
illustrious German Juristlc scholar, Rudelf v. Jhering, dedicated 
th^a flticxtoe Jointly the aecond volumejof his faaous work "Zweck im 
Recht" callinj them "the »ost competent representatives of the new ' - 
trend of Juris prudence in Austria," '^y 

Jherinj's words contained a proohecy which came true. Glaser 
and Unger became the founders of the Austrian school of law, as has 
been also attested by Ennsl' Landabe rg^ the historian of German 
J|^risprudence. fhile it would exceed the size and purpose of this 
study to Show in detail how 'he method s of the two masters have been 
perpetuated in the works of later .-.ustrian jurlsts and in the 

Bübsequent legislation, aome of these effects may be mentioned here 
in conclupion. It was the spirlt of Linker who prompted Joseph Krainz 
to coÄpose a nevf coniplete system of the Austrian civil law. Unger'13 
Ideap peraieated likewlae Stubenrauch' s populär commenti ry on the 
Austrian civil code. In the sphere of leglslatlon, a suf,p:estion 
which Glaser had made - outside of his special field - concerninac the 
proceeding on petty claims-has been materlalized , and Unj^er's views on 
civil procedura influenced Franz Klein, the creator of the 
"Oesterräichische Zivilprozeas-Ordnung." l^ / 

The Glaser- Ungsr tradition was potent particularly in the 
new Generation of Austrian jurists of Jewish decent who made thel-r* 
appearance in the second half of the ninete<ijith Century. Strangely 
enough, «»»Mxbl also amjng the» a pnir of outstaniinf Jurists arose who, 
born almost simultaneougly,pursued wlth utmost ener/try sinilar (roals 
and actually became the leading representatlvea of a new trend within 
the sphere of law. Emil Steinbach, b6rn in Vienna in 1846, was only 
one year younp-er than Julius Ofner, born in 1845 in a pm*:ll city of 
northem ßohemia, who, ho"ever, survived hlf^ illustrious contemporary 
by seven^een years . Much as the careers of the two men were dif^^-rent, 
that of Steinbach elevatinj^ him, llkt Glaeerand Uns^er, to the hisrhest 
Offices of the State, while Ofner' s .Ifelong public actiYity r*5mained 
conf inedalmoHt entircly within the limit.-^ of a lawyer "^nd a m-'-'Tibi^r of 

the ^arliaiient, there cxists an as it were mysteriously analofrous 

^-betwe n their charact' rs and fundamental vlew5?. Both were bachelorr^ of 

a nearly ascetlc type inbued with a saintly devotion to their tasks 

which, according to their common' conviötion, consisted in the Service 

for the people by creatinp*^ new, socially ninded leprlslation . As 

spokesmen of the contemporary tmn^-^EL^y towards such a lefislation and 

,..-^,, .•:,,:.,. ', , ,' ... --■ V ■':/:•, : "'■ - 19 - ■■■■■■,■■.' " "/ 


as tlrelesr flghters for it Steinbach and Ofner hold a unlque place in ■{ 
the hl Story of Austrian Jurisppudence. 

It was Juliua Glaser who , ap minister of Justice, called 
Steinbach' - then (after haVing received the law degre^ of the Unlvcrpity 
of Vienna in 1669 ) teacher at the College of Comir.erce in Vienna, an 
ina»t.itution founded by Heinrich Jacques - to the deDartment of Justice, 
.^everal years later Steinbach embraced Catholicigni, a Step which wae soon 

, .. . . . /■/ 

followcaby his apoointment as the head of the departnent. In this 

capacity, Steinbach was abl e to become inntruaiental för/his frjvorite 

ideas by launching bllls on compuTsory health-, accident- and disabilltv 

Insurance of workers which heralded the era of social l<^gi9lotion in 

Auatria. In 1891 Steinbach was made Minipte^- of Financ-j in the CaVinet 

of Count Taaffej^. The introduction of the gold-standard in the Aur-trian 

monetary system- and the exchange of the flcrin for the crown weee his 

work. Moreover a new law on personal taratio'?, with provirlonf which, 
in ac cordance with his vlew on the "dutles of posseesion" 
.^^TTTTted the tax :. urden fror: the flnancial weaker to the wealthy had 

be^ n drafted by ^telnbach and successfully presented by hirr t<b the 

parliaiTient in hi? splendid sper-chjpn February 19, l89P.liBsiee©B<ä»?iee 

«JcifÄXÄlfstXTüCÄWXxaHXtÄÄxildtMtJfKÄxarfxBcsÄSÄSsl-araxÜ ^teinbach* s social 

reflected J.n 
feelings and f oresigljt arc alsc xxxxxxxiTja cill which demanded the 

establi shinent in all factories of corr:pulsor^- workers' Councils with the 

purDose to watch over Lhe interests of the eniployeers. Tne subject of 

thiß bill ( whic . falled V^become a law jdld not belon^ ort^pcrly to the 

sphere of the Kinistry of Finance, but Steinbach had , by hie foresight 

and wisdom, acquired so creat an authority that hi? advice and sugp*estions 

proved oft.en decisive in matters of other minist^'ier^ , in fact, it was 


he who pressed most for the reforrr. o"^yobPolete Austrian electoral .:• i 

1' • ■ 

systei» and who was the main drivin^ fcrce behlnd th© bill Count Tftaffft 
finally intraduced- rteinbach hoped that a new more demotratlc house of 

« f. 

'■'.'■■ * 'rf ■ . ' . 

representaitives would be more favorable to h s social reforms. 

Unfortunately the rejection of the "bill about t£ie downfalJ of 

Taaffe anu thus also klXK the terr inatlon of Stelnbach* s ' mlnlwSterial 

' Stel'n :.ach 

actlvltles. Soon afterwards bi«jA/as appointed chairinan of a divlslon of 

the Bupreme Court, .-^nd in 1899 Vice President "both of the Su 'reme Court 

and of the Court of the Empire ( "Reichsgericht" ), in the year 1904 

the Prime Minister K'^rber submitted to the Mftiperor the proposltlbn to 

aake Steinbach President of the Supreme Court. 3ie rnotlvated the oropoiPal 

especlallv wlth the expectatlon that -telnbach s reputätion as a scholar 

and hls su;ierlqr' Position in the world of leaminp; would under hl3 

guldance secure to the judicature of the SupremeCourt a new gplendor 

and an IncreRsed slr.nlf Icanc ; . Thua it hapnened that in th«t year for 

( and last 
the lirstVtliLe t Jurl^ of Jewish decent was Invested wlth the hl^hest 

Judlclary dl^ätnlty of the Austrian Konarchv. One of the mopt Intrlcate 

Judiclal cases whlch came up durlng Steinbach' s presidency of the 

Supreme Court wap the n'ori?anatlc narrlape of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand 

wlth the Countesp ChoteV. It wap Steinbac'! who wsp dertlned to settle 

this hlstorlc questlon bv hlp expert oolnlon. '^telnbach held the offlce 

of the or sldency of the iSupreme Court uttll his death vvhlc ' occu^red 

on May 26, 190?. ^"^^ 

Steinbach espresred hls Ideas In a serles of solendid writin^s, 
öp "I^ie Rechtskenntnisse des PublUcums" ( 1678 ;, ^'Erwerb und beruf" 
\ 1690 ), "RechtPgesch^'fte der wirtschaf ttlchen Qrgenisati-^nen ( 1897 )» 
"Treu und Glauben Im Verkehr" ( 1.^01 )"Der Staat und die modernen 
Prlvatgionopole" ( 19C3 ). Lut these public tlon:^ , moptly adapted 
lectures, are in ^ neral rather conclse sumiTiarles of hls social phllo- 
sophy than elaborate studles. For Steinbach was principally a man of 
action. He escelled as statesman, as leglslator , as Jud<?-e. It Is, 
however, not the variety of these actlvites, extr- orldnary as they w^jre, 

what constltutes the grentnea? of ."^teinbach the doer, but the deep 

religious feeling and the stronj? moral convictions underl^'lng all hls 

actions. Rarely has a statesm- n, and, as has been sald, certalnlv no 

Austrian statesman ro emphatlcally rejectea the indivlduallstlc orlncipleß 

as Steinbach. He not only considered m'^rals and social ideas as the 

foundati-^n of legijslation , but he also demanded thftt the individual should 

be llml}ted in the use of valid rughts bv ethlcs, as the title of one of 

Steinbach ' s writin^s , "Die Moral _.als_ Schranke d^ea^K^ ...ynd_der Recht 8--__ 

aurübunn:" ("Korals a? barrier of acquisltio'^ and of use of ri<»hts") 

clearly Indlcates.Thus Steinbach' s foremost s±m was to link the law wlth 

ethtcs and, consequently, to make JurisprudenC' an Instrument for the 

reallzation of this very aim- He therefore «iemanded the Subordination- 

of individual intereets unaer those of asroci-ationg as .well as the 

restriction of the freedom of makin^ contracts. .On the other h.ind , he was 

one of the earliest advocates of the free law principle: in cases for 

whic-"! the law dld not offer a clear Solution, the Jud-^e, accordin^ to 

Steinbacii' s opinion, wa? entitled to declde accordinr to his free 

Judgment, taking the cntempörary social ideal as a Standard. ^' 

Steinbach 's thou^hts and deeds had a definlte influence on the 

new generation of Juriats and social thinkers, partlcularly on Anton 

Kenger. Even more, however, than from Steinbach* s published w6rks and 

public actions an Inspiration ememanted from his Speeches, his conver- 

sations and, above all, from his personal conduct. >Vhen Franz. Klein has • 

Said of Stelinbach that he has "in contrast to some modern philc^ophers who 

extol the instincts proclalmed the harsh («coppel of the Oup-ht" he has, in a 

nutshell, characjj^erized the man and his work. That this has been said 

about a son of the Jewish people who, thou^h he left the Jew3 sh fold in 

upon ,^/ 

advanced years, as a yount man had planned to embarky/the rsbbinic career, 

is aa difficult to ignore as the identity of "the h-rsh ^ospel of the 
Ought" - the ethics - with the foundations of Judalsai. 

Perhaps the Hebrew rootp of Steinbaoh*p eocial phllosophy 

and of hl 3 who ' e person-^llty v^il be one day more cl/rlfled when the 

life of this extraordlnary ra-in will e thorou^rhlv described as It has 

been fortunatfely done Ir' Emil Lehman concerning Julius Cfner in an 

admirable compreh'^npi'^® thesls. FYom this bioffraohlcal stu/^y» from 

Ofner's own writinirsm and npeech<*3, of which a repr-^r.entativ« selectlon 

has b(?een publiohed by Walter Eckstein/, and from the recordaof Ofner's 

hupe lefrialatlve activitles, Julius Cfner emerre? - beside Steinbach - 

as the elDpdlment of the forces which in the second half of the nÄeteenth 

anu at the beirlnninfr of the twentieth Century aimed at fundarr.ental 

changes of le/cislatlon and judlclal practice. In a life of aluiAst 80 '^ 

years, particularly durin^»: the momentous five decades that saw the 

last desperate fi,i;ht of the Austrlan Empire for rep:eneration and 

survival, the deadly strugrle of WorldWar I and the creatlon of the 

Austrlan Republlc, Cfner took part vlrtually in all juristlc Problems in 
hl^ / 
(capacity as practisinp: lavfver, af5 law/rlfver and scholar. There is a 

fervor for law and Justice in Julius Ofner which reminds of the ^reat 

g:aons and intepteterr^ of the Torah. In fact, thou^h he, followini|!: the 

trend of the liberal er*^ , already as a youth b?came a f reethinker, tha 

Jewish education which he received from his orthodox father, mandifegted 

itseif in his Juristic activities. He never left the Jewish commuftity 

and confes-ed hlms*lf th-^t the Pirke Abot ("The Sayln^-s of the Fathers'*J 

were the sc-rcC'? of his ethical convlctions and that the foundation of 

his legal thinkinor derlved from an ancient Hebrew code whicft he studied 

up to his sixteenth year. ^ 

It is symbolical for this Champion of a new Austrlan leiirial?itioi:t 

' ■■•■• '■'•'. : '' has 

that Jjilwc one of his earliest and the rreatest scholarly vrork he publish<*d 

was the thoröu^h edition ©f thef^draft of .the Austrlan Civil Code and of 

the perinent contemporary rainutes ( "Der _Urentwurf und die Beratun/ys- 
2ro_t??.lolle_des_Allgemelnen^^^^^ ), Thüs dfner f^hook • 

'.,* .; ' 

', , "'.;'':.; • 

- 23 - 

hands , as it were,with ßonnenfels, the Jewlsh Mrn collaborator of the 

clasrlcal law^lverR Zeiller and Martini. Ofner had to overcome ^r^ at 

obstacles until he was able after years of preparatlons to publish the 

work of two tfhen the edltion flnally -ipeeared in sucCesSlve 

installments betwe^:!n 188? and 1889, it was favorablv received and sonn 

became one of the most used source books for the interDretatlon of the 

Oode. The work has nit lost its Importance up to the present day. 

It was not tae curiosity of the historian that had prompted Cfner 

to pursue the edition of the "Urentwurf" with such an energy. What he 

intende j above all was to provide in the procesr of legialation 

and to demonstrate the exemplary Standard of the makerp of the Code, 

the superict?ity : 
especJally of the - in Ofnep's days, the days of the florlshlng hipto>rlcal 

school - much ridiculed adhementspf the natural lew-over the contemporary 

positivists. , The ^^ürentwurf" wa.9 also intended to become an instrujDent 

, >'■ - ••• .,.•,, 

of the revision of the Code, Ofner' s favorite Idea. It was one of Cfner* s 

flrat actions when he was elected member of the House of Representalve° 

in 1901 to propose such a revision or rather the creation of an entlrely 

new civil code. Thus he inaucurated a campaiprn which, thouglj it did not? 

lead to the realization of that ambitious objective, bore many earcellent 

fruita. In 1904 Un^er raised hls voice in favor of a revisiorl of the Code 

at variance with Of ner' s orooosal by mosaic^l ike pinsle correctiona. 

Not loniBT afterwards the Prlme Minister Dr. v. K^rber appointed a commission 

of five members for the revision of the Code, Now Ofner defended his idea 


of a ureneral revision in an article ( published in^ffia?tazine"Allfremeine 
Oesterreichisbne Gerichtszeitunpr" , and also as an indeoendent oaniDhlet 
in 190? ) . Only after a thorougrh discuspion in which several Jewish 
Jurista - eapecially K^^t?l zedier, Armdn Ehrenzweijr , Horaz KrasnopolStK.ij 
Hudolf Pollak and Joseph v. Schey who alsCwas a membepi'of the above mcnti- 
oned Commission - took a leadinpr part, aöu after protracted transactions 

;' " 

I '.«■ L .t-. ^^fi 

: - 24 - ^ 

*' T, ' ■.'■''*'',■'■'■.''■•' •■ , ' . ' 

in the Kiinistry of Justice the three partial novels to the Civil Code 

have heen oromul^ated durinpr World 'ffar I - Äi 1914, 1915 and 1916 - 

throu|i;h Imperial eiecrees .^^/ ' 

The reform of civil law waa, however, only one of the numberlesF! 

legislative goals vrhich Ofner pursued in the courae of his parliamentary 

activity durin^ almost two decadea. The story od Ofner' s strufi;,prie for the 

apparovälof all the bllls which he introduced in the Austrian Parliament 

an f a s 

constitutesl/a^'^ fasG in at in ^,f Sublime epic. He foua;ht for them mot only in the 

plenary sesaions of the House, but also in many legislative commispiona 

whose Äcmberjbe vfas owino; to his almost Äniversal cxpert krowled^'» of i 

Juridic and social matter?. The subjectfl of these bllls msri^^ ranpe from 

the protection of virorkers and children to matters of the theater and to 

the question of vaccinationK, from criminal to marriai^e law, from the 

rights of women to the liability for Ckr accidents. in one sin,i!;le session 

alone Ofner Introduced no less than 23 bills.^, 

This unparalleled activity which was always called ftfth by Ofner' s 

hÄmane feelin^s and social Ideas, eamed him the surname "lf. he conscience 

of the P arliame-nt " . ^^ut his proper name was actually used to denote one 

of the most important laws he has Initiated, This law of April 9, 1910, 

the "lex Ofner ',' conceming the level of the amaunts relevant for the 

Classification of crimes a^.ainst peoperty adapted the outdated amounts of 

the old Criminal Code to the actual contemporary values of the money. Thus 

the dire XKXor^l^srx oractice to conderan people for triflin'^g offences asrainst 

fche law to severe penalties has been abolished. After the model of this 

lawjseveral others have been created when the po?t war inflat|:on brou?rht 

//> I 
about a contÄnuous dev«luation of tbe Austrian money. ../ 

Ofner fou^ht with an Indomitable tenaclty for his reforms^ A bill 

ap^ainst the exploitation of chlldiren for^labor has been introduced by hin 

already at the be^rinning of his parliamentary Cüreer in the old Monarchy 

but trlumph came only at the very wnd of the Empire. It is In fact svmbolical 
for the contlnuity of Ofner's Icislativc activities th«t the bill was one 
of the lateat whlch were approved by the old House cf Representatlvea , but 
owlng to the collapse of the Emplr' failed to «tet the conflrniatlon b- the 

House of LordsVmd the sljcnature of the Em^eror. It became, however, one of 


the firat lawa of the youn^ Austrian Republic. ^iir.ilarly, another of Ofner's 
favorite alma, the admiaslon of women to the jurlea , wai? aaterlalized only 
by the republlcan legislaturet As a rnember of the republican Parllament, 
Ofner, at that tlii.e a septuagenerian , contin'.ed the struj^gle for the 


realization of hia aocial and politlcai Ideals with unre-lented vigor. 
It aappened on his propositlon that the cenaorahip and the reatrictions of 
the right to ass^^^bl«» .vhich had been Introduced durinjr the war» were 
abolished. y 

But, trag:lcally, the ardent pursuanc^^ of a lef^al reform which was 
partlculariy Ofner's concem proved reaponsible for the abrupt end of 
hia glorious parlimentary career. Convil»ced that the time was rloe to break: 
with ti« antiquated marriaire law of the Austrian Monarchy which differed 
accordlnjr to the reli^lous creeds of the partners, Cfner ein|»arked upon a 
parliamentarv carap'ilrn to brin<r qbout a unified marriia,f;e law for all 
denoBlnations with an Cbli^atory civil marriaf^e to be perfornied by & civic 
official. This atteapt to bpeak with the lef;al tradition of a atate with a 
predom4)nantly Gjithä)lic population arouaed a storir of protest afcainst Ofner, 
particularly because he as a Jew had dared to engag-e in what was termed 
"ii.hereforni-okandal" ( i^arriap-e reforni scandal ) . Thus hip candidacy for 
a rnember of the^Conatitutional National Aasemply in 1919 was v ^emently 
conteated by the Christian-Social party. Parndoxically he also was opoosed 
by a greal part of the Jewish voters who resented his stand in the qu^ stion 
of the »arria^e law because It increased the antise itic wave. Thus Ofner 
lost the battle against Robert i^tricker, the Zionist candidate,in the 

- 26 - 

mostly Jewlsh second digtrict of Vienna. In an article ©bout that event j 

dBtMKt the brilliant i)urnall9t, Anton Kuhtcommented wlth caustic Irony on 

the Parilaroenxy 
Ofner's exit from.a\ : "the old Dr, Ofner had evidently beco . e a thorn in the 

flesh of the Parliament . Always only initiatives, iwiprovements , bills whlch 

Impeded the theatrical entertainment and enjöt»«nt'. of the crisiß, nothing 

eise than reports, inquiriea and elaborate surcruariej? of the uaterials - what 

an opportunity for the bellicose Juniors to yawn ! ... The well-informed , 

of course, Imaw what airiount of Isbor thia man with the face odT a pasplonate 

.. < . • •■• •" 

Scholar carried bn hl £5 Shoulders and how much the reputatlon of the House 

f.i ■ • • ■ 

owed to him. . . This is why he wa? allowed in the House which abounds in 

the nobodies of aingle fractions ....^form the one nian party "Dr. Ofnrr'.'... 

He never left hls past - even when the circlc around him was emptv. Thus he 

renalned young among a crowci of people who were old -it thelr ver^- birth. -y 

It sounded like an obituar^'. But in the reTiaininp* foüir years of 

his life, Ofner contlnued to rerraln on hip t)opt, thouf-^h it was now shifted 

to the Senate and to the newly created Verf a^'^un^syerlchtphof ( Con'-titu- 

tional Court ) , where he served asypermanent reporter. He even at the bid 

of the Governwent went in 19?1 to Berlin for ne«rotlations aboüt the 

coordination of the Austrian and the Law. And there was one activity 

which he continued up' to his last days: in fact, the literary oroduction of 

Julius Ofner forms an almost uninterrupted streaiT of innumerable ^rtlcles, 

essays, corrjrient^, ske-^tchee, book r(iviewß and independent books »deallnr with 

al-ÄOSt every aspect of law and pven of quite different subjects, like 

Schiller, Laotse and Hamlet, from his first listed oublications in the 

Juri Stic weekly "Gericha thall e" of 1871 uo to hts last 'book a summary of 

his basic ideas which he published in 1923 under the title: '*Das Soziale 

/^ ' 
gechtsdftnkenV { f-ocial legal thinking ). 'VrTiile one of hifc most mopt imprr-» 

tant works , the editloon of the "Urentwurf ** has alrea':^y been n.entioned, 

the literary part of Ofenr's work has to be dealt with in connection wlth 

JewLsh Gontributlons to the varloup branohes of Juri p prüden ce ( ^re pp....) 

Ofner died on Se^ptember 24, 1924. His ashe? ( he was cremated 

accordin?f to bis last will )were buried on the Jewlsb cemetary of Vienna 

in an honorary ton.b whlch under his name and the daten of hl.s blrth anÄ 

deatb bears the Ingcrlptlon he himself has chosen: A Man whoae onlv alrn 

w as to be a »an . Ä few yeara later a raonument consiPtinjR; of his head was 

erected in the park ^urroundin^. the town hall of '/ienna not far from the 

monument of SonnsnfelG. It war' a niysterious meetin-' of the shadows of the 

.<'''■■.'■ • to huraanlze 

two gien of Jewish descent one of whom has helpedj/the flrst Austrian 

Criminäl Code, while the latter left traces of hl^ huiaanltarian e^fortf? 

in practcal"! "/ every aphere of law. '. «^vi -., *• r-n . 


v i, jevism contributiors to the civil a nd c rimi näl ' _ 
j ürisprute^ce from the endof the nineteenth century__to the end of t he 

. ~ austriAn" r'fpubLxC in 1938 


Epochmalcinii: an the works cf Unrer and Glaser were in the doaaln 

of civil and criminäl law, the subsequent pgrticioation of Jurists of 

Jewish descent in these flel^s - qulte aoart from the uniqu- activitiea 

of Steinbach and Ofner - resulted in remarkable productlons poice of which 

rank amonpc the supreme feata of Austrian and modern Juripprudence in 

general. in order to pive füll credit to them, the history of Austrian 

Jurisprudence would have to be written in its entirety and checked as to 

that particular element. 'A^it'-tin the framf^work of thls study only soir.e of 

the major achievements can be ainfjed out as examples and n^t morc than 

a scarity biblloi«;raohical survey of the other ;>rorks with 'unavoidable 

omissions for which apolösries are offered in advance can be oresented. 


i Note: Under this headinsr all kinds of work" relatin^r x^q [ 
private rights and to le^al proceedin>.' c^ncerninff- them, . ine lud ihcr 
coirimercial law, workmen's law, patenta, copyrirhts and kirr.dred laws 
will be dealt with. ) 

T-'^' r^ 

- 28 - 

^1- . . 

Althouprh the first most complete and thorou/rh compendiiam 

(^Grundriss^) of th-- civil law which appeared after' s work was written 

by Josef Krainz/iand posthumously edited by Leopold Ff äff, both of whoiE were 

non-Jewish acholars, the third edition of this wor]^, a»ran|!red and published 
in 1Ö99 by the 
<6utstandin^, JewiPh-born Jurist Armin Ehrenzweiir ( 1864-1935 )^ professrr 

at the University of Graz, was already to a ^reat extent a n«w creation. 

Ehrenzwei^ produced also the next two editlons which wer« substantially 

enlarjed and thus espentially his own werk* The sixth edition of Krainz- 

Pfaff's Grundris p , published in 1925/^ »as^-umed finally puch an original 

character that ührenzweig feit duly entltled to publish it as "System d es 

allgemei nen Priv atrech ts" und er his own name. iiJiren zweig, a prollfic 

author on various 1-gal subjects, proved a worthv succespor of Joseph 

Unger. Hia work - consisting of three volumes - war distinfruished by --.n 

examplary diapositlon, a clear an-J penet^atinir. interoretation, axKriticfal 

an almost universal reference to the pertinent scholarly llter-ture ^3nd 

b> a rare lucidity of style. Moreover, an acute and sound criticism of the 

• of / 

current judicial nracticepnd J'the t'':eoretlcal vlews of other authors was one 

of the most characterlstlc features of the work. hrenzweip^ was therefore 

fully entltled to clsim in the preface that the unouestlonib' e influence 

of the book on lurirdiction was the f inest reco^nition it could find. It 

may even said that Ehrenzwei^*r SVst^» served as t,he most oopular and • *• 

almost aathotitative work of refeiöice for Austrlan law^^ers. The indifpen-» 

sabllty of the work has be n proved by the fact that a re-edition of the 

work has been Inau^urated after the re-constitut4ion of the AuPtrian Reoublic» 

Two "«olumes have appe-^red up to now in 1951 anc'- 195^» edited bv Armin 

Ehrenzeweig' s son, Adolf, who is acllve as jud^e ( Oberlandepp-erichtprat ) 


nd lectjrer at the University of Vienna. 

Another outstandini^ theoretician of the civil law was Horäce 
Krasnqpol_s_kl ( 1842 - 19ö8 ) who became trie successor of Josef KrainZ" 

- ?9 - 

■ ■..■■" I, ' ii 

^ ■',,■' ■ : ■ ' ' ' 

'■ ' . ' , " I ' ' 1 • ; ' I ■ I.' . ' ' 

■ ai the Univeraity of ?raßcue. He hailed from Galicia and received hls 

• firat ed jcation In a heder, but after studles in Czernlwitla ^nd atJthi; 

■ Univcrpities of i^rajyue and G^Htin^enJ' developed into an accomplfeshed 

legal Scholar who fascin^t<»d the stud nta of civil law by hia clear and 

stiffiulatinp^ lectures. His popularlty t« also shown by the fact Ihat he 
waa thrice dean ( Dekan ) of the Law facialty of Pra^ue where he tauf;ht 

froiE 1672 until his death in 1908. Apart from aeveral published worka 

(*8 ^inleitunp: in flie Lehr e v on der Zession von Forderun«;:en» 1Ö72, and 

Uaa Anfechtungsrecht der Gl"ubi^er n ach '^aterrfe chisch em Recht, 1088 ) 


he left a manuscript of» complete textbook of the Xustrian divi^ lav/ which 

publ.' shed in three volumea by Bruno Kafta > profefl or at the Univerpity 

• • ' n>) 

of i'rague, who 11 ke Krapnopölaki waa a Jew. ^/ 

Jewij^n • ••- ^ ' 

Amon^he \/ienne3e ^.Jurist? > Jo aef Sc hey y, Koromla [ 18S3 - ) 

profesrcrat the Univerclty of Viennat gained such a reputation ,that he 

becameV aemberof the House of Lorjfa. There he ^erved as the re^borter of 

the Gomniittec of Justice, kr In thlR capacity as well as a member of the 

fcorrimiaslon föt* the revlsion of the Civil Code he has f-reatly contributei 

to the final formulation of the novels to the Civil Code ( ae abpve 

p.... ). As an author Schey holds an hi»;h rank owinpr to his nume-ous 

publicatlons, pirlticulärly his wdrk on the law of contract'^, but above 

all by vlrtue of his masterly editicn of the Civil Code^ The hiptorv of 

this atanilari editjon started in 1860. In 188? imil SteinbachÜDecaine the 


editor of Its 12. euition. Schey(undertoo'' the I4th editicn and froni now 
omward bt'eiiiained the edibt^r of the book fr four decad«»». He enlarpred 
the edltion bv the pertinent new laws,annotations and quotationa fl^c^m 
the decisions of the Suprem^ Courts «-nd thus created not only a veritable 
tool for Austrian Juriats but also a niodel of siir.ilar editions of other 
laws. The look ran ( the 13 editions piiblished befor- Schey 
tOiijk over the edi'orship ) into no less than 23 ftditio^-::. Similarly 

fi|.s with Ehrenzweig* 8 ^System, it happened v/ith Dae Allgemeine B^JrfrerlicIie 

G esetz buch, edited by Josef v. r:chey,that-i nevr edltlon has been 

publlshed after the endjof the Nazi rule. Dr. Hans Kapfer, Au5?trian Mi-;ister 

' ..." «1 

of Justice, himself became the editor of the 24th editioij ( 1951. ) and of 

the 25th edition ( 195" ) which on thcir title papres still bear^the 

name of Josef v. r.chey. "y 

Another sta^^dard worV on the öivil law was the Kommentar zum 

Allgemeinen Bf5r^erlichen Gesetzbuch which was edited durlnp- the last 

years of the Austrian Reoutolic 1931 - 1935 by Heinrich .Klang with 

collabpatora the 

Cooperation of a ^roup of J!8X(fk»Firj''predominantly confistin^. ofl^Jewish or 

Jewish-bAm Jurist/s; "^ma nuel Adler # Ernst Bettel he im » Artur Lenhof f , 

ÖS ka r _ Pia ko » - Aohillv s Rappejoort , J o V^ f F chel 1 » Jll 1 h e 1 m _ S ch 1 e s in^ e r , 

■fcgon V/eias ; see pp ) and_Jo8ef Schej, fecxaflspxxpcxxxxxk. Klanr i bom 

1875 In Vlenna ) was an active Judge and since 1921 taucht civil law at 

the University of Vienna. His various publications deal with the laws 

of contracta , of propertv,of Insurance , etc. Klan^r ' s authotlty wa^ °o 

even autside Auptria ,i 

reco^nised ^hat he seve^al times servedas the offivial tepor'er at the 

Conventions of the Ger-an Jurlsts ( Deut sche ^^Juristafaapre) . At the tinie 

of Austria's oci^upafcion by the Nazis, Klanp; wa? presidin?? Judsce at the 

Superlor Court of Vienna. ie was In 1938 deorived of his office and in 

1942 deported to the concentration camp of Therealenatadt . He survived 

the ordeal and return ed to Vlenna in Julv 23, 1945, In the anie year he 

•* : the 

was appointed President of a Senate of/^-upreme Court. He also was 

elected President of the yiener-"'"uriptische Ges ellscha ft , the most 

distinguiahed association of Austrian Jurists. On the oc asion of his 

75th birthday, in 1950, Klang was honored by a '*Festschrift"publi3hed by 

the Lmw Faculty of the University of Vienna. Bu% above all, he exoerienced 

the satiafac^ion of havin.p- been able, in 1948, to st^tt the publlcjition 

of a newly edited Komnientar. Kl an!? died in 1954 and was buried in an 

^Rxxn honorary ^rave of the Jewisi section of the central cemetary in 

Vienna. V )■-, ' . ' ' ' 

There'^9 hardly nny special subject to be found wlthin the sphere of 
the Austrian civil law whlch has not been dealt wlth by jurlsts of Jewish 
descentjin mono^raphs or contrlbutions to perloclicalr, and symposia. T-ie 
present survey must therefore be reptrlcted ( ?voart from the already 

mentioned works ) tc a few pioneering writlngs. inprder to illustrate 
rather the algniflc-.nce than the quantity of the Output of the Jewiah 
partlcipation in Auetrian civil Jurisprudence. Nor does the choaen 
examples claim a superloity above other outstandin?^ achievementa of Jewish 
Jurists whlch a more conprehensive ^tudy could and would be obllged 

to Bientlon* 

^hortly a^ter the publlcation of hlg monumental Ure n twu rf ( aee 

above p. ) whlch became a key aa It were to the treaaunehouse of the 

Austrian civil law, Julius Ofn er enrlched the Äustrlan legal literature 

by a systematic work on the law of property, Das Sachenrecht ( lf9'; ) 

Amc'g Ofner's numerous later wrltinfrg pertlnent toyclvi"" law, hla study 

Der^SQglale Gharakfer de s Allgemeinen Bf.fryerllchen Oesetzbuchs" , publ 1 shed 

In the J' F^e s t s c h rlft ^ üY* Jahrtl ^^^^^rtf eie > jd e s _A1 Igfg ri'^JntflBÖ r p* e r 1 1 c h en 

Gesetzbuches" offereu an appreclatic:. of the cid code in the lip-ht of 

modern ideas. J t .culmlnated in the cloain??; pentences: ".'/hlle ( the code ) 

was permeated bv ^reat reforiDlst ideas and rrlled for thferr deveiopment 

upon the reason and natural juristic principles of the Jud^res, it has been 

for half a Century degraded by a dull literal interoretatlon to a ?^terile 

heap of paraf?;rpahs. Only the re.juvenated jurintlc thlnklnjr of modern 

.•:> ' 
times restored to it its due honor.'V.In an'^-ther study, Ofner praiseci Josef 

ünper as the Initiator of thls ncw wholeäom^ trend: "The vlctory f the 
school Unger was not onlv a vlctory over the spirltles? llteral Inter- 
pretation, it was also the vtctiry of the modern spirit over the reacticnary 
tendency of the Austrian juripprudence," ^/ 

- 32 - ■ 
Modern Jurlsprudence was indeed in flux in Austria, and Jurists 
of Jevriah descent contributed t- it abundantly in quick sucnesrion. 
in lö90 Josef chey publiahed hia Die obligat-^ri sehen Verh-'ltniaae des 
österreich^che n allg emeinen Privatrechtr" , Euyen Ehrlich who soon was to 
become the Champion of a new Jurlstic discipline, the Soclology of law 
( See below pp..-« L dealt wit i one of the most intricate Problems of 
the civil law in his study D ie s tillschweigende Willenserkl"runjE ( 1893; 

Arm in E hren zwei/? published soon afterward s a book about another subject of 

.' ' . ' '' ■ ■'.'■■ • ■ 

the law of contracts ,_Die sogenannten zweigliedrigeren Vertr"£e,_inFbes^onde^^r 

die Vertr^>e zu Punkten Dritter" ( l8957Viq£ef_HuJpka ( - 1941 ) who 

was to become one of the most e^'teemeii teacher^^ at the University of 

in hia capacity of bound 

Vlenna, thou/rh he was albc\/R dean ( Öe^an ) of the facultyVto encounter 
and fi?rht 
^"the Insplence of German-»natlonal^t Student Corporation?, oroduced two 

thorou,o;h studies about authorization^Die .Vollmacht ( 1900 1 and 

BtellvertretunfT, und Vollmacht ( 190? ) . käI In the sphere of civil 

proce^ure Georpr Petschek who orip;in3llv tau^nt *"n the üniversitv of 

Pra?r;ue ( see abf^ve p....), and later, after havinp: becmc füll pr-fessor 

at the^' 

,<lnlverüity of Czerno-witz, owinp- to the outbrea^^ of Vorld '^/ar I roved 

to Vienna whcre he became honorarv prof es ^ ^ or of civil orocedure, 

excelled as one of the eat*liefet profound Interpreters of the new Aus^ian 

law of civil procedure. He also becarr.e the editor of the important 

giaga z in e ,^0 est erreicht Piche s Zentralblatt f f^r die .juristische Praxis 

whicnYedlted u. to 193Ö. ^( He 3ucceed-d ir escsping to the U^S.A. 

where he was active at Miapvard. He died in ) ,^ 

Prior to the above mentioned monographs the almost authorit-itive 

work on Auatrian marr&are law, Das e st erreichi sehe Eher ec^tj haä be n 

putolished in 1875 by _Edua^d_Rltt,ner_| bom in Bursztyn, Galicia, in 

1845 }, a Scholar of Jewish descent who had embraced Gatholicism ond 

taught canonical law .at the Univerity of Lwow . As a m^^ri^inal note may 

bc recorded here the paradoxical fact tha^ besides Rittner two other 

55 - 

' Austrlan ^ptized Jev^s becaine experta of the canonical law: Jielnrich 
V Singer... ( B. 1Ö55 in lirno, d« 193^ ) who firat waa profesror -rt the 
Universlty of Czemowitz(where he in the Year I887/8 held the dignity 
of the Bector ) and slnce 1896 until 1925 as füll professor taucht 
canonical law at the Univerv^ity of Pra/^ue , and Alü'^^':i..v i..._^.al^§Tl_ 
( orlFinally Bienenstock ), b. 18^5, d. 1^P5 , • likewise active first in 

Czernowltz and later at the University of Lwow wh«re he taught German law 

■• -: ■ •• ■■■ ■ : ■■;••> ^ ; .^^ ,, ' ■ ^ 

and comnsfcative lurisorudence. ^ i • •• •-' 


} ■ ' 

' Due to the Au53trlan social le^ielatlon, which had been inltiated 

by Steinbach and developed bv later law? of .+:he Konarchyjnnd the Republic, 

the labor law became a a favnrite sub.]ect of AuPtrlan scholar? , oarti- 

cularly those of JewiPh dement. :lMliUS.^O^n^P took the lead» As early 

ar« "'38'^ he published hl^ lecturebn Da? Recht auf Arbeit which culminated 

. In the Statement t ""^v^ere the Romaria havr?]/j&«t the sön^ence that conquest 

is the source of all law in our code should be written with fi^reat lettera-* 

Labor is the foundation o f al l law«* labor is the ori£inal__source of law_ 

wh icn does not needproof." In connection with Idras xbücKix he had 

developed'in two prevlous lecturep , DaFi Recht zu leben i and Ueber daa 

■ Recht aprlnzj-pdes . rbeitaloh nes ( both published in 1884 j, Ofner oostulateo^ 

the duty of societv to secure the rifrhta of the individuals to live and 

to work, thus by implicntion the rip-ht of the worker to Claim the|jfull 

amount of hia labor' s produce. In an article oublished In 1914 ( in 

Juristische iJl*^tter ) Cfner returned to these ideas. Soon afterwards, 

during Workd '//ar I he founded the Gesellschaft f-'r sociales Recht 

\ eee below pp ). /</y 

The jropresFing new social legislation was sumned up in 

connection wita the labor law of the Civil Code by Sigmund Gr^nhery 

{ b. 1863 , d. } in a comprehemsive annoj^ed edition of the Statutes 

• concernlng l'.^bor of all categoreis [ 1923 ). Grflnberg also wrote^. 

a special commentar.'^on the law of comrisrcial employeeg. Emanuel Adler, 
( b. 1873, d. - ;, Professor at the Un'verriltv of Vlenna, thouprh 

• hls prinary r^phere of interest were ' trade marks , names and patentF , 
( Sistem_des österre ( 1909 ), ^ie_Jfamen_i]m_ 

^ ^?iJis_chen und ,öaterr^^ ( 1921 ), a prize winninr? work, 

Daa österreicasche Pat 1926 )/ became invoTved in studies 

about the then created Austrian worker' s Councils. Adler' s publicatlons 
aiftout the Austrian _Betrlebsr^]tegesetz arouaed international attention 
and were • publis'ied in the International Labor Review, GereiBra, 1922 and 
1912^. Adler' s book on the Austrian Worke^s' Council Law reached the 
thiniedition in 1929. It was alao Emanuel Adler vrho became the author of 
the moat comprehensive wofk on the law of errfiloyees and workers: 

Da Any.eatellten und Arbeiterrecht erl''utert, 1930. In the saine year 

4rthur Lenhof f , attorney and Prof«3<:or at the L'niveraity of Vienna 
( See p ) ,alao oublisehd a book on labor law, the orlcrinal atudy 

Di e K oalfbtion als Grundla ge dea Arbe itsre chts. 

Apart from/jufet qxxöteä worka, the last fateful ten yeara of the 

Austrian Republic aaw the appearance of many remarkable publicatlons by 

Juriats of Jewlah origriii. Heinrich i^lanff who , as alrev:dv mentioned 

edlted at that tlme hia comnentary on the civil code asslated by a ohalan»)^ 

of Jewlah Juriats, publi^hed alone between 1929 and 193^ fpür studles 

two of which dealt wlth the nioat acute question of the law of leae«? 

,'^ '"•■■■ the 

a subject referred to also by/Vienne-^e att^-m eys^ Jose f__ Sehe 11^ in an 

in^enou? lecture Gerechiyke izsi def^ und Mieten^ea etzb ebun??:, 1927, -^nö by 

Heinriti^ gjwex in .Entacheidungen zum Mieten /a-eset z, 1929. A oioneering rtudy 

ä^t'^'i^^«D_?^5_^-_Y?rs.5?!^¥.?" V Liabllitlea wtthout f?ult ) , reco^rnized aa an 
m sterplece by an award of the Dierl endowment, by Rudolf i-^ienenfeld waa 
publisfhed in 1932. Another excellent book '3bo t the oroblem of lir-bilities 
appeared in 1936 under the title: Die Schu Idhaf tun?:: iin Schadenersatzrecht 

Ita author wap Albert_Armin_jih^^ then.lectur-r at the University 

of Vienna, a son of,.,iSlbert i^hrenzwelg (b. 1675 )$ the younfr,er brother of 
Ar»ln ii^hrenjiwelg anJ, by hls own merits, an equal to the author of the 
System, in fact, Albert Ehrenzwelf, , at that tlme profes^or at the 
University of Vienna, was a jurifetic lumlnary of Äustria, mainly by virtue 

■t, ' *" ' ',■"■' ' , ■ "' ■, 

of hls achieveiiients in the sphere of the law of Insurance. He was predestined were for this branch of both jurisprudence and economics slnce his 
and Armin' s father, Adolf Ehrenzweig, had been for manv years the editor 
oC an Insurance almanach ( Assekuranz» Jahrbuch ) whicii he had founded in 
1860. The paternal pre:^ilfectlon for inaurance was vtg-orously revived in 
his younger son and assunied a legislative character. -vhen Albert lihrenzweig 
in the yerirp 1915 was called to the Ministr^of Int.erior,he soon became 
the head of the department for private Insuranc . It was he who drafted 
the bin about private Insurance, who introduced it in the parliainent and 
achieved' its aporaval. "he feat earned him one of th^ hlghest distlnctions 
of imperial Austria, The law ;-rcTVcd ,such a perfect masterpiece that when 
about twenty years later Austria was annected by i^iazi (iermanv and Albert 
iLhrenzwei^. owing ^o his Jewish oriji^in, was forced to emifrrate, his work, 
the law of private Insurance, not only was not abolished , but was used 
as a model of a new Geriiian law concerning private Insurance. Apsrt from 
Gerrriany , other European countries, as France , the . Fkancinavian countries, 
Czechoslovakia »foliowed the example of Austria in this resoect.rhe Juristic 
franework which Albert :ihrenzwei(-r had ^jS^^^ creoted for contracts of 

private Insurance was, indesd, to a preat extent instrumental for the 

. <? / , ^ , -f. , /• ^ ^ ^ '... .' 
World Wide development of thip new social institution. 

• had publisied 
in 1929, Albert tlhrenzw^igl/in 'v^iennai Die R echtsordnung: der 

Vertra^.sver3icherurij^lt contained the entlre legis lation oertinent to 

private Insurance with Iihrenzwei^s interoretative con;ri.ent8 , the suiiiir.arv 

of his expert views on the matter. liut ii: was by no means the last word 

o.[ the author. de reached via Holland the U.S./. where his '=^on Albert ^.rmin 

'.'*' ■•','■ 

- 36 - 

Khrenzweig had settled and become profes-or of law a-fe l'ne University of 

California in Berkeley. After the war, !ie r tumed , however, to AuFtrla 

and was appolnted Hon. Professor of civil law and cvil proceedinp- az 

the University of Vienna. There followed two now comprehensive warkp.* 

D eut sches C Oesterreichischea ) Vers icherunfrarecht ( 195? ) and 

Die Rechtalehre des Versicherungsvertrages und d ie klas^ ische Lo g;ljc 

( 1954 ) In the next year Albert Ehrenzwei,«- died in Vienna. Shortly 
hls deatb 

beforeyhe had cel bt?ated hia eip-htieth birthda.^a^ well as his p;olden 

wedding. On^thlfe twofold occaalon-^xxX^xx a spec"al Festschrift oubliphed 

under the title , Internati onales Versicherun.'yspecht in his honor by 

Prof. Hans Möller, H-^rabur^. The st^ry of Albert Ehrenzwei p'a life and 

work was told there togetner with an account of the Juristic dynasty of 


the Ehrenzweigs which is still florishin^ in Aüstria and ^alifomia. 

As a towerinp; f ipure? Austrian Juris orudence and Austrian Jewry, 

Karl S amuel Grf^nhut ( 1844 - 1929 ), profespor of law of conmerce at the 

University of Vienna and member of the House of Lords, linked the classic 

apce of Glaaer-Unger with that of the modern Jurists. He was the creator 

of the Auf^trian Statute on bills of exchan^e and composed the rtandard 

work on this branch of the law of commerce: Lehrb uch des Wechsel re chts . 

2 volumes, 1901. A shortened edition of thia work became oifie of the 

indispensable toola of Austrian lawyers. This specialized expert in a 

particular branch of law perforined, howeve- , also tae historic task of 

founding in I874 the Juristic periodical Zeitsch rif t för Privat- und 

•r)ff entliehe 5 Re cht d er Gejgenwart wita the purpost^of rallyin'^ the new 

gcneration of Juristsin the spirit of Unger. The magaz^ne developed into 

Germ an 
one of the leadin.p-jAe.'^ral organö-nd became the mouthoiecp of th-^ new 

Austrian law school.- It was edited for more than fortv years ( until 1916/ 

/ ^ 

by Grünhut himself who also was a prolific contributor to it. 

- 37 

.' Annthftr nioneer Iti tb*» fleld of Ibe law of cominerce war^ the 

( 1876 - 1939 ■ 
Jewlsh bom Oaka r Pla ko ,yprole3sor at the University of Vienn^, H« 

undertook the^reat task of arjap^in'^ the famour, Standard work ' 'i 

J^OM?n^4?»-51^J9L.^«ytiSChen .Handel^ the uerman-Jewish Jurist 

ö«rKiainn_Staub for Austria, He succeeded in Droducinp; a wn-ix wUich 

equaled 3c in thoroughness and lucidlty ths orifxinal.Thur, ^Staub-Pisko" 

became a universally peco^niaed reference book for(/judp;es and practlsln?; 

lawyerF g^lke. Piako was, however, also the author of hlF ovn liChrbuch^ 

des Handelsrech ts ( 1923 ) undVvarious inono,Qr,rapha , particularly of the 

i mpo rt an t s t ud v £lag Unter nehmen _al s _Gep;en3tand_des Recht a.e rw e rbs_^ _ 

Also at the u&versities of Prap;ue and Czernowitz the law of 

coirmerce was tau^^^ht by Jewlsh scholars. In ^rague ,_Otto _FramkJ_{ 1855 - 

1923 ) held the chair of a füll profesaor nf thln dlscipllne, whllc • 

liai!L-_'Adi^"'V; c^^t-hor of Das ^sterreichigche La srerh aus recht i. 1892 ) 

and Das gste/^lchtische Wec 'selrecht ( 1904 ) .bec-uie profe^'^or at the 

vand wä3 elected Rector of thla unlverrity- 1873-1^'^5^ 

uhlftVer rrty öT CzernowitzYrn rSTlO. ^rn s t ^ Jbe 1 1 e 1 h e i ni', a wellknovn Jud^e 

of the ouperior Court in Vienna ( sen al-^o belovfpp ) publisned 

ijas inte r nati ona le W echselrecht ( 1904 ) . A work dealing with the bills 

of exchan^e ig also Arthur Lenhoff*s Einffihrung: in das einheitliche 

Vfech sei r echt { 1933 ) • 

In the f phere of the law of comiijerce the soeclal probleir of the 

le^al liir.ltstions of campet ition was treated psrtlcularly by two 

Viennes lawyers: Heinr ich K iwe ( see also above p. and below r, ...) 

editedjthe Austrian law ap-alnst unfair competions with a coaunentary Ift 

1935 »whereas ^ri ch Sa xl ( - 1962 ) published in 1937 the monoparraph 

Wettbewerbsrecht und Ges innung jrnrrj^^jfcjf^. Saxl or^gined such an internatiinal 

reputation that he as an exüe alreaüy in 1939 in Cooperation with 

Harry Torcziner wa? able to publish ( in French ) the book: 

JMotio ny e s usapjes honndtes e n matierejjsommerc^^ ( Recherene en Järoit 


compar^ ) in brussels. Saxl could finally enjoy the satlsfactlon that 
hia edition o*^ the Austrian law afralnst unfair competltlon wa? re-edlLed 
as a thlrd re-arran^ed andenlarped edition in Vienna in 195'^^ in 
Cooperation with .Fyitz Schönkerr and Karl '>VahI6 j se^^ about the latter 
below p. . . . ) • , 

Pioneering work was also done concerning Copyrights, patents and 
traderaarks by_ ^'-rn st _ JJettelheiTri ( see above p. ), who in 1901 published 


Das ^R echt des li^rf Inders ^nach dem Gesetz _v. 12^ Januat 1897t aystem-i tisch 
dargestellt > by n^manuel A dlelt^ ( gee above p... ),whose ^Iready quAted 

/ . 

work on trademarks remained the basic textboolc on that matter, by the 

Viennese lawyer Pattl Üb el ( ) and(/^Karl Wä hle ■ ( 9cc below p. )< 

According to Max Grunwald, the historian of the 57ewish comiLunitv 

of Vien-.y, it is believed that the famous .luri st , .Franz KleinV Minister 

'• ' ' 1. 

of Justice, who created the Austrian Statute on plvil procei-din^i;, was 

of Jewlsh oriccin. This wideeoread b'^lief ha^ÄoracarwÄK? to be dismissed 

as spurioua.'It is, hovartr, xxx true that Klein was highly appreciative 

of ->ews, especially of Jewish Jud^es who served durinsr his tenure nf 

the Ministry of Justice, and that he, on the other hand , enjoyed a f^reat 

popularity aaaong Jevish Jurists of all cateforiep . It was above all 

Joief Ungeir who n^t only '*» hy his ^iöeas stronp:ly influenced Klein , ,but 

alfio.'used hin indiaoikted authoritv to facilüitate Klein 's reform of 

civil procedure. '/Hien finally the epoch m^^kinsr Statute w s proffiulfi:ated , 


Jewish iicxxi<J/clrGl^s receive<d it krrxxxx with enthusiasm. Vithin the 

literatzre to which the new civil t^roceJure fave rise the works of 
Jewish Jurists hold the first rank. They pubjected the law to a 
panetrating analysis and Interpretation which revealed the hidden 
qualities of the reform and f^reatlv hefjped to de^'elop the modern niethod 
of procedure. Georg Petschek ( see above pp. ) whose inaufrural thesis 
Zwangavoll Streckung, in Forderunfren dealt with an Intricate problem of 

■* ■' 

executlon lecturedas profesj^or of civil preceedinp- om three /\uptrisin 
universitiec: Prague , Czemowitz and Viennp.The most populär J^ommentar _ 
zur Zlgi 1 pro z e s 8 o rdnun^j. > was cotoposed by Ge orp- Neunann ( ), 

öhairman öf a Senate at the Super ior Court of Vienna, while Rudolf Pollate 

( 1864 - ' ) ,w!io orlp^inally served -as öounciillor at the Sup^rlor Court 

• ■ - • ' ^ V ■•■ ' 

otf Vienna and lajfter became ^rofespor of civil "^roceedinsr at the Universltw 

of Vienna, in his claanivj Syjg Lteni deg österreichischen Zivilprozesr^rechtg 

not only offered mont useful interpr^-tatlons of the law^bit at the samö 

time llluminated ito Inner ^tructure and underlyin^ prnciples« 


The reform of the obsolete Austrian Grirninal Code was one of 

Julius Ofner'a main concems. I'erhaps in no other sphere of his manvsidea 

activltiea Ofner*s deep hnman^nea» manifested itself as stronp;ly as 'n 

his tireless cfforts to abolish offensiiee meaaures and to intr<bduce 

modern institutions in the Austrian criminal lesciplation . The "Lex Of ner^^ 

( See fbove p« ) was only one of the vital Innovation?- for which O^^ner 

foup;ht in Parlia:- ent:;^x»afeiclcKx3ci* and bv his every ready pen. The creatiom 

of a Juvenile Court and the int^oduction of probation, the iiCDroverr.ent of 

prisons, the cate for released convictp, the admifion of women to Juries 

( See above p. ) were the main airr.s which he pursued with relenll'esn 

tenaclty. ^t the a^.e of 75» when he learned that a bill a: out orobation 

wap about to be pasred in which no provlslons were made ■^'or a c nditional 

postponenient of the secondary eifesctflof the pronounced verdict,- Ofraer, 

tho'jp-h he at that time was no more a member of the House of Representa- 

tives, rushed in the ParliaiTient andjsuceeeded in the very last moment in 

achieving that an arrendrr.ent wap inserted in the bill. Numercus are the 

articles which he published in varftou^ periodicals ^^bout criitinal law 

and its reform. One of his earl*. est pamphletp, published in 189C , 

ginige ReforiEvorgchl"^e zurri Strafp:<=^3etz- ntwurf , was devot ed t* this 


-. 40 - 

aubject, and it Is aymbollcal thgtthe very last llnes,wh1. ch he wrote 
for publication and which actual:ty were published only posthumously 
und er the titles "PsY c hoanalyae und Strafrecht" ana "S t rafvol lzug" 
in the dally paper» Der Morgen on 28. and 29« September 1924,dealt with 
the Problems of oriminal law and its reforro. A paraprraph of the last 
article may well be consldered as Ofner's le^racy: "The State, the prepp, 
the whole population must cooperate in the convlötion that condeiined 
people remain human belngiwho mostly are kble to eam aö;ain t'-'Clf» living 
In a honorable?way and to become decent members of the soclety. runlshemnr/ 
should not retallate but educate." v -• 

Among the Austrian crlminolo,Q:ists of Jewish d e s c an t , _ A 1 e xa nd er __ 
Lo ef ' 1er ( 1866-1929 ) $ profes^or at the University of Vienna, r??nked very 
high. Hl 3 lnau(7ural thesis, Schuldfomen des Straf r e chts ( 1895 )was the 
flrst comparatl'tretind theortetical survev of forms of <7ullt ev^ f under- 
taken, and proved ol'laötlh^ influence. Another fir^t whlch owes it origin 
to Loef f 1er is the .loumal Oesterreichifeche Zeitschrift ffir Straf recht. 
It was founded by Loefr'ler iR in 1890 and edited by him until 1918. 
No map;azine of this klnd had existed in Auotria previously. The Journal 
aerved also as a forum for ä critLical aporalsal of ct?iminal Jurisdiction. 
Like Ofner, Loef^ler was an ardent promoter of a reformnfcory treatraent 
of Juvenile dellnquents. He devoted to this questiom his book Die straf- 
re chtli che behrm dl unp Jup^ endlich er . After World 'Var I , Loeff 1er was 
Biappointed chairman of a commis.sion which investig;sted cases of mis- 
carried Justice occurred durinpr the war. ^,1 

While Loeff lepi^s main work was concerned with crimnology, 
■ £ rngt L ohaing ( 1874-1943l'^ ), an outstandinp- Viennese attomey, became a 
specialist on criminal proceeding. He published in 1912 his comorehen-" . 
sive Oea terreichis che s S trafurozese r echt a second edition of which 
appeareat twenty yeara aftervards. V/hen a few years later the subject of 

this Standard w-^rk was aboliF^hed by the iNiazi re|gime, Lohsinp;, the acute 
analyst of lepcal proceedlntf, was to become/by a trripric ir6ny, the victim 
of lawles'^rness like innumerable other Jewp. He was d er)orted ?md perished 
in a concenzration camp probablv in 1942. 

Stranp-ely -enouf/h, the onlv orofessor of milltarv criminal law 

at the Unlversitv o'^ Vienna was G eor^ Lelewe y" a Jewlsh Scholar who had 

served in the army as "G'-*neral Auditor" ( the hi(Thest ronk of a military 

law offlcer ) and also was a member ol the SuDrsme Court. He was the 

edltor of the Ämstrian Kiltary Criminal Code anC the author of worka 

about this subject. In military crimina"" law specialized also the Jewish 

( 1857 - ^ 

Vienneae lawver Ern st Fr a nz m '^Ve ial, who wrote khe systematic work[ rv 

Da* J3eeres*Strafreciat ( 189?-1:905 ) and a commentary on the military 
atatute of proceöure ( 1913 ) • 

Crirr.inoloic^y , oarticularly the Problems of criminal investif^a- 

tion and criminal psycho-patholopry , were the subject of studies bv *■ : 
the Vienneae lawver Si egfried Türk ei ( ) . His books 

t!)ie krim inelle Ge is tCEkrknkh e lt ( 1905 ) and i;ie Zurechnungf "hipjke it 
belong to the latteiJFiphere, while atudies like Das Auye als Identifizier' 
ryil£ssi!undla£e ( 1927 ) were contributions to the devilopmeht of 
criminological methoda. THrkel cooperated with the police and founded 
a soecial crimin.olog:ical laboratory. 

No branchfcf Jurisdiciion is so exposed to criticlsm as thÄt 
of the criminal courts. This was the case esoeciallv in Äuntria where 
an obsoletecriminal code and a conservative tradition jr;ave tlme and arain 
rise to disssatisfaction and bitternesr, It was not the r^mallest merit ^ 
of Jewish Jurists that frorc their ranks came many fi^htera airainst "the 
law's delay, the inaolence of offlcei." In this so'iere, too , Julius Ofner 
haa to be mentioned at the first olace. On the very bekiinnin«? of ^s^ his 
parl(|amentary career, in 1902, he xh vehsr.ently demounced the defaults --p 
and delays of the preparatory Investlgation ( Voruntersuchun:?r j and 

afterward a he never ^ot tired to crlticise the .^udlcial. aystem and 
mlacafriaßres of justice. Particularly memorable is his campaio-n for 
thefrehabilltati-^n of Leopold Hilsner, the victim of the rltual. murder 
guperstition^who» death penalty had been comniuteJ in life imprisonment • 

Üfner puraüed thia atrupr^le ^or füll 18 yeara with kll' DosSible" meanp : a 

of/ on 

fulminant Interpellation of tho ^'inister^^ Justice /January 25. 190?, 

remlnding of Zola*?; "J*' accus e" ,' löX the publication of the pamphlet 

Der Fall Hilsner - Edbn europäisches Justizverbrec hen ( 1911 i » by 

petltione» meetinora and peroanal Interventiona . it was finally the requesC 

presented by Ofner as the head of a deoutation of the Austr". an Jewish 

Union to the Minister of Justice, v. Schauer, on March 19, 1919 that 

preceded Hilaner's amneaty granted kkM by the Emoeror Charles, y 

Ofner ^^^tityit^ his criticisni of lep^al p^ffaira up to hi? very end . 

Short ly- befcre 
TwD of Ofner' s atfcicles pubJl^hed kaxkbr«xy«xKxi»K«öt«cticrr!X his deatk show him 

cid the nearlv o^g^narian 

in this role. "In the b3)ood of our/Juds-es", wroteyiiE In the articlf 

S A c h t e r 8 p rfJ. c h e ( ger _Mqrg:gn of September ^6, 19^4) "the autocratic and 

feudal". State ia still potent - that reverence before the pollce which 

nobodv was oerraitted to criticize - the rrgoect before the Hiprhnesaes 

and Excellenoies . . . .To be a Judpre means to reoreaent the conscience of 

the people, thoufrh it is also his difficult taswto oppoae courap:^ously 

the paa^iona of tho latter, oarticularly in a confuaed time as oura. " 

iJBXxxx.3tbc The other ai^'Cle, oubllahed in the aame paoer on DecemltoERr^ ?4, 

1923$ wa*^ a aharp denunciation of the inhuman institution "der Schu b"« 

■It" Ttx enabled the policc to expel people vrho were found fuilty even 

of only petty offences from communitea v^fh.lch were not their lep;al 

domicile. Ofner ad 'ocated the abollMon of this Institution .,a demand 

which the preseno author reiterated in his pamjjhlet ' Hech t und Unrecht 

d er i^usweis uni: '• ( 1951 ) devoted to the quepticn of expulsion in gen er? 1, 

- 43 - ■ 



V/',-^^>: . 'iv\ -A special studv would be needed to survey'.the numberless 

articles which Jewiah lawyers publlshed in periodicalp to tli^ purpose 
^^^ of critfcizing Jurisdiction in special cases and^asking remedy or out- 
right reforrnation of the Statutes, One of the mo?t formidable p ns 
in thia resoect was wielded by Walthe r Röh(flft( ) a brilliant criminsl 
lawyer. His devastatinp; pnmphlet Gericht über den Obersten Gerichtshof 


.'■•",■; V >•.■;;,,,,;„.:.,.;■■, V ■-. '■- ap^ainst ,■, ^ ,,./■,. 
XXXX WEr-ah invective^'the teacx sterotyp«^ criminäl Jurisdiction of the 

-;■-, vA,-.- . ■■' ,.v-.-^ ;•,.;. ' ■■ ■■ ,- , . in Order ', „■ 

Suprenie Court, that se'cret order which aaseirbler ever^/ weekto ehant the 


Choral: *The apoeal of th'^ defendant is befiin-^' dismisned'. " Another 

V en ture in » t>e re i f 1 apc e v/a s rlohde * s Oestet*reicha Fr^'hliche Afronle ( 1927'. j- 

« propheticai aatlre on Austrian off icialdca. 

' A plaovof honor amöng the critics of finiminal Jurisdiction and 

le^islation is due/Hugo Sperber ( ), perhaps the most populär 

and wittiest xx of the Viennese criminal lawyers. Almost a legend has 

been woven around hi:n,fully Justifiea by.the Inexhaustibilitv of his 

humor which proved often the moslef f ective weapon. V/hen he once pleaded 

for clemencv in the case of^/ bur^lar Wxho comiriitted the crime at 

what according to the -riminal code constituted m a^j-^ravatinp: circum- 

Ftance, Sperber argued : "if the defendant woM have com.itted the 

burglary in daytime, t:ie public prosecutor would undoubtedly have asked ' 

.-. v. . . . ,. |. . 

for a severe pen.'jity on the ground of^/particulnr daring. '^Vhfech then , 

■• !■'■•' ' ■ > proper . ■' ■- •=• 

y :ur honor, is the^^ime left for commtting a burglary at all?" In his 

Pamphlet D ie Lüge im Straf recht , ( 1927 ) , Sperber unveiled the contra- 
dictioris and hypocrisies of the criminal System. "If this fight 
betwe^n two u^nenuals ,"' WaS one oh his conclusions, "the Joristical i- : 
machine and the indlTzridual ,has to be f ought , »he least we must ask is 
th^t^he strenger par ty may fight with honest weapons.Away with the lie 

'■j ■.•*,' 

In the criminal law!.... 'o be sure, whetber there will be niuch left ; •; 

of the crlfflin 1 law If trutli and hone-ty will make their entrv irito it, 

is questlonable. But thl? would not be the worst after all." %^t Netther 

Sperber' s popularitv nor the disarmlng charm of his hilarloun np.ture were , 
^able to save hie life when the Power that oroclai^'ed wltnout 5^harrie thf' - 

br.'^ve ficr ~ter 
rel.crn of lies smashed the Austrian republic. It toolrfiot lonp; that tiie 

succumbed to the tortures of the- concentration camp in Dachau. 

Not a lawyer tout Aur^tria'n prreatest s?tiriat, Ka rl Krau s C 1874 - 
1936 ) -■ 

haa, however, brou^ht Austrian criminal Jurisdiction in th- facua of the 

mc^t penetratinr critical lic-ht. He ^nviv^sap'ed the frailtiep and 

deficiencies of Austrian judicial oractice aa a part of a ^eneral deca^' i 

complacenizv and moral weaknea-. The courts and the Judfre!«. but no lee? 

the lawyera and, above all, the press as the pliant Instrument of JudiciaJ 

Publicity b-ecame the tarprets of hir as brillisnt as relentlesp attackp, 

remindinp- of Daumier's car'bo'^na. It was psrticularly the tri^'lr in v^hich 

(j^ the private intiinate aohere of individual livea wa? involved that Kraus 

used as objects of pillorins: the hypocrisy which pervaded vast strata 

of the le^ral System and Judicature. "A trialon indecent behaviori'" t le 

purposely purrued develpment of an individual indecency to a p:eneral 

indecency," Kraus declared« He accused a lifeless Judiciary , a sensati- 

onalist presp and a hypocritical soclety of a conspiracy for the 

• a 

prottrction ofj/mendaciou? m^rality and asked for a clearcut Separation 
of ffior?lity and crimlnality, for the abesisntion of the courts fron the 
privat'::^- above all the sexual - life 4f individ'jals.His first book, 
Sitt lichkei t und Kri minalit^^'t , a collection of articles publ ' shed in 
his own ma^azine ,_Dlf Fend^el^has be n cslled a flaminp* ÄK^xri defence Dlea 

for the sexual criminal who became a victim of crimin?^l morality. The 


prophetic rin,«7 of the book was fully re-^lised only by^p^eneration that 

witnerS"ed the rise of Freudian psychoanalvsis • "y 




■"'"^ '":'' 

1 ■ ' ) ' 


VII. HIf?TCHI,i)l]^^ OF Ut* 

i.,i • ■ V,.. ;■«■'■ '"^ 

The hlstorlcal acho/1 of law was founded l:y the German Jurlfit 
Karl v«^ Savignvi feut it wap Josepf Unger and Julius (rlasor who oaved 
the way for an hiptoric"?! treatment of the Austrlan law. 'hlle, however, 
the hlstorlcal aspect of the law was in^'orporated In Unp-er's Sjstem^ 
and Gj. ^xa er ' g Straf pro zesa » man^; ^ewish Juri st s made history of law U^•^• ! 
Itself an independent and aoicetiBies exclusive pubject of thelr studiefi. .■ 

S tep han Bras^loff ( I675 - 194?) *prof essor at the Unlverlty i 
of Viennr^ , toufrht there Roman law. He produced a aeries of original >'/.'' 
h'storical works. The emphasls on social anpecte is a charaoteristic 
feature of most of them: Zur Kenntnis des Volksrechtes In den romanli» 
alerten Ost r)ro vo vlnz en des rö mischen Kal ser relchejg ( 1903 ) ; Ptudlen 
zur röml gehen Rechts y esc hlchte ( 19?5 ) * Der r^'gilache .Staat und seine , 

Irtternatlonalen Beziehungen ( 19?8 ); Posgegtlo In den Schr iften der 
rö mlgg he n J uristen ( 19?8 ) ; Staat und Geaellschcaf t in de r römischen i\ :• 
Kqlserzelt (, 1933 )< Soz ialpolitische Motive In d ;r r''mlschen Rechts- 
enzwlcklunr ( 1933 )• Bras^loff was also Lesfturer rn Kconomlcs. 
Commerclal lAvr and Publlö'Law on the Commercial r^ollepre of Vleana. 
H 'i p works on the subjects of these dipclrllne«^ comorlpe: Leltfr'den der 
ögterrel ch 1 s eben Verfa s s un£S kund e__ ( 1908. second ed. 1914 ): _Re fp rmen_ 1 
Im Unterhalsrecht und Vormunds chaftsrecht ( 1929 ) ; Reformen und Reform- , 
vorschl^t'^e Im Gebiet des Privatrechts und Zlvllprozesr rechts ( 1936 ) . 

^/^en the Nazis selzed power In Aup?tr1 -^ , rrTTsrlor?'^ was for^ ed 
to retire ( In Aoril 1938 )• I^ March 1939 he was deorived of hl? penslon^ 
In Auf^ust 1942 fol"Iowed the deportalon to Thereslenstadt . There he dled ■ 
already on February 28', 1943. 

Stanlslaus i'lneles ( ), profesSop at the UnlverF^(f)t.y of 

Vlenna, alPo specialized In Roman Trw . He founded the perlodical Gaiuns__ 
whlch was excluslvely destlned to thi? research in the fleld of Roman law. 


\:- ' '■ ■ "■ " - •"'• . ■ ^ .' '■ ■■' ' ■ ■ ■ ■.' ■'■■'■■ ' '' > ' ' 

One of the moat out stand In ^ Aus tri an Romanlats iva? Eugen ' 
l^ hrllc h ( 1862-192P )» protfespor of the Romtfilaw at the Unltrer^^ity 
of Czernowitz. Althouprh hlfl epoch maklnp" contrlbution tö Jurisprudence 
was to become the foundation of the äoclolofry o'^ law ( aee below pp. • • ) . 
It was just h.ia profound knowled^e of the Roman law which helppd him 

, ■*. ■ rt ■ '■ ■ ... I ■' - * 

to demonatr-te t^.e sociolofical method on the inftltutions öf ' that möst 
perfect ancient lej?al System. Ehrlich 'e rom-mistic studies compriae 
Beltr^'.or e zur Theorie der Rechtsauellen ( 190? ) -ind^^ieAnf^^rrge Ues 

testmentum per aes ez libram ( 1903 ). Also ETirlich'd maln äociolösroöAl 

in, 1909 
work nnd the study Die Recht sf '"'hl, g;keit( published|4s the openinp: volume 

of the collectiona of monograph? Das Recht, edited by the present writer? 

abound in historical obS': rvatiom on the Roman and othrr law?» 

The histor' of the German law was prreatly enriched bv 

Emil Goldmann { 187?-194?) , a scholar of intern* ti ml repu^8tion in 

many fields. Born in i'varlsbad, Goldmann'' studied la|>fetthe unVversiMes 

of Vienna, Berlin and Kuriich where H. v. .^imira, the ^rer,t historian' of 

German law, was his teacher, later to becoirie ii hl? fri»jid and admirer. 

A atupendou knowleditfe of philolog^', lingruistics , ethnolofry and folklore 

enabled Göldmann to use the rspults of thesc disciplinep for the 

inveatlgatiom of legal history. He delved deeply in the most contro- 

verpial problems of German law hirtoryand often arrived at purpribsin^- 

aolutlonp. Thus he oarticularly diacovered elerr.entP of magic in varidjus 

■•",•••- ■ '. , ' 

forrr.s of mediewal ösths. he true meanini? of enip-qi.qtic Latin terms in 

* I i' ■ 

medievr.l lep-al writinr? was revealed by Goldmann in s-veral caaes. 

the It9"lan scholar Bevoto has therefore called Goldnriann "il mappior 

■ • ■ i - , , ■ -. • ' 

reprepentante del ciuristlpadroni del iretodo linr^uistico . 

Goldmann 's minute specialization manifepted itself in numerous 

original publication? , llke his Beitr^'ge^ zur Geschichte der germanischen 

Ere_iJ.a s rung durch__;vv_ehrha^^^^ ( 1903 ) : Beiträge zur Geschichte d_eg 

' f'S''' 

fr^nkiachen R echt es ( 1924 ): Chrenechruda_i 1931 ), dealing with the 

mysterloua Chrenechruda ceremony which the man who had committed a 

. manslaighter was obllged to perform* Goldmann comoined the abi:ity to 

penetrate IntA the heart of the .'latter with a r?,re faculty o.f synthsis 

and lucld pi esentatlon .Owing to these nualities and to his great personal 

Goldiiiann ? " , 
chat?m, ii«l-4)eGamepne of the most populär and- beloved ornfessors of the law 

faculty of the Universlty ^f Vienna where he tau'ht from I8O3 to 193Ö. 

■[■•^■■■'^r .?: ••? , . ... had to 

It was due to his Jewish orip-ln that he^'walt for tne title of a füll 

profeo'or ( "ordlnariup" ) untll 193^» wnn he reacn-^d his sixtleth year. 

■-. ■,; ... Jewish . 

Litee Braf^pioff and hir other/collepi:ueB, Goldmann was denrived 

of his prof esf^orship by the Nazi ,crovernrrent . In 1938. But he received in 

the same ye-^r a radiogram froto ur* D.A.cSeip^-Röctor of the University of 

Oslo, Invltinp him to lecture st this first Norwefrlan universltv on the 

hi Story of German law fjnd on the science of Ktruscolop.y , in which 

Goldmann has li-cewise eicelled and Ixaix become renowneJ by a serie? of 

Dubllcations . The N^insen Fondatlon '•}nd the Univerri.ty of Oslo /j^uarrjnteed 

the flnancinl support r^f these lectures for two years . ßut Gol^mann v.ho 

throi^ph the Intervention of Lord Gecil was enabled to come, in Company 

with his wife and coworker, R&sa Goldmann, to Sn^rland , was prevented by 

the outbreak of the w^r in which vor^'ay became involved to proceed to 

Oslo. He had to stay.ln 'Brian i where he found hosoitality in the T^lnity 

Collecreof Cambridp.e.Th'ere ae died suddenly on the street by an heart 

Ättack cn May 6, 1942. His lite^ rarv heritar'' cowristihg of humerous '. ^ 

manuscripts, includin^r a coir.plete historv of German law, of countless 

excerpts and annotations dealinp- with lep:al andtin/uiFtic matters, r^nd 

of a larp;e scientific correspondenece has been acquite'ip- the Nprsk 

Folksmuseum In By^rdoy near Oslo. A special room has be^n devoted'by the 

Kuseum to the ouroose of mrikinp: these treasures nccessible to schol^rs 

/.; . ■ ■ 

and the public. yf 


- 48 - 

■v. • ■,-./,/^;'•- 

Amongr the liv^ing conteipnorsry historlanp of German law, . ;:•, 

^ '■ ' . ^ '■'■■' ' •■• bv the 

Guido Kl seh ( born In 1889 in Prap-ue ) belorif?^ bv hlp birth ^nd i^du^'ati^i^. 

he received in thst ffiirou^ Czech center q-^ the Au^trian Empire'^' where euch 

eminent rcholars ap Weeeelv, Kra^nopolsVi , Fr^^inkl, Petschek and Brun^-» i' ' 

Kafka have tyught law,xxx*icyxxo5f xtbiK>'KMÄtRi5cnxxaDKi-3?K>' to the orbit of 

Austrlan Juri sprudence. Endowed wlth a unlveralit^' by which . . ,^ 

>/oifpran?r Wes^-ely dlPtln^ulEhed hirr'self injthp middle of the nlnetcen'-.h 

ce/ntmry, Guido Kiach, the aon of Alexander Kiach, the outstandlnsT r-ibbi 

of Prague, hap becorne equally productivH in th^-rcalm both of juris- ,;■' c 

prudence and Hebrew lore. He taucht history of the Gerrnan law ae orofes^or 

at the universities of Leipzi'^-, K"nlp-sberg and Halle until 1933. ince he 

he a 

left German-'', toicdtÄXiCJcRctbc has been actlve as'.vlsitin^ profes'or of the 

Jewish Institute of Reliprion, and from 195? to 195^^ as profesor of law at 

Guido Kl seh 
the Univer'lty of Lasel. xbtÄJhaa be n able to combine thie extensive 

teachln^ activity wlth a moat prolific scholarly oroduction, including 

the editlon of the mapazine JÜatoria Judaica» His numproua booke compriae 

atudies abo t the German law and Jewif^h history. in one of them^ Guido <^Ifißci^ 
ha^r, > (at the same time--' 

fstran^.ely.y eloup-.h, succeeded to mäkeVa major contrib tlön to ^he htPtorv 

of the German law as well as to that. of Judalsm. Thi? study, The S ach s en. 

pp ierel and the Bible. was not only an attempt to draw the attention of 

American ach.^lars to the moat outstandinp German leftal vopk of the Middle 

A.cres and to his authoiliLlke von Repg-6w, but also the firnt Inquiry Into the 

relation of that German \ODook to the Bible. By meana o"^ a pain^taklni? 

labor of textüal criticlsm, Kisch has dem.onptrated that the ßlble, 

above all the Hebrew £.'criot?ures , were an e?aential pource of the ^_chsen- 

spelgel . Whereaa the, German hiatoriana of law had denied to Elke -^nv 

knowledp;e of the ^ible/waa able to prove that Eike hsa been orofoundlv 

converaant wlth the Scriptures, that he even emplr^ed oral Jewish tradition 

as one of his scurces and that he most probably was in personal contact 

- 49 - 

'>-V.'... :..'' , . ■', ., .. ,/• -,.„;, 

with Jewish acholars.- ':'.,. 

The studv was publishecl in 194P in Notre Dame, Indiana. On the 
background of the year in which th^^ "final Solution of the Jewiph que>ti'-n" 
"by 3t» extermination of the Jews was resolvec in the heart of Germanv ,the 
publlcation of hhis oiece of Jewish scholarship showinp* the crentive 
aynthesis which was established bctwen German law 9nd Judalsm bv the . 
greateat German Jurist of the thirt<^©nth . centurv asaurces the ,. . ' 
ai.crnificance of a most illuminative hlstöric feat. '■•**' 

, •• In the sphere of the hiptorv of modern civil l.'j.v th most important 
work was due t^ Jul ius Ofner: his edltion of the !!^y.rentwurf " ( se^ ateove 

p ), thouc^h its proper purpose was to imcrove the perceptio'^ and 

Interpretation of the Austrian code, became also an Invaluable instrume t 
for the histor^- of the Austrian civil law. In the fi^ld of criminal law, 
JSlegan(äer Loeffier in his work Schuldformen des Straf rechts ( ^ee above 
p....j traced also the historical orlgin of the forms of guilt including 
those of the riebrew ...iblical laW'. *\J 

A partlcular ^skill and orlginality was exhlbited bv ..ustrlan authors 

of Jewish origin who cultivated the hist-ry of public law and of tne 

, . . > .' f. ,.•.•' 

philosophy of law. This production is,howevert ^<^ closely linked with ' 

their studies on public law an ; philoaophy theiEs:Üve<= that the reference 
tp_them • 
«■'will have to be under^aken in connection with the survey of the latter 

achoäarly activitie8.( see below pp ). • ,y 


The nineteenth centurv saw the emergence of a new science: 

.,, * . ' •. . •• 

sociolop!^. Al'ho'jgh Auscust Comte not onlv ^ave the stron/rest imoul-^e to 

...'■■■ ,'■ 

methodical studies on society and create 1 even its name, sociolopry 

fonmed merely a sectioc of his "philo^onhle positive." Cnlv in the aecon^ff 

half of the nineteenth /md at the be^inninp of the twentieth centurv, i. v, 

thanks to the pioneerin^ works of Herbert l^^pcncer in Ensrland , of Paul 

'■ik ;.' • /■'».;., '!. 

- 50 - 

,1 ,,M 

Uurkheim in Francei of the German. scholars Ferdinand T^nnies, Max Veber 

and the Jewish-LTcrinan philosopher Georp; Simmel the spe -ial dlscipline 

of sociolo^y was born. ' ■■ . ^ . ' \ 

, • It was, however, left entirely to Austrir^-^ jurista of Jewi^h oriii?in 

not only to introduce the new doctrine to >iu'tria, but to apply ; it to the 

Cognition of law.Their ^fforts proceeded in two different directions» 

On the one hanu , the origin and funiztiona of the st.ate(inade an object of . 

special studles, Lu dwipr Gumplowicz«, who was born in Krakow in 1837 and 

became professor of public law at the University of G'az,was the pioncer, 

in thig research whlch remained ever.aince the domain of rtudenta of public 

law and of philo^iophy of law.( see bolow pp.,..).On Lhe other han'4 the 

World of civil law, of thej/forces at work shaoinrr It, the genesl^ cf" 

le<3!:al precepfcs and the questftion whether they represent the only source 

of law became a matter of investin-atlonn . It wap In the svstematic purauance 

of these problemn that the soclolopjy of law par excellence wß^ created. 


It seems plausible that Julius Ofner, the fip-hter for a socially 

mlnded legislation bec?nie 'a orecursor of the new social sclence of la-'. 

He avoiüed, to be sure, the term "sociolo/ricril method." and preferred 

- in the veln of the then prevailing predilection for natural science - 

to advocate the "inductive method" in Jurisprudence . Alreadv in a lecture 
he held'in the "iViener Juristische Gesellschaft" on Jecemfeer '»C , I6?9f 
gtxicggrtgRg Uehef die naturwia^^ensöhaftllche Methode' im Recht. Ofner demanded 
''ITegal science Fhould be transformed from an interpretative into an 

investigatUini?: science. in a series of e- rays - £>fes Exp e rimen t i m Recht d^B^ 

Recht ä theo t?ie und .histo.rischen^b^c tiul^ ( 18.88lkx3cJtgc^xJt ...D ie: Jur i gprude nz al s 

S4&riaie re^ chnilc ~ ""( 18^4 ) und Rechtstheoreti sche Bem erk(iinp:e n ( 1998 ) - 

Ofner atteropted to elaborate more exactly on this idea.He started ft?oin 

thr criticism which the GjöJrman. Philosoph er v. Kirchmann, already 4n th« 

ye-^r 1846^ had levelled againfet jurisprudence^ Kir^ann denied any scientific 

character to Juris prüden cc^ becauae of itn restrlction to pof^itlve law 

which, lackin^ stabillty and unequivocalnesg,throws the door open to ':, 

Chance and uncertalnty. Ofner reco.crnized this criticism, but he • 

consldered thc Jurisprudence which is limited tö the interoretation 

of the law onlv a'= a part of Jrristic science: differinp, from the 

interpretative Jurisprudence , an lother Irind of 3ül?lstlo sciehce had» 

according to Ofne^, those ^hichy 

the task to investi^ate tkm means of 'social mechanlcr"^" Ulfe recoiu- -^^'i ,, 

prnss, reward, payment, puniPhRinent , wkiic^are able to peralys« actiomg 
impairiniQ!; the social peace. '»Vhereas tlxK the Jurisprudence operatinr 
by means of deduction from the positive lav/ does not care for the 
quality of the result of such reaaoninjr» the Jurisprudence onncenaed 
with the inv^stip-ation of the atootre öiehtioned phenomenra woüld take 
into acoount their effects and, accordinfrly,deei'de «bout their 
admlFPibility. Thls kind of Jurisprudence would coimter^ t the 
absolutism of the positive law and nromote it? reforui. Its task was 
actually that of lepral politics ( Rechtapolitik ) , but Ofner ^'ndavored 
to transform this political actilrity into a scientific preparation and 
formulatjon of new Iwws -ind to infcerporate aucn a dlpcipline - the ■ lu 

"Social Technique" aa he termed it - into the bodv of Jurisorudence, 

/ i 

Ha .nsked therefore aleo to include it in the study plan of the Jurists: 

Ofner did not limlt himself to a dev^cription of the new met'iods 
of Jurisprudence, In a series of cssays, he even delineated the goal* 
which would have to be reached bv the ^social technique. Aa early as 
1868, he deVÄlopedv in his Studien sozialer Jur isprudenz ) his demands 
for three basic rights-: to live ( öas Recht zu leben ) , to work ( öas 
Recht auf Arbeit ) and to obtain the füll anount of one's produce 
( Das Recht arnS den vollen Arbeitsertrag) . In the ep^ch of rising 
socialism and social politics, Ofnar becamj? thus- the mort consequent 
formulator of what he himself called "das soßiale Recht" { social law ). 


- RP - 

. ■'■■ -■ -V' ,' ■• . ' >•/'■ '' ,. •■ .."■.■• "'•'■• . • ■' .■ ■ ■ '■.. -> ' ■ . ■■ ■■■ ■' . 

He locked for a new "sbclety which would have to he a pociety of labor and 

2. '. ■ " ■' '' ' 

' At the Same tlme, Ofner conceived the Idea of a universal lav/. Bheh 
he, in 1888, tn..a lecture set forth thisMdea, he atarted with the etory . 
of Hillel's TDe-tln^ wltn the pac;an who was wllllnr to become a proE<:lyte, 
If hlllel would be able to exp^aln the essence of Judais- durlrif^ the tirce 
a rron atandinp: on one foot was able to remalnauriprht» -Ofner sugn-ested i la 
that a contemporary man would sirrllarly aoproaoh a lep^al scholar, sayins^: 
"iwill subject mvself td) your law, but I am llke any other iran unable to 
learn thouaands of paraj^raphs all cf whlch cven yoir lawvers do not know . 
Teil me in" one sentence how I have to behave in order to behave 
righteourly." Ofner formulated hia answer aftor the pattern of Hillel's 
dictum: "Act faithfully, have confidence and Justify confidence: this is 
the summa of lav/." It wap not only in this lecture that the Jewiph back- 
!^; frrovnd of Ofner* s Dersonality and the insolration he had received from 

Judaism becarae manifest. In a letter to the as^~ociation Adas Israel, •: 
written on the occasion of lis 7^h birthdav, he confesred that he still 
would subscribe to the answe* he Woüld have piven to the naran. He Ir^o, 
th^ugh sharplv opoosed to Zionism and to the J'evdrh national idea in 
P'enerql , declared on another occasion to foel oatrictic pride that, ^s 
his social studies have rhown him, Jewish legirlation v;as far ibove anv 
otiier ancient legislation by the lack o"^ dl scrimination betv/een nobilitv 
ad comnon inen, betwcn «-ich and poor. Flnally, in an article oublished 
only three years before his dert^' • ^fne^ det ined his credo as followa:- 
"Lave without Justice tums easily Jnto' sentiünentallty »nor • is there a 
true Justice without love," Thua Ofner unconsclously proclainred the basic 
tenei^ts o^^ Judaism almost lite^-ally in the same wav, as only mopt '.-■■l- ■ t' 
recently Robert Gordis, one of the.. ieadinf Jewish scholars,has done in 
a passap-e of his bock The Roo t and t he Br anch : '' . . . . lustice without love 
Is vengefulnews , love w<|)tho,ut Jurtice, sentiriientality •" }y' 

'. ' With thf fervor of a Hasidic zadik, C frier ouraued his eeyrch 

for a social law, using all the mean^ at his diPDoaal - the written rmd tlie 

^P spoken Word as nn author, lecturer -md member? of the P'irllament, and 
' - flnally - by creattag Jurinp- World War I the "Geaellachaft für aoziales 

Recht" ( Society for social law )in coooer-itlori of trT.e preeent athor who 
at the foundirif? meetinr delivered the opening h lecture, i^ e u e ■__ Rechts kul t u r 
and became the Hon. becretary of the Society. The "uoclety for social law" 
was actually a succes:-or of the"Freie .luristirch' Verienip-un " ( Free 
Juristic associatlon ) founded befo^e the war b" the prerent author 
accordinp; to the principlep which ^uided the serlea of a ep^aya he edited 
und er the title Da? Recht: Samn:lunpr v on Abhandl unp-en fpr Juristen und 
Laien ( The Lawi ..Collection of espays for Jurists and laymen ) , 19C9- 
1913 • '^^Q ag^ociation aa well as the collection were intendeü to promote a 
public discuarion of legal problrra and t-^ eR*abliPh a contact of jurip- 
prudence with sociolop;v, psycho'^.y nnd Iphilosophy. .ithin the framework 
of the aasociation, the author arranpred a aerie? of osyciiolofrical 
experim'^ntp witli the purpope of inve^tipr-^tinp: into the aenpe of law and 
rip-ht. Actual an;i fictitioua caseR were aubmitted to pefaona 'who partici- 
pated in the Jcä exoeriment? . One of these war kxx combin^d with an 
experiment on the depositiona of witnespen. An experimantal double court 
proceeding was arranp-ed at the Iniver' it" of Vienna on Jänuary 13» 1 » amd 
IS, 1913 • ^-ne of the court s con^i^ted of l«^.irned l'^yrr'cn ( ppych^oloo-iats )/ 
the other of Jurist?. An nnal^'aip of the re'^ultf^ haa been publiphea. It 
wgp the firpt experiment of thi? kind . '- 


The aociolop^lcal trend in Juri^prudenoe frund itp mojpt outstanding 
master in fc u^en Ehrlich , one of the brifrht stars in th^^ world of Auatrian 
Juriaprudence . born in 186? in Czernow'.tz, the capital of the most eapterm 
province of the Auntrian eraplre, Bukowina, ehrlich began hir univerpity 



•V.' career at the ünlverpitv of Vienna. In 1.89? he was calleci to the Univ.: relty 

of Czemowltz aa Professor of Roman law. At thio university he dld his 

1 .1 f e werk, lajctx 34xöcx ymi m e fxtlkqc )wa3ö>l7JJ<nc^?©' »rexrxac xpca:]xM>TyetKic joiroco'iyl'^z^ xl. nc ><JteKOTXKic y/y 9c x 

lxtX3ö-»^exjcxi?ncx3xaQXiöW5x>cxKK.}^^ his ploneerinp: atudies om 

whlch galned him 
the soclology of laK^lntematlonal reputatlon. -everal of his works were 

tranlated Into Engllrh'; 

Ehrllcri'? earl''' work.q, two .. of which h3ve been rcentioned • bove 

( ae p ), dealt w itlie RoaBn aia^ civil law. but already In 1903^ he 

publ 1 sh edh i s s t udy Freie Rechtsf indung an d freie Recht swi s£en schaff 

( translated in part in volume IX of th<^ KoderTi Le,'?al Philosophy Series ) . 

It wa? the battle cry of the Free Law Kovcirent, lon.o* b'^^fore the Fr:;e Law 

princlple was oroclal'ied by theaerman-JewiPh Jurist Hermann Kantorowicz in 

"• ( 190^). 
his Kampf und die Rechtswispenschaft 1 "Kantorowicz referred in this namphlet 

to Ehrlich as to the leader of the new schon''. In quick - ucceSv°ion , 'ehrlich 

published in the yearp 1906 to 1911 a series of Ftudies on the Free Law 

and on the new sociolofrical methods of Juri sprudence, particu'arly 

Sociolä)ja:ie und Ju risorudenz ( 1906 ) , Jie Tatsachen des Gewohnheit rre cht 5_ 

( an address delivered by ührlich on the occasion of hie inaup-uration es 

Rector of the University of Czemowitz in 19C7 ) and Die P-^ rforschun/? des 

lebenden Re chts ( 1911 )f until in 1913 -"i^hrlich's maptnum opus Grundlegung;^ 

der .Soziologie des Reiahtes appeared , to be followed in 1918 by another 

m^^Jor werk , .Die Juristische ^Ofrlk. / 

."hrlich's Grund lep:un>y was soon recop-nised as a classic presentatioi^- 

of the new trend of Jurisprudence and aroused the mopt vivid intere'^t in 

England and especiglly in the U.S.A. Hardlv any forei^^n author in the 

sphere of law has been menvioned as often and with greater adrairation in th^^ 

historic corresponüenc^ of Mr. Chief Justice Holmes and i^rofespor Harold 

Laski than Eugen Ehrlich.Speaking of French and German legal wcrks, Holmes 

doubts "if any of them hawe the quality of Ehrlich" , not without adding 

# -. 


"but hc ig an Austrlan." ( letter of September 7, 1916 } and in nnother 

' ■ ■ I- " ■ ' ■ ' ' 

letter ( of November^3» 1924 ) Holmes confesped that he read Khrlich's 

^H On the tri er hand , .-' nc± 

Sociolofyy with admlration./'il^l'x^iraskiylī could \f p-et tired to recommend 

iihrlich to his illujstrious correpondent far reading,^ ahd when he discusFed 

with Roscoe Pound plauß of thc Law School at Harvard, he placed, amonipr 

the lepral philo aopherp^-^hrl ich on the first place before Kantorowicz aa 

the second , with Du/ruit, the French Tjurlat as the third and the German 

lepal Scholar Josef Kohler as the forth ( letter of January 13, 1918 ). 

Evenas late as November 3» 19?9, Laskl wrote: "... I read ... Ehrlich' s 

Sociolojy.te dep Rechts for the first time in ten vearr: in a way I think 

it is incomparable." -y 

Ehrlich 's sncioloprical Interepts were not merely theoretical. 
de devoted .%later ye-rs Fpecial studies to the R;-cial State of tne 
peaeants and o rtlcularjyof tne Jews in the eastern provinces of AuFtria . 
icDiA book whlch ran int6 the forth edltion in 1916 dealt with his 
sup-pestloils for the furtherance of these much nesrlected parts of th-e 
Population. This book was one of the proofs that h^hrlica, thoup^h he 
did not belonpr "o the Jewish com unity -at th^t time any more, feit 
still linked with it internally. '/' 

Shortly before the outbreak of World '^ar I, Ehrlichfiad been 
invited to coirie to the U.'^. in order to dellver a course of lectures 
at the Lowell Institute -'and aö address the ^-.ssociation of imerican Law "' 
Schools. but thc war früstrated this plan. A renewal of the invitation 
was intended after the war, but a severe attack of diabetes followedl by 
the amputation of one leg led to Ehrich 's oremature de,?th on April 1, 
1922. In the ^ame year one his last works, a btilliant sumiriarv of his 
Sociolo^y of Law, was published in the Harvard Law Review with a movlng 
appratciation bv Roscoe Pound of Ehrlich, "one of ' the leaders in 
contemporarv science of law»'* ^ '^ • 

.; s, .•. « 55 


-^; ■■ ^ 

It also was Roscoe Pound who wroi e the Introd^jction to the M.'ng:ll, Ph editlon 
of the Grundl ep:ung v/hich appeared in 1936^ und er the title Fundamental 

^r^ncifiles of the Soäloldgy of Law, y ; r, ' •• '-unr 

r- ■ ■ ■,, '' •'■ 

In the for^evoü 00 the Sociqlg:_Y- Ehrlic'-j hiras^tf suir.s un the 

'.-■ . i ' . . . ■ ! ■ ■' • ■ ■ . ^« 

* ■...'■•..■ r ■ ■ ' . ■ 

substance of his doctrine in the aentence that at oresent as well as any 

othertlme the c-nter of ff;ravlty of tejral developnients lief= not in lep;is- 

lation, not in .juristic sclence, nor in judicial decision, but in eociety 

Itself, AlthTj/rh viewasiinilar to t-ils notionfcan be found in Ofner's and ' >* , 

In other writin,?a, Ehrlich was the first Jurist v^ho not only procl?.iined 

this principle but developed it into a systernatic theory. The fundamental 

distinction unierlyinf^ this theory is t;iat betwecn Instructions framed 

on the one hand 

in words,whic>j either are lep-al provipions ( Entficheidungsnormen ) 

addresped to the courtp in örde^ to instruct them how to decide le,p-al 

casea ot administrative provtions ( Verwaltunf^snormen ) addressed to i- v.-. 

administration of-^^iciyls as guidance in special caees , and - on the other 

hana - norms which actuallv constltutc social order, for hich .-hrlich has 

coined the term llving law. vhile the-moder"» Jurist underrtands by the 

Word law generally only the legal provisiohp, ii^hrlich d'-monatr^tes that the 

social order is not onl" older than the legal Provision? but that it con- 

tinuea to function and even maintainp its creative Pignificance bepidcg | 

the legal provisions. Thus Ehrlich re-introduced the ideae of the historical 

school under a new aspect into modern Jurisprudence: Savigny's "Voiksgeist" 

and Puchtr*F Gewohnheitpreoht were transformed in ix rcaliptic, oerpetually 

-» ■ ' . ■ 

working "facts of law" - the "living low of peoole/' .. 

iVen the le^al provisions are, acoordlnc^ to Ehrlich, only partly '"". ' 

created b^' the- lesrislation of the State, but rather bv Judicial declsions 

which after the removal of the non-espentialp throuf7h the activities of 

the Juristg as'^ume the character of lesral provisions. Meielv öc secrjnent 

pf legislation can therefore be considered as a creation of the State. 


■■;. '"■-.■ ' ' ' ' ' - 57 - 

The original State knowa no legislation. i^hrlich regards the le^islations 
6f' Moses, Zarathustra, i^^-mu or H-^imurabi as collectliona of Juaicial and 
Juristic law coiiibined wlt h rellfrlous , moral and cere-'inonial oroviFions. 
Even the [treat codlf ^ caCions of the European continent from Justinäian's 
Ciorpüa Juris to the Code Napoi^on consist of Juristic law, while the 
English and Amei'ican Common Law is still in the stajr^ of t^-^ansformation 
into leapr,! provisions. 

The prreat masaof the lep-al provl^^iöns ov e their orifrin to disputes 
to which already exlst^ng Irtstltütionff have p^lvnn rl?e. '^4 it is aiso 
today. Old instltutlons 3t disappear, now ones emerre, and therefore 
even now the lepral provisions are mainly cr'*'-:Jted bv IJudlcial and Juri^tsic 
law.Th'ey 'ii"e '^o't fruits of fit'st' thousr-'ts^'; hnt of äf terthoucrhts . Ehrlich 
Points to the Juristic spphistry which tries to prerent these new ler^al 
provi'ions as immanent Contents of the statutarv law. For since the 
lawgiver can by means of his Statutes render pos^'ible only decisions in 
thoietypes of lefral cases which carne to his att'ntlon, no decision can be 
derived fro:: a stntute -is to legal caaes whic-i the lawp!;iver has netter 
thoup-ht of» not has been able to think of . -^'^Z 

This socio lojarical aspect of law led to Important consenuences 
both In the spheres of Jurisorudence and lejral oractice. The discovery 
thal the law is basicallv a function of Society involved the demand to 
inveetigatc the procesr ^,f aucn f unctloninp^, tiius of the living law in 
family, peasanf liifgniCpflieiunfll, P:roupinp:B, • etc« Ehrlich founded for this 

purpose 3 specisl reminar '3t the Universltv 6f C23rnowM.z "^o^ which h-? 

draw up g •:ii«??t"ior^n!«ire . These invesilif^ationp wore, however,/bv no ilboUs 


fcofiTlied ^je to the old law that still survlve^. Eh^üf^h stressed no lesp 

the imp^rtö.nce t6 acquire knowledee/^the ussf^er related to cnntracts. 

p.rticles of associati^n , declarotions by last will, to the enprmous 

number of new forms cro-^ted by modern commerce a^^d ^o the specific orders 

- 58 - 


in the sphere- of the factories, minln^ and navicrition , the b-^nV?, 

j, .";■ ..■.» * 

ra'ilroad^^, the labor unions, assoclati^lons of emplyees ,and a'thousand 

other foriTis of llfe. 





The socioloprical method enriohed and, to some dep^ree, transformed 

Juri Stic education. Students of ^a^became oblifred to study custons' and 

■■r v:v' <■■ 



usances, above all jüdiclall.. rep^rts and private documen's. The ptronp-eF^t 
impact, however, was exerted by the sociolofry of law on t\\r Judiciary 
practica'. It waF? by no means n inere colncidence that the founder of the 
sociolo^y of law waa at the sanie ttm^- the leacler of th<^ ""free law" 
movement. In f act , the view that the written law, the Statutes, represented 
»WX?!^ onlv a seg: ent ©f the law led by implication to the perceotion of 
the Inadequacy of mere statutarv law for judicial decislona. Ehrlich 
oxp^sed the fallaciea of current JuriFtic lofrtc and '•ep^al technlcalism, 
the practice to derive absolutely everythlhp from the Statutes, even 
if by the most questionable tricks of interoretation . He maintained 
that it Shows a higher conx2eo1?ion of the Judiciary Office not to espect 
of a Judge such Performances. The Judge should have the righ^ to recognize 
that there are in the atatute l^cunae whlch cannot be filled by 
construction . Ehrlich demands that a lep-al rule must be treated not like 
a rigid dogma but like a living energy, A legal decirion is, according 
to Ehrlich, always the result of a numbe^- of f^ctorr, influencing the 
Jud^e: text and meaninp- of a rule äre one of these factors, but not the 
only one. LhMich has part Iculariy emphasized the personal elernent of 
legal decisions. In one of the ir.ost splendid passap:eg of his foclol0£y_ 
HÄÄH he las described the actii?ity of an individual which he de^med 
necer^ary iiVorder to make Jt|atice effective: "Just as the work of art, 
although it is a result of social (fforces , reouires and artist to clothe 
it in a visible f^rm, so justice requires a prophet to proclaim it. 
And again, like a work of art, which, though shaoed eufe of social 



.T/ ■ 

' •«■;.': 

, ^^ ■ ^ .. - 59 -. ;'■' '^■■:,f, :-m:.' ;^^" .:'v-.^ ^'"v: ■; :,,„, ■ ■' ; ' ' ..■•. 

»aterialp, nevertheless receives from the artist the stamD of his whole 
indlvidual personality , justice owes to aociety orily Its rough content, 
but owes ita indivldual form to the artist in Justiice who has created it. 
....Justice, as it has been p;lven individua^l form in Statutes, Judiclal 
declsions, worts of literature, is, in its hi -hest manif estatioms , 
th- Besultant of an Inspired synthesis of oppositer like ever' p-.rand 

tt ,' 

' /.M } 



creatjon of the human mind- , ^• 

Ehrlich'? Impact on Juri sprudence war preat and lasting. In Austria, 
ptudies like those by Dniestrzanak i about coatumary law and the social 

..'.....■• \ ■ . '.I ► » . V ■ 

asrociations ( 1905 ) or Mauczka on ancient law in popu'ar consclousnesR 

. ■.' ' ■ •. '..•■■ -'■ ■' :..,i','r ...,'•■',,,■, .■.:',■■■.. ■ ■ . 

( 1907 ) were Influenced by Ehrlich. A prominent 'ollower of Ehrlich was 

Karl Geor^ V/ urzel, g Viennese at + orney and Jurlstlc author of JewiJ5h i 

orlgln, who shortly after Ehrlich' g Rechtrf ind unp- un d frfeie Rechts- 

wlssengchaft published hls very acute book Dar- Juristische _Denken( 1904 ). 

It too becameKrouch discus'-ed document of the sociol.ofrlcal and "free law" 

morrevemnt. Its second edltion appp^red in 1924. In the same year, Wurzel •• 

published another study, Die Sözialdynamik de- Rechts, which was deslcrned 

to offer ajllnk betwe n the contradictinpr thqjrles of law. 

In 0erinany, Hugo binzheinier, outstandinfr lawyer ancfprof ea^or at 

the University of Ffatakfurt, himvoelf of J;^wish descent »welcomed enthupia—. 

stilcally Ehrlich' 3 new apprach to law. He continued on the foundatlons 

lald by uhrlich in his studies Die 3o tlo lop; igc he Kethode in der Rehts- 

wisse nachaft and Die so ziale Se lbstb eeit^n un p: im Rec ht. It was also 

Slnzhelmer W^o paid tri but e to Ehrll,(?'h by incli.dinp- him in hls work ^r-vs 


Jüdische K lass iker der deu tschen ^echta wls sfe nachaft , whe re 'Iä» , tre s i d e 

Glaser, Unger and Jellinek, appears as one of the luminarles of Austrlan 

JuriBprudance«lJ*:i :\ 

^In the U.S. ,Ehiflich's ideas feil on a very fertile soll. Particu- 

larly KaJTl .^.r_Llewellyn in hls Pr^MuiJigJienrechtsprechun.«- in Amerile (1933.]^ 
published in German, created a work in the fashion of Ehrliches doctrine^'' 

1 • 




' ( 

, 'r>> 

The fzreat social chan^^-es whlch ocnurred in the nliieteenth cnturv 
led in Germanvto the emerp^ence of theiseciallst movement. Its fatners 


v/ere three raen of Jewish des Cent: Koses Hee;^, Ferdinand Las, '-alle and 
Karl Marx. In Austria, the struggle for llberty and civil rir^hts • ^'''j 


remained fnr a long time the primary concem of Jewish pollticia^^s . ■ 
it was Josef Ungar Who declared t latlie war born Im 192fa, but that le saw 
the llRiit of tne worid ay late as 1Ö4Ö. ur, Adolf B'ixcihof and Jr. Joeel 
Goldmar-r - botn physicians - were the leaderaof the Austrlan revolutlom 

A ■ 

in Karch 1848. Moreover, Plschhof has not only the uierit of having; held 

the firpt public political apeech ever heard in Austria, but hls 

proposals for a national autonomy were the first attempt to solve 

the cruclal probleia öf the Auntrian umpire, the national auestion, 

' -' ' '^' , ■ .■ . 

by ax lepiislative means. :ie define;^ with astouncin':- jurirtic s^^ill and 

* .■ to ' ■ ' • 

prreat foreöi'^Hi 1:.h« rif2;ht of ever^' natioÄVuse her lan,Tuo.5pe,ln bis 

(^l8o2 ) 
Pamphlet » _i:^l e._ S orachen rechte In _ den_r3taaten ^f^H^i sQ^V'k®'^ ^'^^^vt^n^lJiM'^'i 

and with particular referenc: to Austrin in 2ß^ österreichsiche 

n " 

Sprachenzwlj-t . 


The 90tiep of^nineteenth xjentury saw the rise offthe Aur'tri n 

Social-Demncratlc ^^arty Itsleaders were to a '^reat extent Je^a, 

AlithöUf^\/fnoat outr.tandlncr ainonp; them who was to be rei?or^nised as the 

fatherof th'? sAciollst movement in Austria ,^- Dr. Victor Adler, wö?i' a 
hysician, he was followed by 

a' lon^^ line of Jewiph Jurists who played a declsv'e role in the 

i l88r -r- 1936 ) 
party. ±t was i-ideed they, above all, Otto ^ueri 'and Max Adler \ 1673- 

1937 ) J^ 
^/-wtfnrfrTHe specific Austrlan type of socialisa;, called Austromarxism 

was created . m his ii.ain work, Die i^a tion al it'^-tenf raF.e und di e 

Otto Bauer, 
£ozialdemokratie,\/,n the veln of Adolf Fischhof, rr.ade aonstr ctive 

^^H sugprestlons fon/constitutio ' of niultinational states, •'hile 

Adler ün(|ertook the attempt to inject elei:.ei-^,ts of ^^antian etfolcR into 
K?rxiFm i see also below p... ). ^ '•■,','-■. 



, , ,"..i' 

''• , 


: > ■ i. ■■■. 

■ - ' ,w'*, ■'.■•^. ■ ■-. 

. '' 

■ i i 

-61 - < 

'■ -1 

.,„.•■; ■'. ; Alongslde of the social ist moveii^ent , indiviciual effortp hsve be n 

made by Austrian Jewlsh thlnkers in the aecond half of the nineteenth 

Century to solve the buming social and polltldal pMblerns of the ä^.e 

by a rationally devised lepr^Rlation . Theodor Hertzka ( lc4s - 19?4 ), 

Vlennese econonilst, economic editor of the **Neue Freie i'rease" for sever 1 

years and later editor of the '*5"i'iener Allgemeine Zeitunc^", in his ncvel 

Freilan d { 1Ö90 , isinglish edition 1991 ) outllned a projeot for the 

establlahment in Afrlca of a State founded on the principle of public 

land ov^nership, while all other oropertv is owned individually / Differin(7 

from this utopian schwme, the ideas and efforts of two ^reat men were 

directed towards imu.ediale flu/^damental chanp-es. Althouprh one of them was 

no Jurist at all, law was thelr comiLon instrunient. 

■' ' ,' ■ ' 1> JOSEF POPPER ^LYNKEUS 

By the unlveraalily of his gifts, Josef Popoer ( b. I836 in Kolin, 

-Liohemia, d. 1921 in Vienna ) rescmbled th- p^enluses of the Renat?i?ance. 

He excelled in physics and technology, anticipated th^ relatlvitv and 

whi Le he a! so r 

Quantum theories ,/made early studier *nd inventiono in; asronaaticf' and 

in verious other fipldd. ^i^mund Freud hl i. seif recprnlGed thit Po 00er 's 

ideas on dreams were glrrilar to those which Freed much later developed 

in hir studyon the inlerpretah-o»^ of dreams. The book Phan tasien eines 

Realis ten , -publlshed by Popper under the pseudonyri. Lynkeus , a collection 

of most original short stories »became one of the most discussed works 

of fiction. And yet all theee achievementsver^^ eclipaed by Jos:^^ Popper' s 

strife for a System of social Justice. It p:ained hira a olace beside the 

great social refprmers of all timeF. // . 

In contrast to other utopian s, Popper did not dream of a "new 

Society" ( ,as al.-o hl? contemporary Hertzka did), Hir: suggeptions almed 

at laws whi Chi while to a great extent .compatible with„.tibe exipting civil 

order^weri: to be superposed by peaceful dem-cratic procedure on the valid 

1 • ; ' 

:■''■■ ■ ■ • - 62 - \, ' ■ , ,, ■"■.■• ■ 

;;«. lev-al System. Popper wan forty yeara old when h^ P^^li-SJ^^cl__Da5_.Recht 
■''zu lebe n und die Pflicht zu s ter ben ( forth ed. 1924 ). Tiere followed 
in 1905 the pamphlet F undairien t eifi^a it'^uen Staatsrechts and in 1912 

Die allpemien .N^'hrgf licht _ 
'^ a ls Lösunfa: der sozialen Fraire. ■ The titles theiripöelvep indicate the v, 

legalistic characiter of Popper' th^,n^<-infT^ . He defined as "a fundamental 
indivldual rbf^ht euch one the abolition of which wo\Jld endanger or 
destroy the exintence of an Individual, "and considered therefore 
as an easential tasfc of lefrislation to secure hhe ohysical exlrtence 

of everv person ,who and how ever he or she rriay be,b.v provisions for hig 

'{ II 

or her livelihood an'i inviolability . As for the latter, the rlsrht 

to live" has to be secured afralnst "the duty to die" which Popper found 

innerent in the conscription for wrfare invalvinrr the i?irtual 

compülsioa to die. Popper visualized the replacenent of conncriJtion 

by voluntar" enlistment "^or war duty. N'-' one , should errainst his will 

be forced into war Service. The call of the st.ite for volunteers rhould 

be the only means for rxÄ recruitinp for war. "'v 

As rep-ards the basic requi rementf for livelihood, Popoer deronnded 

that they should be allotted to everybod'- '/ith^ut strusrrle and without 

competditive effort, Popper' s plan embodied the leptal püarantec of e ' l 

miniuium for subsDjstenceÄ'nd the essentl-O cultural needs to each member 
V ' r which -' • 

of the Society ,froni the cradle to the f rave , «*ot!y'vould secüre evervone 
apainst the vicissitutei of life. This rninittum guarant««d J^upply should 
be produced and provided for by -n oblip-ntory Universal Subelstenqf Copps, 

In this body a defini% number of men and woir.en would be oblip^ed to serve 
from the l8th tö the 30th, respectlvely to the ?5th year. A dr?ily labor 
tiaae^of seven hours was visualized as appropriate with rerard to the then 
State of technology. After the corripletion of onf *s t^=rm of Service, 
every Citizen wou'^'d be free to pafticipate in occuoati^ons and prefesrions 
freely chosen by himself in fre- enterorise, so as to procurc the bftter 


- 6.D - 

';i^ ■. 

. ; 'r' 

amenities of life 

. Jy 

'; ■ • Popper* s scheme fascinated manv r^nd caused inde^:d an orp-anined 

movement for Its re-. lization .On the other the whole clat'ine' pro Ject raet 

Sharp criticlsm. Althoup:h lt., falled to become materlallzed , tt helped,:i 

however, • ■ *. ■ 

^p promote the idea thHt social In Justice has to t *» met by ^erislative 

means. Popper* s influence on the social Icp-islation may be comoared ; 

with the impact of the rreat teacher? of natural law on the civil law. 

Josef Popper» a most consequent ratio»-^al ist thinker and enthusiastic '. ; 

admirer of Voltair''6,wlth whose "»Ife and philosophy he doalt in k' special 

bio^raohical study, may in fact be refrarded as a modern Promoter of the 

äatural iäw . In contrast to Marxian socialism and in SiffTßem^nt with the 

philoaophy of enli-'i^tenrnent , he made the individual human beinp: the centev^ 

of his lep^al plana: "The value of 'human life is immeasurable . . . .Only the. 

happy existence of the livinp^ Individual canjbi? the aim of all cur 

aaplrations." From this individ lalistic thesis, Popper derives, howeveri 

not an individualistic but social defjtnition of these alms. To ass ure 

to r 

andf/guarantee the soverelrgitw^f the individual the minimura for the 
lievlihood has to be fruaranteed. Thus in the history of the natural law, 
Josef '-t^opper's system might well be descrlbed as a systeni of th^jjn.^tural 
law which aims at the harroonization of the aoverfeignty of the individual 
and social Justice. 

V/hei^ Thödör Herzl in 1895 published his hiptoric pamphlet 
Der Juden Staat, he added to his name on th- title pap-e th^ denotation 
"Doctor der Rechte" ( Doctor of Law ). The addition which, owinfr to his 
already at that time existinr reputation was superf luous , sup-^-ests that 
Herzl was anxious to emp-1-asize his professional legitiraatlon to deal "it 
with the proble p of public law as well as the lep^al chi/a^acter of the 
work, Thfr» is indeed in Herzl's orojectaverv iraportant Juriitic element 

■ . ■■■:■■• . ■ /) ■ '' 

ftromanent that has be^n until most recent time alm^^t tctally ip-nored. / , , 

And yet Herzl himself, apart from the proininonce p-iven to hip Juri'^tic 
depre' , ha? left no d oubt that he consldered the le^ral ^'tructure of his 
project aa one of its eppcntial featurep. ' • ■ • ■ 

,7 >j(..-;^^,;. ^J^^^^ last but OT!e chaptep of Der Ju^enptaat which 1r entitled 
"F'oclety of Jewe/ind Jewish State: Negotiorum Gestio," o ^enn an follows: 


^^This pair.phlet ig not intended for lav/yers. I can therefore tcorimh " only 
,■•',:.;. cur PO rily , a^ on so uiany 6ther thlnf^s , upon mv theory of the 1 -al banis 
of a State. I müsti neverthelec s , lay f?ome stresp on m^r new theory, 

which could be maintained, I b.^lieve, "even in discu^pion with men well 

. "■■'' ... - /' 

. V versed in Jurisprudence«' ..--There foll'ws a theoretical explanation of 


■;•>■" >thia theory which Kac sharply distinfruishes froin other current theories,' 

. ^;;,, ■ especi'älly those of a divine Institution or of a suoerior oower, of 

■ '. ■' \ 

,', V V patrimonial ^nd patrimonial theoriep an; especüially of Housaeaü' s aiocial 
v^: ■'•' :v,' contract . Accoruing to Herzl a State ip fornied b^' a number of nien united 
under soveiiip-n rule. He reco.crnizcr: , it is true, also the territory 
, aa a "foundation of the state" , but thiis objective basis of the st-^te 
■'."' seems to hlm n^t of decisive importance. rie refers partlcularly expresely 
to the soveret'mty of the Pope, "perhaps the most repected in the world", 
• • ae to an example of a sovereirnty hich has nc material bnsls at all. 
^■ince tiius as the unifying soverdf^n rule nnly a legal one can be undcr- 
stiod»' Herzl * a concenpt of the State anticiPatoG to some exten* the 
_. ir.odern theprv .vhlch identif.ea the State with the lavr ( se below pp....J, 
..■>.Thls rrienif.fcsts it.self above all in the id'^fis which. Herzl out forward 

re.p-ardin.f? the creation of a new Jewish State. 

• '■■..'."'' ' . ' ■. '■■'.■• 

■ ' ". :. A piiirely JuriRtic Institution hich h.-^s be n develooed bv the 

..'■'■'''.. ■ .';■;'-■•'-:' . ■;. -■ ,•■'■'"" ■ ' 
-. • R©fsan' lawyers, the "nerotiorum g:estio" Ä^pe-aire.d to Herzl as the 

.Instrument by which a Jewish State could be called into existence. 

The concept of the "nepotiorium frertio" belon^rs to th^-^ civil law. 

•■ , ViThe. •Romana, with their marvellous sense of Justice," declares Herzl, 

;<!';,. produced thatinoble mat"feytpiece . 'l^'hen property of an oporeased person is 

■i . < ■ ■ , : 


•t ) 

in danrer, any man may steo forwrd to save it." A perpon actinp in 

thip manner derived Xt^ mandate from wli'j^t the law deemed to he a hip-her 

necessitv, and waf^ deaifrnated a "geptor" - t:^^ direotor of the afaira 

not strictly his own , Thi? institution of Roman civil law which by 

Its incorjporatlon in the modern code? continued to be a poritive law, 

was apolied by Herzl to the public law: 

' ' A State ip created bv a natlon'e ptrufTr-ir for exirtencc. 
' ,, ; \ In any such ptru^rle it i? lmpoJ??"lble tn obtaln Droper authority 
,, . in a due form bef orehand , in fact, any orelminarv att^m-^-t to 

• . obtsin a reprular decislon from tho majoritv 'voulc pp^babl^,^ 
ruln the undertakinp^ at the outset.... The p-eptor ther':fore 
;.:■ . simply takes the leaderrhlp into his handp and marches in 
the van. 

Action bv the pestor of the st-^ te is suf ficiently 
authorlzed if the dominus is orevented »either bv want of will 
or bv s6me other reason , from h'-lpinp- itse^f. -jphe p:ePtor by his 
. • Intervention becomep similar to the dominus and is bound by 

the a^reemcnt quasi ex contractu. This is the lepral rei^tionship 
existlnfr before, or more c«rrre [i'tly , created simultanoouslvfwithi 
the State. '4^/ ' • * -■ ' "' . ' ' 

This theorv fltted nerfectly the conditim of the Jewish people. 
Dispersed throuprhout the world , the Jewp were prevented from conducting 
their affairs themselves, bcsides, they were in a condition of more or 
less severe diptress in many parts of the world. The^' needöd therefore 
a pestor. This p^estor, Herzl maintaiend, could not be a sin?rle Indivioual 
Such a onßv; would either make himself ridiculous or - slnce he miprht 
appear workinp- for his own r^aln - contemptible . The prestor of the Jewiph 
people wap therefore to be a corporate person such as the Society of 
Jews, anoth'. r concept of Herzl. 

We know that Herzl not only conceived this Juristic scheme, 
but that he, in ^act, put it into practice, by initiatin-^ the political 
Zionist movement and creatinp the VVorld Zioi^ist Comgress in 1897« 
It is only wlth reference to the theory of the nef^otiorum fcestio that 
Herzlos famous prophetic entry in his diary of September 3» 1897 can be 
properly understood« In this entry itgelf Herzl referred to the 
negotiorum gestio and almost literallyqul?tedthe pertinent paragraph of 
Der Juden Staat t • " • . 

^H»"'Myi"' , t^iir V 




i? ■■'.1 - 

- 66 - /.. '7,..., . 

Were I to sum up the Basel Conp^reep in a word - which 
I shall gu^fff'd :^o-a'nst pronouncinr publicly - i It would be 
thia: M Basel I founded the Jewlsh State. If I snid this 
out loud today, I would be answered bv universal lauf^hter. 
Perhapsjln fivo years, and certainlv in fifty, everyone will 
know it. The foundation of a State lies in the will «}f.xtf^« 
of the people for a State, yes, even in the will of one . 

sufficiently powerful indlvidual ( 1 ' Etat c'est moi - IouIf XIVJ. 
Territory Is only the material basis, the State, even when it 
possesn3g territory, is alwavs somethinp' abstract. The Ghurch 
State exirts even without it; otherwlse the Pop^ would not 
be soverel'^n . 

Ät Basel, then, I created this alstraction which, as such, 
Is invisible to the vast majori tv of peoole« And with in'^init- 
efliirrial means. I ^raölunllnworked the oeople into the mood for 
a State and made thera feel that the^ wer.^ its iNational Assembly« 

■ '" Herzl even afterward s did nr^t cease to enn.'^ider his theor^' of 

the nep>>Otioruin p-estlo as the basic notiora o^ hiR activities. In ^ . 

(see below pp . . . i 

letter to the celebrated Jurist and sociolop:i?t , Ludwir Gumplowicz, 

of Decemner 11 , 1899 

he not onlv pointed to the theory, but emphatically stres'^ec Its 

difference from other the-^riea of the State and proudly sup:n:eGted It:', 

a scholarly discus°ion of it: 

■^ ' * .' In ray first pamphlet about a Jewish State, with which 

vi '. i.' publlcation the Zionist movement, now worldwide in scope, began, 
-:- ; . I devoted a chapter to the legal foundation of frov«mment. 
■•?'■• In the place öf the miserably opportiünistic theory oll" Natur-. 

- ■•'•' not wend iyk eit" - not to takk any more about the'cpmtrat social 
■r/ :•■''. - I put the theory nf negot iorum gestio which, I believe, can 
■ v.l.'!' • stand up to voür aoclological Interpretation, This theory, which 
at the veiy least cou^'d be madeth-^ onject of sciolarlv discusrjloni, 
has not b-.e*n deemeö worthy of so muchlrap a ^lance bv -^ny one up 
to this raornont* Cbviously , X an^ot eirpioyincr the proper scientific 
Jat-^on. Kindly read the thin,c?i? that I am forwsrüin'^ t-^ '^tm , 
If vou can spare some time to observe a moveniietit which doesn'*t 
belonfr to history !?et , bi:t qulte pobb^bly rü? , , , , ,^ 

'■"'■".' '.11 
GumnlowiczVs reply not only amounted to an utter r-^Jectlon of 

the Zionist movement , but ' thriW a füll load of xyontemPt on Herzl' ä" 
theoretical views. "Yoti want to creite a -"täte without bloodPhedV" > ? 
Gumplowia sneered . "Where have you ever seen nuch a thingv .vlthout force 
and without cunningV So very openly and hi^^ea,tly- on sharesv" As to 
the nefi-Qtiorum rrestio, Gumpäjowicz did not refer tv It at all« There 
was indeed amön.fT the contemporary Juriöts none lesr- inclined to ascribe 
any präctiijal i.valilie' to legal theories on states than the man who had 

' .'■ ,■■'■■.•, ■ -, .: •■■«••.. 1 .i ■' i ' . ■ . . , 

, :_■„'. . ■ ' , ,.,•'■ ,' • ,'^ *r<, > . .... .•■^' ".' 


- 67 - 

Just embarked upoto the task to replace the whole theory of piiblic law 
by a new sclence: the soclology cf th@ State. ( 55ee below pp.....). Thus 

KÖCK the exchanp-e of these memorable letters sighifies at the same tirae 

Atlie clash betwee^i the Zionlst and the as fj-imi. ' ationist aspect of the 

Jewish queatlon and the encoiinter of the legal and empitlcal interpieta-l 

tion of the state, soon to becoine reflected in the development of Juris- 

prudence in this sphere of law. Koreover, subsequent history has provid 

by the march of the Zionist m6ve ent toxtb:'XxS3cMo:U:35tx^'3rai3CÄ3t'bci(Ocgt and by 

final • ' : . - 

the' rise of the atate of Israel a tes^ case of the two theories, though 

no unequivacal declsion can be derived from it. Gertginly the warlike 

events which in the end pr-eceded and ac^'ompnied the establishrrent of 

in the least 
"the Jewiah State" have not j/dimini shed the merit^ o-^ the indispens.?.ble 

fi egotio rum gestio through the Zionist Organisation • 

The juristlc aspect of his' pollticol activitiea occupied Herzl's 

mind fror the intitial step he had taken towards'the creätion 6f ' the 

Jev/iah ^tat^to his end. '/Vhen he on Kay 19, 1903 - sbout one year before 

his death -in a letter to the Austrian Priine Minister, Dr. v. K**rber, 

asked for an introduction to the Portuguese Amtaassadot?:^ ^e re-echoed his 

favorite tneory by callinf'; hiinself "a sort of poor man ' s lav/yer for 

unfortunate Jews." it '-'as by his lep-al reaFoninp- that Herzl endeavored 

to vindicate his stand from the suspicion he feared most - that of 

bein^ a utopian -md pTirsuin,-? chirr; rical Elms'i:. This rea'^nnlnr war^ baped 

on the positive ' law. 'lerzl avoided in faöt anxiöusly' to basethe clslrig 

öf the Jewl'sh ofeople to statei-bod on the natural law no ler:^ than on 

hi?^torical riphts to be Justifled bv Israel 's former' oolitical exif'tence 

and the lawlesr depossession of the J^ev/iPh people from itr Isnd . Herzi's 

cöncept of the re-creation of the Jewir;h State reveal? his l'-^gisl-Ttlve 

genius: that ability of "planning out of the present day" whioh, 

accordinp: to Franz Rosenzweip-, constitutes "Herzl 's erreatnes"^ ." 

- 68 - 

■. '■■'A'' 




,';'■ In the perspective of later events, Herzlos idea tha t , ander special 
; Gondltions,ajj mlnority wore entitled to exercise the rip-ht of acting 
as a trustee on behalf of an entire people foreshadowed all the provirional 
govemmentS'- which in the course of two world wars and afterward a formed 
". the nucleaof states in the makinp: or re-makinpr. 

. " ■. „ : There was, however, in Herzl's universal mlnd also room for 
;. extensive plans de lep-e ferenda, for a broad viplonary desirn of a New 

,''■■■ »^ •■,'■'/,■,''.", ■ ' ?•* .'>*»" :'^ '■ .,.■;■' . ■ ' ' ■ I 

Society. In the pursuance of these plans which he set forth particularly 

.'■';/•;■;•■..■■ v ' " ■ < ■ ■ ■ 

,. in his Altneuland Herzl was guided by the idea of a social Justice no lesn 

th'an his Austrian-Jewish contemporaries , Emil ^teinbach, Julius Ofner and 

Josef Popper-Lynkeus . And while he, the well trained Jurist, had drawn 

his theory for the creation of the Jewish State from the classic Roman 

law, he was well aware of the genuine Jev^ish herit^pre as aWunexhausible 

source of social and international law: 

I do not beliebe thnt the People of the Book have keot 
allve so long and under so muc ^: sufferinpr in order to brtnr home 
the new means of trans »ortation and comn:unic:ition . Another meaning 
must be att- ched to the annaish of our much tormented people. 
A yearninp- for 'justice, for humanity muF't be in us and we rcust 
satisfy it . . . .x'erhaps in doini^ so we shall discover and translate 
V . intö reality the possibility of social improvements which can be of 

vaiue also to the toilincr c-^nd hard prcsped of other nations, Cnly 
then shall tee be true Ist?aelites. c^' ^ 


ThWplorious entry of the Jews in modern philosophy performed by 
B aru ch Spdngza ( 163?-167T )is marked by Its close connection with 
a simultaneous vivid concem with the public law« In fact, the theory 
. developed by Spinoza r^bout public law — culminati^jp in the idea that 

the purpose of the state is basically freedom - it, as orifxinal and 

■. ■•■■■ ' ^ '-fe- •■•i^' ,•',.■ T ■ - .. - 

epoch making as his philc ophical pantfreism. At the be^innin?? of the 
Kmnacipation era, once again a Single «^ew, Fri edrich Jul ius Stahl 
( 1802-1861) conceived a new theory of the state and of law. sharolv 
differin^r^ by it^religious foundation from Spinoza's conceot — well as 

■"('■) ' ' . , ... I . . ',''■„. ' 

' " ■ ■ , . •■ . • ■ t.'V <.. . ' ■• 

.'V : ■ . '■ ■ ■ -K 


w'!v - 69 - ""■■ ' \''^ 

: from the then dominant Dhlloaophv 6f Hep-el or the ideav«? of the French 
enlip-htenment. ygaul Laband (1836^191^) war th.p next preat Geriran-JfVA'-iph 
rnaster of public law. Hfe created In hlf! gas deutsche StaMtsrecht 

'■ ( 3 volumes , 1878-168? ) the atcindard work of Geman public law nnd of 
po'-'itivi 8tic jurlsprudence. -It happenedi however, only in the realrn of 
AHstrian Jurlsprudence that public law v>^ith all his philosophical impllca- 
tlons became a favorite dlgcipllne of many outstandinp- Juripts of Jewlph 
depcent whose works &n thls aubject not only proved of utniöst importance 
but also became aarts of a coherent me'ininp'ful development. Thelr 
productlonvS f-^rrri an unlnt erruft ed llne , stretching over more than alx 
decades until the end of the Auntrlan Republlc in 1938. up to the prepent ,: , 
day. Koreover the theories they expound comprlse the wid- st dlver^lty of 
Views f rom pne extreme posltlon to Its exact opposlte counterpart. 
It perfectly fitp this plcture that both the archltect of the Jewiah 
State - as has be n alreydy shown - and the creator of the nev Austrlänn 
Konstitution hsve rlpen from thls stock. 


Ludwl£ Gumplowlcz .( 183J-1909 )ralned International rocoFnltion 

■ : ^ - - - ^^ ■ 

aF one of the fathern of soclolory. H'- hap Inde d the merit of havln^r 
bee»^ one of the flrfit schol arg who have extricated the aclcnce of 
äociolop-y from klndred Btudies, He endeav^raä to dlscover the fundamental law 
of socletv by analoproup methodn as the^' are use'.^. by the natural aclenceg 
and actually asrerted that this law Is Identlcal with the Darwlnian law 
for survlval« the an^ap-oniatic subjects of this strupile belnfr groups »n-'t 
indivlduals; the latter were consldered by Gumplov/icz as mere atoms . 
i^lready ''umplowlcz ' s first sociolop^ical wor'T, i}aj^e_und__S_ta.a_t _( 187S ) ,^^ 
th^" theris which he prerented to the Univerrity of Graz, wh^n he applied 
for habllitatlon in 16?^» centerp, as the tit\e Indlcates, around the 
$deit o^ ^^ State. The orlp;.ln and function of the State remained th mriin 

theme also in Gumplowicz' s later works, from £ex...5a„ss.enkamc'f^^ ( I883 ) 
^^^^ Gmndrisj.,„der__Sgzj^oTjo ( I885 ) up to]^^ 
( sec. ed. 1902 ), Geschichte der Staptstheorlen ( 1905 ) and 
A ll ren!eino8 Staatsrecht ( 190? ). '■ - *^ ' • , 

Gumplowicz considera the hlstory of the State, indeed of the 
whole civillzation , as an unendinr strug^xle between dlfferent ,o-roups 
which he called races, a term used by hiij». however, not in a biological 

' " . j '...■■■-■■• ', , ■ • ■ 

sense. The state came into beinr when races of herdsmen suporesed 
populations of peasants and aPSUiRf^d rei,<Tn over thrm. The State v.hich 
err;erged ^'from such a conquest wap necessarilv characteri zed bv a social 
tension. it is this ensuinr c^ntcntion betwe n the rulinp- c?nd the 
subJuPTnted claa^ vrhich leads to the crc-tion of law with the purpose 
to determine some barriers of the dominatl^n of one p-r^uo bv the otnersr. 
But while Gumplowicz - a sh'^rp opoonent of natural law - retard s the 
State as the only source of law ( thus also at varlance with Ehrlich 's 
soclolo'^y of law ), he utterly denies any Juristic qualities to the 
State itself. "The State is no le^ral Institution,' Gumplowicz declares 
catejiorically In his Geschichte der taatatht-orien »"It is impossitole 
to pet anv insiphtirtto tne phenomenon öf the State by jut'istic methGds. 
...The espcnc:- of the State, th-' inter^:Pts of the stst'- » the alleged 
^will'' of the State as personility or uniti? i, If there is such united 
will et al^ ) - these are problems which lie beycsmd all Juristic 
co/7nlzance . " Guii.iblowicz defines the State in his A11h§?^.?1?1§§ Stap_ts- 
recht as*'a naturally grown ( "urw'lchsipe" ) orj^aniaation 0^ dominion 
intended to iriaintain a certain lepal order," and elaborates on this 
definiton in the samework by the Statement: '*...the State produces 
a lep-al order arrd its task is to malintain it. But the state does not 
merge in the le.cral order. It in its npture to produce continually n*w 
law; to develop . the valid lep^al order more and more in relation to 

..,• •■ , . ■■'■ ■.■, ' «, Vi — .-.,,*.. ■ ■ •.'.. 

■■■ ' :-■■■;■■ : ' :,-,,"' 'Vv ■ '■ ':..-r'. ■■■ " ( ^ , .■■■„■,:'-:,, ■ . 

' the ever propresinpr human cultupg. :"rom e hif^^^p pnint of vi ew , InW' and 

le-cral Order are for the State only means." > /' 


. Gumplowicz attack?? and ridlcules therefore the Jurist?^' who 
are tryinp to reverse this process by vlewlnf the ptate as a product 
of the law. The notion of ä such a State bullt and maintained by the 
law, of th(J Recht Staat, i3,accordinF to Gumplowicz a f utile 
' consibruction. in an acid article, entitled D.er_Recht_Pta^ti Ein_N^^^ 
he even undertook the attempt to bury this "corpse." He equally 
rejected a Juristic discipline dealinp- with the state. This discipline 
- Qas Allp-emeine Staatsrecht -"does n^t contrln, " he maintained, *'any , ; 
rules for the state", and he likened ^arcastically the efforts of those 
wh6 traat the State Jurlstically tn an undertakirifr of one Who wouüi'' 
try to eat a Beethoven Sonata with a spoon . ^ 

Notwithstandiiiff hi p ne^ation of a Juri sticlii sei pline of the 
public law, Gumplowicz inscribed hin own sociol op-ical study about the 
State in the first edition (1877 ) with Phll^sgplJische^.Staatsrec 
and in the second edition^ oublished thirty years later^ even wifch 
Allg eme ines Staatsrecht. Amon^ h^F numerous works . -ilso a voluiiiinons ■ 

textbook about the Auatrian public law, Das österreichische ■ taa tsre clit 
( 1891 ) is to be f ound , of which an enlar^ed edition was published 
in 19:3 7 in Cooperation with R. Bischof f. The work as well as the life 
of Gumplowicz abound in such inconsistencicvS . Born in Krakow in Ib^B 
as a gon ofthe merchant Abraharn Gumplowicz, a member of a familv of 
Jewlsh scholars, Gumplowicz was orifrinally p:reatly interested in th«* 
history of the Jews in Poland . A study about the lepal Status of the 
Jews in Poland» written in the Polish icinffuape, Prawodav/st^o ool^kie 
]lZ£l_ed em _z.ydpw ( The Polish legislation concerninpr the Jews ) waa* \ 

a(j]art from an escay on the La st Wlll^ Gumplowicz* s first publication 
( 1867 )• v'/hen these writinfrs were not accepted as a sufficient baals 

•:•;' ■ ■■.,' . ' ■ : ' ' • :"•>'., ■.,1 ,:' (^ - ■ ,r ■ ■ 

for the habllltation by the Univer-ity of Krakow, Gumplowiea wh^^ had 

become an attorney In thr? meantime, en/xap-ed In a stru^f^lc for a a 
^^ ■ ■' the 

'Ü^ radical and t Iberal"" Poliah nation°AisiD. Lut a f-^ilure of a period^cal 

he had foundeJ for thi s puirpoae prompted to leave Galicla. He turned 

to the west and succe^d in beinp;i?tx admitted äs Dozent ( lecturer ) 

at the Un versity at Oraz-in 18?^) • He was apoointed asniatant: prof'ös - er 

in 18$2 and füll profeamr in 1893» Althoup-h C-uniplowicz was active 

at that German ce^ter of Austria until hls death, he - an advocate 

of Jewish asaiffiilation who embraced Chrlstianity - remained attached 

to the i^oliah nation and indulged in a ahgrp criticiam of the nati n-^l 

policy of Austria, He demanded the trasnfor-iation ^f the Habsbarip- 

Konarchy into a fedarated multinational State and correctlv foresaw < 

as the unavoidable alternative the emerrence of .«^ini^le national states/ 

Gumplowicz' s theory became a tooic o"' a worldwide discussion 

in which the i^re-test nociolo.-ical scholars, as Durkheim, Tarde and 

Simmel, particionted . His works were t>-'anslated in many lan^p-uapes, 

includin<7 Japanese. In i-^nierica, Laster F, _'<Vard i v/ho twice visited 

Guraplowicz in Graz and ent^rtained a leanned correspondence with him, 

became his devot ed follower. Franz Oppenheimer in .ermany developed 

, his own aociological System on the basis of Gumplowicz* s ideas: he 

cooper/red' with Kax Adler ( Vi ennB ), xxxä^xJcxDcxxx^cxÄKxxxxxXxx -md 

in the edition bv G. Solomon ( Frankfort ) of 
?• SavorJ^nan ( nome )Vr selection of Gumplowicz' s works in four volumica 

( 1926. y 

17 years after the maöter^s deaf-vT Gumplowicz' s end wa? trap-ic: stricken 
with Cancer he coöimitted suicide in Company with his faithful wife and 
co-worker , Frnncisca, nee Goldmann, who had lost her sipht, on 
August 19, 1909. y/ ■. , iV.'-'' 

In Austria the theory of Gumplowicz met an ambi)c^uous fate. 
V/hile the poclologist Gustav Ratzenhof er er-cted his own sociolo/?ical ' 
System on the ^oundations layed by Gumplowicz, the latter found no 



followlng amonp: the Jurlats, though Kax Adler reco^niped hir^ 

significance by parti clps t ing; in the editJon of his work^ . Like the 

Gumplowlisz' 3 

' German, the i^ustrian lawyera too were antagontzed by jolx/'^pol.frnant 

'■...*'■' ' ' 

crlticism of tTie ctomlnaSit discipllne of public lav/. The controveriies 


with his.Juriatic opponents asrumed aometiiner^jeven a sharp perronal 
character. ßut though Gumplowic;^- failad to eliminate the ge^ieral public 
law froiri the body of jurisprudence, his influence on the theory of 
public lav^ proved as matrong and lasting as that of Eugen Ehrlich 
on the field of the civil law. V • -' 

(k. 1. 

Gumplowicz's counterDart on the chair of oublic law at the • ' 

,^ ( eine« 1894 ; 

Undversity of Viennal/was the eminent Jewish bom scholar Adolf Menzel 

( b. in Rei-eh nberg 1857» ^^ * 1938 ) , who s^rved also for a timr as 

Berichts // , 

Vice ^resident of the Verf a^-unFF^hof ( Constitutional C6urt ) . * ./ , , 

His main work in the sphere of the positive lav.^ wa? i^ie Arbe ite r- 

versicherunp; nach ögterrelchischem Pecht ( 1893 ) » the mont comprchen-' 

8ive systernatic prepentation of the oblig?tory insurnnce of the workers. 

But while Kenzel proved an expert on this specific subject of modern 

le/3tl '^l.'-:ition , he wa? equallv able to deal with broblems of jreneral 

public law-nd philosophy of law, Koreover, hia thorou^h knowledge of 

Greek -niptory and literature enabled him to delve deeply intiD ancient 

lepal Order and thoughts. Thus he subjected the source mateial 

concerninp the tr'al of Socrates to a minute scrutiny. Cne repult of 

this investigation was the asrertion that the condemnation of Socrates 

was a Judicial error, but n6t Judicial murder. "ther aimi''ar studier 

dealt with Prota^^oras as legislator and Heraklit as ohilopopher of law« 

Tne sane vlVidv^ihterest as for the law of the ancient Greeks was shown 

by A'^enzel for Spinoza* s doctrlne of the public law, He^.ccnsideröxl this 

doctrine of the Jewish phi'':or'OQher as one "of.the mo^t original phenomen«^ 

in the hist^y of humanitie3(Öeisteswispenschaf ttiÜ" t 'Menzel Dublis/^jed 

,■ '■'"■'' ,■'''' '' ,''''.■■ ' '' ■ 'a ■ 

a series of pionieerinp Studie? betwe^n 1898 and 1910 and lateron de' It 
with thlF sülaject v^ithin the framework of hip comprehenslve Ne ' tr'^'ge , 
zur G eschich te d er Staatslehre _( 1929 ) . Kenzel presented und er the modest 
title of contrlbutione to the history of the theoryof of the State 
actually a historypf the ideas on public law f ronjantiquity to his own day. 
The section on Spinoza constututes the maln part of the werk. Menzel 
demonstrated particularlythe decisive Influenae whlc?E~Spinoza * s ideas on 
public law, above all those about the fre'.dom of thoufrht and reliorion, 
exerted on later thlnkers and subscquent lep:ls-<lMtion • J 

Menzel was also a Student of poclol -gy. In Iris Naturrechiti und_ 
So ziol rgia ( 1912 ), he expounded ' ohe thev^is that sociolofry, thouf?;h its 
empirical method differs fundamentally from the deductive roasonlnr of 
natural law, ia no less perireated by oolitlcal and moral ideas thatt the 
theorfces of natural law. This in itself invoTved an Opposition to 
Gumplowicz who claimed for sociolopry the exactnes'- of natural science. 
^oreover Kenzel .rnf^aged in uirect polemics ap-ainst Gumplowicz in 
iNiaturrecht und Soziol o/rie ^^nd in the ^ Eeit r^'i^e « i'ie declared that no 
certain conclusions could be dr-^wn from the orip-ln of the st'^te as to 
ita inner structure and pointed to the inconf^'i stencies of Gumplowicz ' s 
theory particularly those inherent In the aspumptiom that the • st te 
emerged from the perpetual stru^ ""le of the social -p-roupe »whereas it 
would be iTi'JCh more conse-^uent to argue that such a permanent strupp^le 

to /3 

has ledT/anarchy. It is, however, noteworthy that sociolocry absorbfed 

l--enzel's internst in his old ap-e. His ftriechische SozioiVqprie ( 193^ ) 

and Gru driss der Toziolo/yie ( 1938 ) belonj^f; to the last worlsrs publlshed 

by Austrian Jurists of *^ewish descent before the seizure of Austria by the 



in äJtl^'chapter of his Beitr'^e, whicn is devotcd to /-ustrian :3hilo- 

sopherWon. public law, Menzel, after havin^ deilt with Sonnejtfels , whom 

- 75 - 

■••«,' ';, . y.i, . 

he characterizea as the last one in the line of creative wrlters ontthe ■■ 
phllosophy of public lav^declares that a sta.^liBtion uet in . afterward s to 

>'i/ . •.•■'' ■•?■ 

be interrüpted onl'y in the aecond ha|3f- of the 19th Century by the nppearsnce 
nf Gp?nr , r Jellinek . Siuiilarl V Robert Piloty, one of the most outstandinp 

German Juri st s, has said -• with reference to one of Georp^ JG.llinek p werkst - 

that it "has brouprht new blood inte the stapin-itino- discipline of p^eneral 

' ,.v:.v.' ^ ..■ Jp ',■' ■■ ' ■ -.'-'■ • ./' ■'-''■^^' v y ' ■. ^ 

\- ■'public law. T.t niay be added that th^'life'and work of thi s Juristic pioneer. 

was mörs'thany any of his ' predeces^-ors colored by his Jewish oriP"in. Of this 

we have the most authoritative t?estiniony of his frreatestfJ^ißi^d an^- colleafre, 

Max '^eber, which will, h'^wever, better serve as an epiloru« of Georr Cell ine V.<>' 

Story . , f': ' \.. .,,, 

one ■ 
Georg Jellinek is the onlyi/airionp- the rreat Austrian jurists of ewish 

• .descisntwhose father belonp-s by his own merits to ir.odern Jewish history. 

, Adolf ( Abrahaii ) Jellinek ( b* in Drslcwitli, Koravia, 16?C , d. in Vienn^ in 

1893 ) was a Jewish scholar of a creativity which foreshadows that of his son 

^P As the succesF^ot? of I.N. Knnnheiner, he becaine tne Dreacher of the Jewish 

the •"Teatestjinost gifted preacher Judr^isni has produced , i\ot less than^PCd; 
cf his dipcoursc. g i-'.ve be :n printed . In one of them he urp-ed Jev/ry '''to 
^rect a third Temple for the true rel:glon for the eick and der-mged 
rjiankind." Ttae.transförniation .of ' ^udaism into a relicrion of universal 
sifrnif icance was indeed Adolf Jellinek.- s n^st ardent desire. r.e also excelled 


s an outstandlnp- and prolific Jewish write.rx. His wollections of Kidrashim 

/. . 

and l3ck5t his works d the Gabbalah r-'nk amonp-, the ..^frreat achievemen^ s of 
Jewish learninpf "' The inanysidednfess xxx' of the father, his strivinp: fo^ 

univer' ality and for synthsis rcappeared In the personalitv of Oerog 

"'■- ■ in 1851 ■• ' ' ■■- '■ ' ^ ' ' ■ 

Jellinek. de was born'i^n Leipzig, where his father waotactive as a räbbl , 

' • •• ^- .' . . ^ „ .. ■ f 

but when his father ac -epted the call to Vienna in I856 and theifamily 

aiso Georp-* s ,1 

moved to the imperial capital, Austria becaffieKiQlx true fataerland. .ie spent 

, *. 

■' ft' 

hls formative years in the Viennese envl ronernnt of h^? father. ayKi was 

in the first years not sent to school but instructed at hor.e. There he 

was used to stey daily for hourr in thr? hvin-o llbrary of bis fr^ther. 

He made so quick" a oror^ve^p th-'S^he was able to sklp several clases of 

the ^p-ymnaöium" -jnd thus , alreadv at the ap-e of 16 , to <^nter the 

University of Vienna. 

Georß^ Jellinek hiiT:self haFttold the story which showa h!s 

impasf'ionäte ye-^rninr^ after universal! ty: how he ahed tears bec^^use he 

was unable to study all the sciences at the- s;.me tlme. '"tili, he 

pursued almost simultane-usly ohilosophy and law. Several years of 

hls studies wrre spent in Heidelberr and Leipzig. T lus beside the 

Aus tri an / U^gcr and Arndts, -.Iso liiiniina^ies of Serman Jurisprudence, 

like Bluntsohli and Zitelmann, became his teachers. After havin ■ flrFit 

obl:alned the de.crree of philosoohv at the Ün'versity of Leipzip* in 1872 

on the basis of q' dissertaion on the two philosophical gntipodes 

Leibnlz and -chop.einliauer, he became Boctor of Law st the Lniversity of 

Vienna in iByA.^.'.vlien he, h-^wever, in IB78 presented to the law f^culty 

for habilitntion • ' 

of ¥his univer'-ity his ihau^ural thesi8V,_Die sozialethische Bedeutuni; 

von Recht, Unrecht und Straf e , he experfe' nced the first traun a of his 

career. The stutfty was a brilliänt work of such lastäinjr value that it 

had to be re-e'üited thirty years Inter. Nelr.ortheless this v/as the 

verdict of the faculty: the Professors '-"could not win the conviction 

th.?t he posi^esses alrcady that amount of maturity anr" ei^udition 'hich 

is bein«- considered as the indsoensable c^ndition^ of lecturinp; at the 

Law Faculty." '^y 

To be sur^-- , Jellinek, afternavinp- "i?gpvered froir. that blow , 

aubmitted onother paper and succeeded in b§4ögadmitted ae leoturer 

( Privatdozent ) bf philosophy of law in 1679. .t3ut the ensuin^ ten years 

of his connectiom with the University of Vienna were bound to brinp-, 

hi: more very paiinful diaappointments . There was no chance for the son 

I ■,..'.'■■■' 

of ä JeWish preaceer, whether^/to jjet ä fair treätfiientbv the Univeraity 
--:'■'■ . of Vicnna in those davs of rif^in.Q: antl-Sennitisni. Although Jellinek „ '^ " 
^^ ' . ' aince hin appointment had publishe;[^n excellent new Ftudy, • 

Die rechtl iche N atur der Stoatenvertr^'ge ,and the body of profepsor?^ • . 
,, ■ ,^. , '■ ' even reco^mised the^deservinp- and ntimulatinpr 'chriractör of the writinp*' 

.: •' • Jellinek'ö application for an extension of bis venia__le£endi to public 

.:' , „.,^, •;.. ;■ ' ; ■' in June 1880 :.v ■ , , :- •■■ -"■ • ■■ • . • ' 

,' *• law was rejected. In apite of this'new setback, J'ellinekwas not die* 

:; ■ , oour??.^ed. In 1882, he' publis'hed the bock, Die Lehre von d^^n Star^ite n- " 

yerbindunfre n, The work attracted the attention of Jose^ Unrer. De^'ply 

■ ' . ' ' ■'• ■■ -■ ■•. - ' . 

.liEprcsstd bythe extraordinary qualitiea of the bock, he invited 

Jelll.neK to hie horr.e and predix^ted a splendid futuure to the young 

author/.i^ow Unp-er exercised his v/h51e (jnfluence im ordrr to overcoT.e •. 

the 9on of 
the opooF'ition hich cler/yy put up agalnst^the rabl^l of Vienna. "v 

Thanks to Untrer- 'who was a persona grata of the Eraperor himself, 

Jellinek wa^^ 'finally appointed "aupper^rdentlicher ProfesFor" 

( Assistant ^tofes^or ) for oublic law. The influencr of 'cler^y was, 

however, so powerful that even Unrer could not .';ichieve more. Since 

the incomc. of . Sl "professor extraordinary" wa^ by no m^ns sufficient 

to Cover the livelinood of Jellinek and his farailv, and - in addition - 

the intrigues against him did not end , he decidod, thou^h ver,^^ 

i - ■ ■ ' • ■ ■ ■. 

reluctantlyto quit the Univerpity of Vienna. The farewell frcm Afiistria,,. 
to which Jellinek feit etroAr<*lmÄttache(i. .-above all from Vienna where 
he had acquired the law de^r?e, vrhere he laad married and where his 
father still held the honorable place of a sbiritual l;:ader of the . .■ ,, 
Jewish Community, caused Jellinek a preatsorrow and plunfred him into 
serious^orrier; .Fortilinately his rputation was already so well , ' 

established abroad that he almost simultan eously obtalnedcalls to the 
universities' of ßasle and Berlin. Jellinek/ s stay in B-^sle, where he 
arrive^in sprinf? 1889 was, however, rather shart, for already in the 
next year the prof essorship at the celebrated Universnty of Heildelberg 

>'■ - ■ I. 

■. - . • - 78 - .;■■ . ■ ■ , ' 

was offered to him at the personal wish cf Fred '?ric,.Arcnduke of Baden, 
- tne Same monarch who only a fevr years later wa? to become the flpfet 
crowned patron of Theodor Herzl. 

Thus in April 1891, Jellinek settled at Heidelberg. There he 
3Qent|the next twenty - the last - years of hin life. His le^'turef 
beoame fanious anC attracted even students from distänt countries, 
for Jellinek haa!, inherited from his father al^o nn unus ual oratory 
talent and was as f asclmtlnp" as a teacher as he was profound as 
Scholar and author. In Heidelberg he also produced - apart from 
numerous monop-raphs and essays-- th' prreat v/orks on whlch Jellinek' s 
fame as the leadin,«/ authority on public law anJ philosopher of law 
r e s t s : xx x S^r 5 1^ ni _d^ e r su b.1 o kt 1 v eö _ ö f fe n 1 1 i c h en R ech t e [ 1 8 9 ? , / 9 e c o n d 
edition 1905 ) ; Die Srkl^^'runr dor I- ensohen-und Bf^ rp^e rrec hte ( 1895; 
4th edition 192?); AH gemeine St^'italehre ( 1900 V 3rd edition 1914 ). 

It was the flrst one of these books which Robert Pilotv 
characterized in the already mentioned way( se^ above p. ). He also 

dfeclared on this ocoäsion that Jelllne,<' a book was received as the 

• .'■""■ 
"resurrect Ion of the human rights which so often had ben declared 

for th'- first time 
dead." Jellinek has Indeed/elucidnted the Juristic character of 

the sub'jectilre public rifThts. 'Vhlle they are alien'-'kH to abso'utlsin 

becaüse the State under such a System is Identical with the ruler 

("l'^tat c'es+ mol" ), they are Indissolubly llnked with the modern 

State in Wxhich the ccrm; unity has äs<?umed the character of ä "Staets- 

pers"nllchkelt-" ( personallty of thel^at-^te ). The human indlTZldual 

in such a st^te Is no more a mere object of dom.inion but a per^^on 

himself ,imbuod with own rin-.hts. The vali^xity of these fip^hts Ip, 


ac-ordinf?' to Jellinek, baied onl/"self-oblip',ation" of the State. 

Jbe same will of the State whlch creates lersl Statutes monlfiots itself 
also in the subjection to th$; leW::. It is the comrron interest th.^it 
demands such a-iSelf-obllgation of the State. The foundation of this 

theory ha ^3 been layed rilready In gl e rechtliche iMatuii' der Stan tenveträge J 

where Jelllnek declared : "Souverelsrntv of the State isi.the po\^er to , j • t 

,lav/ ,. 
prescrlbe regulationa to its own will, the ablllty to cre-rfe/oblifring 

the State itself." /Uthough this theory has been ?harply contevSteci , 

Jelllnek' s S^stemj has rernalned the ba.9lc Inquiry into the probleiji of 

Ji . 
the subjectlve public rlprhts. ^^) .'; . 

■'".■.■■ . ' 

Jelllnek has, however, not contented hirLself wlth a theoretlcal 
analysls of thesc rlghtö . ..Hls . next fundamental v/ork was devoted to 


the inquiry Into the orlgln of the subjectlve public rlp-hts äs thev " '•' 

were lepally forinulated at the end of the el^hteenth Century. InlhlS' 'böok, 

Die ii^rkl^'run,g: der Mcn5che;n-und FJr crerr echt e, a masterplece o' hiötori^j^l 

reseitrch ,ydevlatlhrr frocn the acceptsd opinibn th^t Rousseau* s Cqntrat_ 

Social -fTJbven the declölvc splritual Impulse to the rlse ^f hurmn rlrht'i 

and that the French declargtino of human rlrrhts of Aup-ust P6». 1789 

constlti'ted theif»' f Irst f orirulatlnn ,proved that fiot the idean nf the 

^ ^ ■ Americon ,^ 

French enli^ht•^■nment b t the PuMtan convicfelonf ^f the ffoxx^ciin^ fathers 

^??ethe formatlve elements of thejhuman rlp;hts. The establlphment of 

the pure democracv bv Rop-er Williams on Rhode Island x»$i in the 17th 

Century and the -111 of Rir;hts o: Virp-lhla of June 1? , 1^76 represented 

sccordlnp to Jelllnek the ateppinr: stonen to the modern subjectlve 

public rl hts. xxxx XX "The rellfrious motlves," he declared, "haire'^ 

bix^Ä .p^iven the historicäl impact to the belief in the oricrlnal rlfrht of 

man." xt happened hardly by Chance that such words :v/ero uttered- by 

the son of a Jewlsh'^relij^ious .leaäet». The theory cause.i a preat sonsatyllnn 

thoup-h It met also with ^öt^t^osltioiD, acdebted by marly snd 

and wa^s'TY Pa'fticularly in tue U,^,.. .entiÄ'-ivria^-tiCci Liy ac -laimed . The bcö[k, 

after its publixzation of 1896, ran into several editlonsand was trans- 

^ * :-bestowed the 

lated iatejinf?:lish, French, Ruspian and Spanlsh. Oh' accoünt of this v;ork : 
on th- oco.p,r<\or\ of ll€ -"• JO^ y§srP Jubilöe/ 
1^ %nH Universlty -of Prince^oi^f M.JTVfupon G-Go^^^Jöllirifk the hoj^'orary 

Do c 1 r d •? pre e . 2 X/' 


•'•■'.•• Jellinek's third mapnum opus, ^Allgeiieine _5]taat_sle^re^ an 

allem^bracin.'-^ System pf f^' nernl public law, wa'r the crowninf plece of 

hl s entlre scholarly work. It is baaed on thr dlFtinction between 

the State as a social phenomenon and the State as a l.irir-tic concept. 

iis a social object of percept-'on the statei? a reality related tc a 

territory, to a people and to p'^v;er, qualitie- suir-marized b^^ Jellinek 

in the definition: "The State i? a unit of settled people endowed 

with oricrlnnl power to reip-n ( Herrschermacht )." Unde^ thls aspect we 

are faced with the State as a part of actual A'orld af^alrs, c' eventn 

which take place in soace and tlme. Vipwed in this perrpective the 

state^is an ob,5ect of the social sciences. The State is,however, alro 

a lepal inptitutlon. It acquires thin charactfer by placinsr itself 

under the law, thus becominp a subject offrirrhts and duties. The State 

when viewvd JuristicalTy has been therefore defined by Jellined as 

"a Corporation of a settled people endovred wit'i orlprinal power to 

reign." The State aa ä lep-al • ihatltitutlon is an object of Jurisprudenc^. 

Only by a combination of the two aspects a true, complete cornitlon of 

the State can be achieved, "The realization of the Intimate connection 

o:^iboth disciplines which con^titute the v'hole theor" of the State i^ 

able to preveni: a ,crravei/mi stake of prre'"; consequencesfthe belief that 

' aociolofrical ,historicaT , political, in Short the un- Jüristic ,explänatlo/L 

is the only correct explanation of the State, and the opoof^ite 

convictio/7, that the juMst alone is competent to solve with his means 

of research all the enigjras which pertain to the ohenöniwnon of the 

State." .^' 

, .. Thus Jellinek refuses to consider the state as merely an 
obj,etco/ jurisprudence and uses also the sociolorical raethcd for its 

* * . 

exploration, but - in sharp contrast to Guniplowicz - he rejects 

'.•■•«'■ .1 . ... , ■.-■.'.'.•.■ ' . . 

. ,' - "' 'i ' ■ ' ■ '■ ■ ■ 

sociology -as the only Instrument of a science on the state. He is indee;'^ 
very aceptical ab-^ut the efficacy of the new science which he evidcntly 


- 81 - 

In J' lllnek's ©jp/liaitaw . 
distlnp^ulshed fron, the s-'Cial aclences .'y'ö^ciolo^rv , owing' xxxxx tö the 

lack of X an accepted iuBtho^f Is vide opcn to "ub J^ctive arbitrariness 

aridtherefore iias not achieved yet anv n^-w results; in 'ill worksbf this 


klnd , the authors mainly exhibit their. individusli^ ies , T-icre is '': 


■ > 

hardly any doubt tlrt'this and other attacl^ion tliie "new intellactual ■/ 


fashlon" have been airaed alro - if not predominantly -r at :}urr.plawicz , ' 
thoüP-h some of his works have been quoted bv Jellinek , to be sure 
wlthout ;3a{t^tlcular comirnnts. Mor^over Jellinek rejected implicite ', . ' 
GumplowicS' p|f .idamental theais that the}/ is only p. means" jf th-^- 
State but does not belonp to ite eapcnc^. /iccordinp- to Jellinek, 
the pri.ary formp.tive proceßp of the Ptato is at the same time 
a formative procoj^r of the law sc that also histcrlcally State and 
law were from the ver^' bep-inninp* in a clos-':' ' connection. From the 
earlriest unit- whntever It mipht -lave be n , fnmilv or horde - onv/ard ; 
law, innuntinpr n.iirher and ln[i.<7her, absorbs the hierher units whi,ah 
rise over xxx t.he oririiary onej and final Iv l^st* the hi^nest unit, 

I ■''■ "^i 

that constitutea the ooncfäision of this chain, t:^*-^ of tmgi State. *' 

Jeluinek vlsuallzöd in an analocoud dualis^ic o^'^ep'^ctive also. 
law itself. it i'^ as a noriri an -ibstract dor::and , nn "ou.c^ht' , but it 
has to be viewed too as a i:;otlvatin,or force workinr \7ithin rran and 
thDS aa '■} realit^'. The same dualism reapnears finally i": Jellinek' a 
thcorv of t'.i:: "noriratlve forcs of the factual". It purports that real 
h-ippenln,n''3 can as^ ume the oharacter c^ norms by rccor^n ' tion ,w"i'. ther v 


these ha-joeninrs nre a continuou::' praotic ( custoiTi ) or r^vo !.\ tion'"- . ' 

Thus in the very formal structure of Jellinek* s philo^ophv of 

the State and law his strifc after a synthjsis becomesirmanif est . lis 

nind like that of his father-was a.«^ lallen brs ein <■- as it wis unl-^vinr-. 

^e prasped the real facts and wa^ able to nf:nr;tratc i:i;tb thTir 

essende but hewelded them -it the :s^^rre tirre w'th the wo1?ld of Vzc norns 



,, into nn Indlspoluble unit.The the^r^ of the State, based on such 
. a link of dipti^cti'^n ond unification - the twosided ayptem of thp ' 
' State - was develo"?ed and expounded bv Jelline^ so lucidlv and and in 
' a so comorehensive ws^r that it became the prevalent theorv of the State. 
■ It introduced in ^'uite a different manner th-^n Gumplcwicz has done 
sociolop-y in the th' orv of law. There war a de-p ethic^l meanlnr hidden 
in this map^nlficent at tcnipt' tö blend the abstrsct realm of law with thr: 
emr/ltical theory. .1 1 soran^r from the belief in 'he (ver spreaM/n^ reip-n 
of law. .'"he rellrious, ii^deed the Jewish, oririn of this belief war 

evident* It ni^nifested itself xixa ■.) :rt^ cularly alro in Jellinek's 

hlstorical observations .Thus , when de' lirir? witr:(the anclenb State of 

Israel, Jellinek poöinted to the pubjectlve personal rip-h^s which were 

hidden behind the iinperatives of the Decalop-ue and to the covena^^t v:w: 

between JH'.v'i ond the peo^leias to Irr.portant factorr irjthe procear of 

the enier;^ance of democratic deraands. Koreover, Jnllinek chose a truly 

JdesManic theme for the soiemn speech he dcli^vered on Bovemiier 22, 1907 


as Rectoo^ of the University of Heidelberg- : the struggle.. betwem the 

( Der Kampf des alten mit dem neuen Recht ) 

old and the new lav^^'^ln contrast to Gumplowlcz who vlsuallzcd an 

unendlnf: warllke fip:ht '^f the races for domin! on, Jelllnok traced 

the fip:ht,of the letral tdeas in the" -j^ölitlcal and " cült^;räl' history of 

manki'^d and arrived at the hopeful conclusion : "The past entltles us to 

takfe tourap-e for the belief that also the stru^gle of the le^al orders 
is def^tined to lead hüm.anity tn a hipher steo of moral development •"'*"* *•"*' 
ülthoufh Jellinek haä entered 6hristianity , hie p-reat non-Jewi-^h friend 
and admirer, Kax Weber, clearly perc :ived the s urce from whiüh the 
son of Vienna's Inspired Jewish preacher has drav\Tn euch and kindred 
insicrhts: "Prom his (ryriprin and the traditions of his frimily he had 
received a tinpre of that pure f rap-rance that emanates from the crentle 
and mature orxiental world of feelings." -^^ /' 

^ - 

. ^T 


'//hen Gumplowicz and Jelllnek died almost at the snem time bcfore 

the outbreak of the firnt World War, man;^ ' schol- rf5 of Jewish dercent 

v;ere at work in the sphere of public law. In Vienna, apart from 

Adolf I^ienzelthe chalr of public law wap hold by Leo §1^1^^^ 

( 1857 - ) • He soecialized in internntlonal civil law and law of 

natlons. Cne of hds workg , ^Der Kriep; und die VQlkerrecht5ordnunF(l919] 

deiJt with the pr'ö'Bl-inn of f^ecurinfr a lastlnp* peace, an ideal to v;hich 

Strisower was zealouslv devoted. In 1922 he waF apoointed füll prö-43 

fdssor. He aleokas a mpmber ofylnstitut de droit internationsl and - 

of the AJ-.ademy of international Ir^w ät Haprue. 

At the same time when Menzel and Strisower taup:ht public lawaet i-:, 

Vienna, Ludwig. Spiejse.l ( 1864-1926 ) was acttve 6n the« saae field 

at tho Gernian University in Pra^rue. One of hin earlie!=!t ^v/orVt? , 

13ie hein.atlibche Ersitzunp^ ^ I89c ) d-alt vith the piltJblem of domlcile, 

i:iut he later turned to the 

fundamental questionr^ of oublic laW' and 

in 1909 published a theoretlcal study on the adialni strative law, 

•'■'■•■■■• a. 

Die Verwal tun rrg rechtswis'en Sc haft» whi ch v/as int end ed a aycon t ri bution 


to methodolor'-y of iurlsprudencc . The.-läatinp sigriificance of thia work ' 

■ , ,•■.•.' • ' -'• '■ ■, • '■' ' ■' 

is shown byithe publication in 1931 of its tranelation into Spaniah. 
A collection of Spie^ik's lectures and essavs dealin^ with the theory •■< 
of the sources of law appeared in 1913 unfler the title Gesetz und Rechte 
^ple'-'Q'' excelled also äs a historian of oublic law. .liile he in 1905 
pubU^hed a book about the hiatorv of Aüstrian publiqlaw, Die geschieht- 
liehe Entwicklunp- des ^strrreichischen Sta- trs rechts , he also became ; ■' 
the author of the first hi'^tory of the Czechoslovak Republic i^ the '^ 

G e r man 1 an gu a r' e : Die__r:ntstehunn' de-E tigchechoslovaki rächen _S t ar te^_ (1921) 

/ ^piefrel was for a time a Term-^n ( democratic ) Senator in the 
Czechoslovak iMj^tional Assembly. In -pite of his beinf3: a confes-inr' Jev^, ' 

. «a. 

■1»V; ;■;.,;■■, ,il-.'\::'s\'. ■ " '; Iv '/'. 


: . ''' ' .'y ' ',..■■ ,','■,*, ",' ■■■'.'. ' '•:.., ' ' , 

he was ifector of the Unlversitv wh'ch does him a erreat credit 
owing to thr^e stormy antecedents of thls ao^ointment . It had han^ened^^ a 

only a few years eajiier that the election of Ikxx^ Ppiffesror Samuel 
Steinherz ar- Rector of the Univeraity had be n fruRtrated by demonstra- 
tions of anttpernitic Student s. To be eure, Ludv/if? Spiec^el also waa 
prevented from takinsr office: he dled shortlv before the beffinnin^r of 
his terrn in 1926. /■ 

A cnntemporafcy and cnuntryirian of Ludwig Spierrel v^as„ Alfred^ 
Keiaaner ( born in Klad^ .^olealav (^ITünirbunzleij] in l871)who atthe 

tlme of the Auptrian regime held a ^cey Position dn the -Czeah social- 

' the 
democratic party and In 1918 became i-renident of /GzechoFlovaV Consti- 

tutional Committev-s. He S' r^ed und er Pre?ldent MaParyk aa i^ini^ter of 

Justice fr-r 1920 to 1929, and in 193^ a^? ^^^iniRtor of Social '/^elfare, 

Hia Jurt gtic sudieg v/eref^'d^voted malnly to problemg of social aecurity, 

of the cultural ri.rrhts of mlrloritieg and lndü?tria' Ihw« A Handboo^^ 

about thia inw is one of his princi xal workF.i.eiPPner ' a end '■-a'^ 

trap-ic. After the seizure of Czechoalovakia by the ivazia', he rerrained 

in fie land in wboae rebirth he had participated so intensoiv but he 

had hardly survived the mas'-murder of 194?. "V' 

From the Koravian city Hod^nin ( G"dinr ), thua likev^ise. f rom 

C'.echoslöyakis , hailed also _Joaef Redlich ( 1669-193^ ) who,at 

variance with Spiegel and Meissner , became , aa haa be-n ri.n"htly aaid, . 

a proper Vienneer-e and the very embodiment of the idea of the Habp'furg 

Konarchy in Its final era. Equally outatandin-^ bothias -Juriat and 

historian, ahlüäaurpasaed v;itty . converationalist in hia day, Redlich 

became a 
made a splendid career. le XÄSfVrriember of the Moravian diet ' ( Landtan- ) 

and of the Auatrian House of Repreacnta^-ivea ( Reichf^rat ), »v-as apnohntei^i 

Honorary Profespor of the Univeraity of Vienna for public lav^ ^nd 

gerved in the ihQt?tlived laat Au^trian 57abinet of the Prime Minister 

as KiBister of F'linance^. No less extraordinary actlvitles followed 
•.■'';■" after'the fall' of the AuPtriän Empire' outslcle of its bordrrpi t ':.• • v^ 
'";•;■,, In 19?5 Redlich' was invlted to Join thclfFäculty cf Law as Profeeaor 
, ' of Comparative Public Law .-and te^^an to 1 ' '"ture there, Plnally he was 

■1 . . <•', ,'/*.. ■'■1. ' ■, ' ■,' ■ ■■'■■, '• . 

>/'.;.• ■. elected deputy judp-e of the Permanent Court of Intern.-atlonal Juntice. 
■"'% .- The extenslon r>f Redlich's rclentlflc Droductlon u^g? even rnore 

. ■ ■. ^ ■ , 

: . astonlshinr. Hls nurr.erous wofri^s coraprlpe juri^tlc and hiptorlcal 
' .. studiea about f:]ubjects oflAu^trlan and En^llah constltöitlonR , a combl- 

, ■ #. , 

''' r-,, nation v;hlch 'repulted frorr Redlich 'g personal attachrrent to the two 

,;,^;' ■ Empires with thelr h'gtorfees and tradltlons etretchinf over nianv 

centuries.He cherlshed, above all,a böundlesa admj?atlon for the Itinplish 

Parllamentvy . Felix Frankfufrter , his Inti; ate frlend, ha? deFcribec 

the almost roligioB^ eKperlence he shared wlth Redlich, when the latter 

catching ni.P-ht of the twwer of the P'irlianent in London after a years's 

from Encrland 
absence, üBxclaimed: "Ralse your hat, In a Europa faet beln,cr devored 

by dictatora, she in still the mother otf parllairient . " ;;,/ 

It was düe to this cnthuaiagtlc affection linked with a penetra- 

M inelght 

" tinRj^ahd maatery of the subject that. &he AuFtrüian scholai of Jewifeh? 

deacent "böcame the recop-nl^ed expert of the Enp;lish Constitution even 
on ßritiah soll. The 1 i.pres^'ion made by bis first books »Theor ie un J 
Reäht der enrlis che n Lok-^nlverwaltunpr ( 1903 ) -^nd Recht ,und Technik 
des englischen Parlamentarismus (^ 1905 ) was so Ert?eat that the i^nglidh 
transTation of the latter book ickisbixiraE publtshed in London in 190? 
war prefaced by SJr Court^nny Tbärt, Clerk of the House of Com-nons* 
This work bar, ac-ordln to a' st^terfient ^arle.9 C'.''.Bürllncrhr,m, the 'i" 
dlstin^^tGhed American lawyer^.kxx made nfter Redlich*^ death, "held IjtÄk^. 

its placö for the last thirtv vears as xut indispensable to the studenta 

'■• ,„'..■ ■ ' .: V>/: . ^ '■ ' . ' ■■■ . <;/; 

of i'nfrlish parliamentary in^tituticHn ." 'The reoütation Redlich s:ained 

... ■: ' also 
in England isl/ref^^cted in bis int.lmate'':Pricndshi "> with so eminent men 

: V.,': ■■ '■ '■' '■ ' , , '/f :,! • ; ^ 

?^fr'as J^ialtland , Bryce, C.P. Gooch, Seten iVatson and Hnrold J.Laski. 

; . , '^,'. A /^nd yet Redlich' s later Bcholarly achlevementa did by no rneians , , 

remadin behlnd his vo succespful oarl.^ oroduction . iwen before he was 

: called to the Law School of the Harvard Unlver'-ity, he published 

, as a report to Carnegie foundation for the advanoement of teachinp- a 

'■ Gomprehensive teook on The Commo n L aw a nd the Gare Kethod on i:\merican.. 

University Law School 3 ( New -ork 1914 ). -ut thoucrh th^- U,S.A, were 

iiax to become the sphere of his social and teachlng activities, his 

scientific^. ' 
, |drntere6t|durinfT the decades followin.or World Var I was almost absorbed 
the the 

by fundamental .roblems yhichf'history of the vanquished and abolished 
.'*■' •. ^-^v-'. 

Austrian iimpire offered ta to its admlrinp; son and st'udent. ;ie had^ up 
(Zhe last moment beliefed iri tbL the European mip ion of the Habsiburg 

' '■ ' deadlv ' • • . 

Kona "»chy.He 'had particlpated ir her !yfetru{?.rle fo"^' survival and -ind dev&tc«c 

to her his atatesmanlike ähd '■fecholarly mind . :\iow he feit the callinp 


to vindicate its exi^tence even thouprh i^ belonp-ed to the past. In fact, 

while he once had concent ^ated on a sinp:le probleiij of i^ustrio^^ lep-al 

ptructure in hin book, Das >/es en der "st err ei "h i se hen Koiiiir;unalverf^!gF un,7 

the political history of the Austrian Em :^ire became the pri^cipal task 

of Redlich in the closino- period of his life. 

ij, was a crreat id^a, reiritnÄin;^ of the undertak'.ng u >on -hi h 

.Thucydides emiebarked af*'er the Peloponnesinn war. The books which 

Redlich produced in the pursuit of this plan ,. Das rsterreischlBche'v:.- tt 


und Reichsprotolem ,,- Geschichtliche Daßstellunr der inneren Politik deF 

Habsburp:schen Monarchie von. 18^8 bin zum Unter^^ang des Reichef^ ( 2 Vol^, 

1920 - 26 } , Die ögterreichi schc Rerierun/r im vVeltkrieg ( 1925 ) 

ptiblishad in Enplish translation i-a 1929, and Kaiser Franz Joseph von 

Qesterr^ i ch i 1925 )^'dealt with tbtK varic^s acpects of th^ 'ö^ir):)lic':ted 

s.ubl^cfe. The fii^st onejof ^h^fteLintended to of f cr^ alon/rside wf the etud^ 

about the /.aistrian dar Governiiient s.nd"/the, hio^^raphy of the Empppor 

whose- i?felgicüyer€;d^äln:(bst compifeteiy.:Auntria* fi hi?|>ory rince 1648> 

• - ■■■,"-' 

- 67 - 


to preeent the picture and analysle of Au'-^triÄ-^ cof^.Ptltutional 

hiptor-i^. Onl.v the first'three volumeß tclllnp; the story untll IÖ67 


have bean fln^shec] -md Dublished. After the peruaal of the f i>"it -volumes 

■o:- Moveir.ber 14. 1920,- 
,_ — ■ — *'»•■—», *— — .^-.•-' 

Harold Lask wTöTrr'to"' Holn;eajp I have read v;ith profound adrniration 
Redliches tv;o süperb volumes on Au^tria Pince '48. Thev are really 
magnificent - of the stuff of whlch permanence 1^ r.ade. He can drav/ 
plcturen and an^alyse motivee hardly lesr^ well than hie ir able to 
deoict Institut 1.0ns . It is a manterplecc . " ^/In his letter of Februarv 
1, 19?1 Lafeki ^-etumed to the sub.ject and added other words of the 
hl,crher-^ pralse: "Ifc's a .oreat book - free from bittemes? and 
Parti San shlp and with an obvioup rraster^' over the whole ranrre of 
available material." Thus It is.'oerhapp not ^n exap-r-er^^tion to state 
th' t the wcrthiest epllogtie of the Au^trian Empire has com fror: thr 

pen of Josef i<edlich. / 

ijut the closinr years of the Danubian Konarchy ^.nd of the 

^isl'^'^ Austrian Republic Rav/ also the emerrence of a nev; renerstion 
of Jewish b rn 'urists v/ho, in this oeriod of a rrer't tranpforn-^tion , 
were well aware of the nec' s'-lty tobe-examine the basic problems of 
public law m^ and of the philo sc^hy of law. Thryjoihed the irank'^ of 
the adherents of the free lav; movement, led by Eugen Ehrlich and 
represented by such fiprhtinp- spirlts llke Karl Georg Wi:rzel ( see above 
pp; ). or chosethelr indivldual ways. Thus Z?iedricM_K-fIbl in his 

profound Ptudy,Da_s__Rechts^ff5hl ( 1909 ) snalyzed the sentirr.ent of 
Justice «ix^ nnd inve-tirated its manif e-t-tion up to the re/rion of 
Intemation.'il relations. Walter Ec k stein 'n n book of lastin;^ value, 
:^a s._ an tl ke_NsLtJuin:echt _li^^ 

skllfully the hi toric^l pres-nt-tion of Gre k philosnnhv concerning ■ 
natural law with a re-appraisal of this controvGt'sial f'-^rm of law. 
In accordance with ^ theais of the Austrian Jewlah ohilosoohe-, 
V/ilhelm Jerusalem, EcVstein demonstr'^ed t:iat Indiv^^uaUstic ..;., v. v -• 

. - 88 - 
tendencies of natural law ^.vhlch are originall.y directed ajirain^t social 
authoritarianlsin use to pave the way to the emer'-'ence of universal and 
cosmopolltan trends. The fundamental probleMa of law were also dlpcusged 

y. ■ ^ 

b y Robert Lazars f eld ( i^as Problem der Ju ri sprudenz , 190? ) and 
I^naz Kornfeld ( Allgemeine Recht Pl e hre u nd Jurisprudenz, ^920 ). 

The momentous event of thia period in the spheres of public law 
and philo aophy of law, an achievement which ranks amon^ the greate'-t 
feata of Auatrian Jurisprudence ,aepenreB> however, a chapter of ita own. 


The longer the war, ragin^ rince the be^-nning of the twentieth 

Century within the realm of jurirprudence, dra.crpred on , the fiercer the 

battlea on the various fronts srrew, the inore it became apparent that 

the ver^' exlrtence cf Jurisprudence as .a acience of positive law was at 

atake. It waa inceasantly expoaed to attack? by the combined forces of 

the youn^, visroröua actencea, sociolopry and psycholoaty, a^ well a? by the 

fitrhtera of the free law novercent. Sociolorv had penetrated not onlv the 


science of civil law, but alao taken po'^seapion of vapt territoriep of 
the theorie? of public law. In spite of the aharp dif"^erence ^etween 
Gumplowicz and Jellinek^the recofnition of th- eociological nethod as an 
Instrument of inve:^Ügation9 into the easence of the State wa? comiron 
to both contendinrr acholars. Thus the whole of juri"='prudence se^med 
to be doomeü to become a prey of external oowers. The atate of äff ira 
wap the more confusinp; as the advancln/r forcep/cloimed that only by 
their victory Jurisprudence cöuld be saved fiom utter sterility and 
complete downfall. 

In the llght of thia dovclopment the appearance of Hana Kelsen, 
bom to Jewish parents in Prague In 1881, hae to be seen. Endowed wlth 
a logical mind of a aharpnesa and lucidit^' which formed a unique 
phenomenon even amo ■}/?!; the brilliant German and AuPtrian lof?iciana, 

,. - 89 - 

Kelsen aet out slniKile-handed to atem the tlde of the hostile forcea. 

His prlncl^al aim was to eatabllsh Jurlsprudence of Ita ovm merlts, 

to liberate it from the Intrudlng "meta- Jurlatic" methods, which In 

his View Infectedfthe science of law with a dangerous syncretlsm, and 

to rebuild Jurlsprudence on unshakable foundations. His undertaking 

has been compared with that of Immanuel Kant who at the end on the 

eighteenth Century» amldat the strugprle of the metaphysiciana and 

rationalists, deaigned his critical philosophy of pure reason as a 

guide of philo aophical and scientific thinking. In fact, Kelsen 

himself haa pointed to the analo^y of his teachlnir with that of Kant, 

though in ita neo-K^ntlan fashion as develooed bv the German-Jewish 

... .. / ,) 

phlloaopher Hermann Cohen. The Kantian ori^rln of Kelaen'a doctrine 

is also reflected in ita name, Pure Theory of Law. 

Kelaer. set forth and developed his theory when he wasiSince 1911» 
lecturer ( Privpt'^^_7.*nt ) and latei*, aince 1915» profeaaor of public 
law at the üniversity of Vienna ( until 1929 ) . Wlthln s a ahort time 
he 5i;qined ao many devoted pupila and followers that a new school of 
law, the "Vienna School*', was born. Among Kelaen^a adherents the 
iiUStrian-Jewish jurista, Felix Kaufmann, Fritz Schreier, Joseph L. Kunz, 
Fritz Sander, IVllliam Ebenateiöi Frantisek Weyr and Hans Klinghof fer, 
as well 33 t'je Cjerm'^n-Jewish Beujamln Akzim and the French-J»- wish 
Charles Eiaenmann played - alonp-side of the Austrlans , Adolf Merkl and 
Alfred Verdrosa »- an outstandinsr part in the ^eneais and historv of the 
school. But thougHthey contrlbuted new ideas to the development of 
Kelsen' s sytem, he remained the Chief architect of the Pure Theory of 
Law. He foririulated his viewa for the first time in his work, 
l^^yj2t££2M ?nL®_^ ^ V^ S taatsrechtsle hr e, entwi ekelt aus d er Lehre vom 
R echtsaatz ( 191Ä, second edition 1923 )Gnd in hia lecture, Ueber 
mzen zw iechen .lurinti sch er und aoziolofrlsch er Method e ( 1911 ) , 

/ - 90 - 

to be followed ( apart from numerous esnays ) by ijaa Problem der 
Souv e r^'ntt^'t ( 1920 ) , Der aozlo loyiac he und der Jurlgtlache 
S taat sbeprrlff ( 1922 ) , Allgemeine Staat slehre ( 1925 ) and by 
the crownini? work, Reine Rechtlblehre ( 193^> second edition 1960 ) . 
In 1929 Kelsen left the University of Vlenna ( where he had been 
Dean of the Law Faculty in 1922-23 ) and followed a call to the 
University of Cologne. There he tauf?ht from 1930 to 1933 and held 
the Office of the Dean of the Law Faculty in 1932-33« But in thi^ year 
he was deprived of hia prof esporahip owing to hia Jewish origin. 
( Kelsen haa b^ eti baptized in Vienna, but he never concealed hia 
Jewiah origin. ). Called to Genova by the In atitu t Uni ver^ ltaire des 


Hauteg Etude s Inte r nationales, he became professor of this infititute 
in 1933« '^^^ German University of Prague was the last European 
university where Kelsen taught ( in the yeara 1936-1937 ) • He continued, 
however, hia teaciing activity at the Institute in Geneva before he 
emi' rated to the U.S. A. ("in 19^^. In 1941 Kelaen became Oliver -endell 
Holmoa Lecturer at Harvard Law School , Reaearch Associate at the aame 
School and Visiting Profeeaor at Wellealey College. in the yeara 19A2 to 
1952 Kelaen was Profeasor at the Univeraity of California in Berkeley, 
where he aettled. 

As the callp to th^ great universities of the Old and the New 
V/oMd indlcate, Kelsen' a international reputation has been firmlv 
eatobliahed during these yeara of wandering and creative work. 
"Kelsen of Cologne, certalnly the first Gerran Jurist of the day," thus 
HaroldJ.Laski referred to him in the letter to Justice Holmes of April ITi 
1932. '^The expansion of the "Vienna School" assumed apectacBlar dim naions 

and grew into a world Wide "international achool of juristic thoucht 

auch as had never existed in the ann-^la of Jurisprudence." Nothinsr perhap^ 

can prove the correctness of this Statement better than the fact that 



r ' ' , ■ . ' . ■■ . ■ 

a aerie*^ of Kelsen's maln wor^s have be^^n tranplated into 25 lan?;uagea, 

including Chineae, Japanese, Indoneaian and Korean. The reco^nitlon 

whlch Kelaen^s work ha? gained was even most recently aolemnly 

conflrmed by the bestowing upon him of the Feltrinelll prlze bj the 

Italian "Academia del Lincei" in 1960. On account of its amount and of 

the competence of the Jury entrusted with the grantinp^ of the award , 

thia prize Is belngr valued intemationally like the No^el prlze. 

Bealdea, It has happeneä for the first tinie that an award of auch a 

magnitude has been offered to a legal scholar. 

The fundamental prlnciple of the Pure Theory of Law consista in 

the distinctlon of two logical categorles: the la and the Ought , the 

former belng related to Statements abötb reallty ( nature ) , the latter 

to atatementa about norms and soclety xrccnirmconsti^uted by normative 

Order ./The distinctlon amounts to a aharo dlf fer-^ntlatlon betwecn 

the law of ca uaallty and the prlnclpl^ of Imputation ( Zi:rechnun^ ) 

as two dlf"^erent wayp of connectinfr facta aa condltlon and consequence. 

Thus, for instance, the law of cauaallty Bi-nnlf estaktael-^ in the atatement 

Xf a metallic bodv ia heated , It expounda, the prlnciple of computation, 

however, In the atatement: If someb6dv commlta a dellct, he ou^ht be 

punished, or: If somebody makes a promise, he ou^ht to keep lt. Tiie 

Statements b7 whlch the acience of law describea its object, the le,cral 

or-^^TP, Kelsen calls "rules of law" ( Rechts s'^tze ) in contradlatincti-'n; 
le<ral nprma 
(X ^echtanormen ), Jurlaprudence beingr , llke ethlcs, a normative acience 

par excellence, that ia a acience whose object are norms, eptabllshed 
by the legal authority, not by the lepral sci^nce. The function of 
jurisprudence Is therefore nothing eise than the Cognition of norms. 
It la by vlrtue of thls definitlon that Kelsen's theory Claims to te 
a ^ur« theory of law ( Heine Rechtslehre ) , and not politics oti law 
( Rechtspolitik ). This means by the same token a clearcut delimit^tion 

- 92 - 

of Jurisprudence from the acicncep of soclolo^y and psychologv, moreover 
an utter rejection of socloloii^ical and ppvch^l^glcal niethod? as means 
of jurisprudence.It ia not, according to Kelsen, the functlon of lepral 
ficience to examint the actuel proces'^ es »mental or physical, whlch 
accompany the ccncepticnor willini? of tline norme. Thia does not m an 
that Kelsen denies the legitimacy of a sociolo^y or psycholoj^y of lai-;. 
It means nnly that he Inslats on the difference which exlsts between the 
objeöta of these sciences and coneequntly between thelr method?, the 
principles they apply on the deacription of their objecto. 

From thia princlpal polnt of vlew follows necesparlly that Kelaen 

. . ... ^, 

conceives Juriaprudencc at a theorv of the poPitive[Law# IVhenever he 
uses the term "law" he uses it in the senae of positive law, that ia 
a valid law wit lout retard to its rightneaa or maral quality. For the 
validity of the law doea not reat on Ita ritrhtness but on the fact that 
it haa been set up and that it is by and larg-e eff ective. Only theae 
two qualities are comiron to any law, to law itaelf »whereaa ri^htnea? 
of the law, its imma-^ent Justice, variea acc-ordirl^ to the moraTa. 
Rip-htnesa or Justice could be recoc^niped, accordlnr tc Kelac^n, aa an 
essential element of law only, if an absolute rip;htness or Juatice 
wtre conceivabl^. fhis is Just what Kelsen denies. Abaolute Justice 
is from his point of view an irrational ideal. It csn derive onlv from 
a transcendental authority, from Goc . Earthly, human . Juatice, however, 
can be only 3 relative Justice, since only rel-^tive values are 
accessible to human reason. A Justice of this relative character 
permeates any positive law and secures as the most orecious ^ood aii • 
approximate State of pcace and aecurity. 4br the allembracing moral 
principle involved in thia relativiat philoeophy of Justic--: lies in the 
principle of toler/ance, in the sympathetic understanding of the 
xot rellgioua or polltlcal belief s of others, without acceptin^ them 

- 93 -■ 

necessarll'y , but not preventing them from beinp: freely expreaped. 

Cbviöusly the belief In an almlc^hty and at the same tlme abpolutely 

Juat God la comprlaed In these tolerated bellefe . There Is, howevey, 
i^ecause the facta of faith are out^^ide of_ratiqnal Cognition .^' t 

no rciatio"n~iretw'een"the aclence of law and reirfrlonV^'^iien manifeated 
thla'lriew unequivmcftllj In hls prreat leplalatlve werk; the conatitutlon 
tt the Aüstrlan Republiö. One of Its characterlstlca, based on Ms 
theory,l8 the avoldance of any)reference to rellffion, even in the 

formula of the vow whlch the e'^ect-rl President haa to make« ' ^ -^ 

Accordingly there also doea not exiat any relatlon between 

the science of law and a definite pölltlcal syatem, even the politlcal 

System Kelsen prefers ,j[' whlch, In fact, he conaiders Indlspenaable for 

hls personal life, as he confepred In the emphatlc Statement: 

i c "• - ' '■ "....I cannot say what Justice Is, the abaolute .luf^tlce 
for whlch mankind 1p lonisrlnir. I muat acquieace In a relative 
Justice and I can only say what Juatice la to me, Slnce science 
Is my profeaslon, oirid hence the moat Important thlnsr In m^; llfe, 
Justice, to me , Is that social order under whoae protection 
the search for truth can proaper. *Ky* Justice, then, la the 
Justice of freedom, the Juatlce of peace, the Justice of 
democracy - the Justice of tolerance. /^ 

The ellmlnatlon of the soclolc^lcal method fron: Jurlsprudence 

and the llmltatlo'i of the latter' s sphere to the positive law affecta 

essentlally partlcularly Kelaen'a theory o:^ the atate. He dlatlnfulahes 

two dlfferent concepts: a Jurlatlc and a aociologlcal conc-pt of the 

State, both of whlch refer under the same narrie to two dlffer-^nt objects» 

Consequently Kelsen rejects Jelllnek's theory of the two aide? of ^he - 

State whlch implles that the State as one and the same thlnp; haa two 

aspects, a lepral and a aoclologlcal aspect. Kelsen shows the contra« 

dictlons whlch are loglcally Involved In thla 7lew, There Is no place 

In Kelsen* s theory for the Idea of subordlnatlnpr elther the law to the 

State or the State to the law. Tie state Is, accordinp to Kelsen, 

nelther an orpcanlsm, nor a collectlve will ( Gesarotwllli^^ ) , nor a 

mass soul ( Massenseele j. All such "hypostatlzatlons" , Including 

- 94 - 

Jelllnek's power to reifen ( Herrachermacht ), as analyzed by Kelaen, 

are baaeles- personlf icstlons . He declares instead that the State ia 

a coerclve order and aa such Identical with the le^ral order, that - in 

this aense - State and positive law are identical. The aocial order 

as a System of coercive norms ha? an Internal tendencv to create 

special Organs for the creation and aopllcation of norma. T^.e orp-ans 

of the State, the legislative, Jvidicial and adirdniptrrttive ori?ans, are 
the,' /. 

/"iSpecific Organa of the Imw*. 

Since validity is ai essential quality of poeitive law - the 
only one which Kelsen recogniaes aa law - Ihe problem of the reason for 
the validity of the law occupiea an eminent place in the Pure Theory 
of Law. i^grain the main task conaists in the elimination of soclolop-ical 
and psychological elementa froir the object of examination . The Pure 
Theory of Law haa therefore to find a purely lo^ical answer to the 
deciaive que'^-tion whv the positive norms, thope of the Constitution on 
which the validity of the other norme depends, are valid. It is seif- 
evident that there ia no further rer^-ress to a positive norm conceivable« 
Kelsen offers the Solution bv pointin^ to a pre*^upposed bar^ic no rm 
( Grundnorm ) which ia the ultimate renson foi-^ the validity of al"" the - 
norms of poeitive le^al order. Thua the validity of the law is revealed ': 
to be of a hypothetical nature: If the positive law iP considered as 
valid, the norm that one have to behave accordin^ to the hiptorically 
flrst Constitution is implicitly preaupposed. ^ 

it is, however, not only the sociological and psvchological 
View from which Kelsen ip anxioua to guard hia theory by Introduciner 
the notion of the basic norm. He emphaaizes na leas stronply the 
fundamental dif_^erence betwecn the basic norm ^f the Pure Theory of 
Law and the foundation on which the valiÄity of the positive law is 
baaed by the natural law doctrine. Accordin^ to the natural law döctrine 

- 95 - 

- of ^'/hich Kelaen Is a Sharp Opponent - the reason whv a popltive law 
is valid consists in its conformity wlth the partlcular conte^tf? of 
the natural law: the law la valid because it ia Juat, Ahere-r^s th'? basic 
norm of the Pure Theory of Law doea not determine the Contents of the 
positive law and hence there can be no conflict between the bapic norm 
and the positive law, the function of the natural law ia Just to 
determine the contenta of the positive law in acordance witn the 
principles of this law. It ia the main feature of the natural law doctrir 
to iDe a dualistic theory of law by recoprnisinsr two spheres of law: 
the positive and the natural law. In contraat to the natural law 
doctrine,thi8.?ure Theory of Law ia a moni«tic doctrine. It proclaims: 
there ia only one law - the positive law» 

In fact, thou^h no relation seems to exiat between the 
rellgioua sphere of-Judaiam and the rational realm of th-^ Pure Theo^Y 
of Law, the principle of oneneas, of absolute unity, Is in the 
Pure Theory of Law aa dominant as in Judaism. Kcreover, Kelsen*;-' 
abhorrence to identify legal norma with empirical phen^mena of any 
kind showa a sträng« aimllarit with ..tfajs Hebrew notion of the 
incorporeit7 -^f the Dlvine. 'V ••.,'• •• - ^ ' : ' 

From the conception of the law as a normative order, i.e. 
a ayatem of normp, followa not only the Identification of the State 
with the law, but alao the denial of the difference between phyaical 
and Juristiß person9,'"as well as the rejection of the division of 
the law into aubjwctive and objective, public and private law. 
The unifyln^ tenüency of the Pure Theory of Law manifest» itaelf 
furthermore in the recoj^.nltion of cuatomary and of all kinda of 
unwritten non-."tötutac5py law. -^or any law haa -^ place withln a definite 
Ifftal System whose^-validityjöis baaed on the "Grundnorm" of thir< aystem. 
It in thie perspective that Adolf Merkl, one of Kelsen's most 

•v f.) 

outstanding Austrlan non-Jewlah follcv/era, concelved the theory of the 

h ieparchl ca l atructure ( Stuferjbaü ) of the la-'i wlaich has been adopted 

by Kelaen. Thia theory contemplates the leo:al order not as a system of 

co-ordlnated , but of super- and subordlnated norniB, from the hlfirheat 

one^.' . 
form to the loweat,: constitÄ.tlon , Statutes, customarv law, judiclal 

decisions, private lepral transactions. .TWithln the framework of this 

theory even the Free Law School can find Its place. It was Kelsen himself 

who declared: * 

"The Pure Theory of Law is not at all oppoaed to the 
so-called Free Law School ... .Rather It ig true that tne 
Präre Theory of Law,<i?lth Ita deeper Insl^ht into tie atructure 
of the law, has piven a theoretical foundation to one of the 
main theses of the Free Law chool, that the ao-called 
ap )licatlon of atatuteg bv courts and gdminlptratlve or^^ns Is 
true l awmokin ^." ^t>J 

The unity of the law as tauscht by Kelse-^ ehattera also 

Montesquieu' s theorv on the Separation of powers . Just as every Judiclal 

declslon Is an act of creatlrifr law, eaeh administrative act is a con- 

cretlzatlon cf a preneral norm establlshed by the lepral authorlty. 

aat consequence 

whlch Kelsen deduces from the prlnciple of the Unltv of the Law is 

crei,izax>ion ci a p^enerai norm esxaoiisnea dv xne leprai aux, 
/^dmlniptration is thus revealed as applicatloi/off a^» ^he 1, 

flnally the unity of intern-i^tional law and national law, i.e. the law 
of the State. Kelsen not only envisages the creatlon of a world ptate 
as the ultimate goal of the legal evolutlon, but he declares that 
cognitlonally international law and the leoal orders of the ainp-le states 

muat be considered as a urllty. It ia, accordini? to his concept, greneral 

■ '■,■.. 

international law whlch raakes the co-exi^^tance of sinsrle states within 

• ■ ■ ' ■•' rr; 

the aipace and tlme lecrally posslble. / 

It was the architectonic grandeur of Kelsen' s conceöt, the 
pro{ffuct of a faacinatln^ lo^ical reasoninp;, whlch helped the Pure Thory 
of Law emerpe from the ^reat battle for the Jurisorudence in the course 
of the first decades of the twentleth Century as the favorlte theory 

- 97 - 

öf law. The i^ustrlan Je^iah börn philosopher Oscir Kwald acclalmed it aa 
^^ "an ener^etic and loprical step to tran!?late transcendentalism into th'^ 

the phlloaophv of law" ond Harold J. Laskl, thou^h he l^ter raised 
ob«3ections aa;alnat th«*- Pure Theory of Law, oalled Kelsen's 
H auptproblem e "the most remarkable Juristic work" he haa resc' slnce 
he "firat encountered Gierke fifteen yeara a^o" , It thrilled hlm as 
"th® map of a coun^ry ( he ) had not otherwise geen aurveyed with 

anythding llke the 8ame precislon and delicacv"( letter to Justice Holmea 

Z 7l 
of 28. IX. 1929 ).^'£lmilar appreclatlons could be quoted ar llbitunii 

the literature on Kelaen, Includlng syatematic expositions of hls 
theory and aymposla wlth authoritative contributlons , havlng assumed 
jrlgrantlc proportions. Accordingly, the Impact of the Pure Theory of Law 
6n Juriaprudence was far-reaching. It has been sald that hardly any 
branch of le^ral theory, whether natural law theories, theoriea of inter- 
national law, of corporate perfionalitv, of pblic -md private law, has 
remained untouxzhed, and even the bitterspt opponenta of the Vienna 
£chool conceded that it haa forced ler^al theory to reconsider its 


Position . 

The contr-^'Versy which was called forth by Kelsen's Pure Theory 
of Law was as worldwide as +he movement it iaa created . In fact, this 
diBcussion - still croin^cr on - iJ? one of the raost fruitful effectf? of 
Kelsen's teichinff. The Spaniah Jurist Lescaz y Lacarabra summed up.the 
character*- and aip:nif icance cf the debate succinctly by declarirng 
that legal thlnkin/? of this Century must neces?arily be a "Dialogue 
with Kelaen", though one must look beyond the borders drawn b^' Kel'^en 
for an anchorage of the law. ^^ 

The moat reraarkable co^tributionto this ht^toric "dialostue" 
haa be' n made by Kelsen himself in a huge sequence of writinp-s. iVpart 
from Gountless ar' icles and boo> reviews in which velsen has r-olied 

' .-■■■■:,,, - 98 -■ '^ 

to his critics, a larsce number of comprehensive publicatlons was 
added bv Kclsen to the alreadv auoted baslc bookn* Only some of the 
most Important works of thls amazing productio" ;!ia.y be mentloned her«: 
u le ph ilosophisch- n G rund 1 agen der inj aturrechts lehre und der Rechts- 
poaltlvlsiDu s ( 1928 ), Vo m ViTes en und We rt, der i^emokrpt l e (1929 )i 
Unrecht .und Unrechtsfolge Im Völk errecht ( 1932 ) , Ver geltung ?, und 
Kausallf-^'t ( 1939 ), Society and Nature ( 1943 ), Gengral Theorv of 
Law and State ( 1945 )» The Law of the U nited Natlons. A Crltlcal 
Analy slB of Its B'undamental Problems (1950 ), What Is Jus tice? ( 1957 )• 
The poeltlviatlc vlew has been expanded by Kelsen in these and in hls 


prevlous works to the extreme consequences and with such a forceful 
loglc, that he has bean hailed by the defenäers of the positive law 
llke a aavlor. Only most recently, In Austrla, from whlch the founder 
of the "Vlenna School" had been banned for so many ye?rs, Kellen 's 
merlta as the supreme theoretlclan of the positive 1-^w were 
fiummarlzed by Ren4 karclc in the praialng words: "Throu^h Kelsen the 
positive law has found Its own pecullar method : only so Bcientific 
legal positivisn] has beconi- posslble st all. ^ 

Kelsen 's Ir^eslstible loplcal reasoninsr lifted the debete 
about the essentials of Juris orudence to the hl/a^hest scientific and 
philo sophical level. The o^*)position aisrainst the Pure Theorv of Law 
came not only from theadherents of the sociolo^ical and paycholoiorical 
methodp. Kelsen'a vloleöb attacks on the natural law and his relativist 
attltude to the Idea of Justice called forth no les^ criticiam of the 
philo sophically rrdnded Juri st s. -Vith all the recofrnitlon of the / 
Invaluable contrlbution made by relativipm to tolerence and aympathy 
for the varieties of le^ial Systems, the negative or merely subjective 
approaqh to the bumin^ Problems of human exlstence in a torn v/orld, 
whoae division has'/^rovm to Irreconcllable extremes, which haa 

' 99 - ' / 

HXK be^n Imperllled-and hardlv escaped the deadly danprer to be en^ulfed^ 
by a r-^alK of lavflcasneäö maaqueradlng as a atate, was found inauf f Icient. 
The need of some objectlve Standard has nr^t been effaced froni the souls 
by the Pure Theory of Law. Ap-alrst the nesration of absolute values in 
general and an abolute velue of Justice in partlcularjvoices were raised 
all over the i^lobe /"'-'In fact, a revival of the natural law and of a 
valuc oriented/jurisprudenc- took place alon/rside of the r^habilitation 
of the positive law due to the Pure Theorv of Law. The question of the 
possibility to extendthe Uaity of the Law v/hich Kelsen had outlined so 
in^enuously boyontf the borders of fne positive law aroae and the aearch 
for an answ^r to this question emerp-ed as the task of the preeent -ind the 
future generationa . ■ V 

Llke among the co-buildera of the "Vienna School" and later 
followers of Kelsen, JurlPts ^f Jewish ori^rin excelled alf=o as sh^rp 
analysta of Kelsen theorl;i:s. To which deprreednd w'iether at all the 
tradition of Judaism, in which the belief in the divine sources of Justic^L 
and the idea of Justice itaelf hold f^cal positions, has consciously or ' 
unconsciously a share in the advocacMof natural law by Jewish Jurists, 
is obviou>sly a iratter of conjecture, but the partixzipation of Jews in 
Icading roles on both sides of the atruggle for the clarif ication o"^ the 
fundamental fa of the law deserves to be considerea as a major contribution 
to the history of Jurisprudence. 

Although Kelsen has found his- most faithful followers in Austria, 

the "Vienna School" which was estab'ished with their help.met Opposition 

also in its hoireland. Above all, Eup-en Ehrlich rnay be re^rarded as 

Kelsen' s very antipode, his sociologicalj of the law and Jurisprudence 

representin^ the most perfect example of that "meta Juristic" le^-l 

science which was tabooed by Kelsen. The ants'^'^nism of "he headp of the 

opposite schools did, however, not explode in oublic polemics. There. 


- 100 - 

developed rathcr a co-existence of the two rival thcorlea. A second 
edltlon of Ehrlich' ajjie ji^riatlsche Logik > differinp; basically from 
the Pure Theorv of ^aw - appearcd 'rven after Ehrliches death, and In 
1936 - two years ^fter the appearance of Kelan's Reine Rechtglehre - 
the English edltlon of iihtlch's Grund le^a^ung was published by the 
Harvard University Press. In fact, Ehrlich' s Ideas continued to influence 
jingliah and merican Jurlaprudencs and methods of legal studiea. 
Strangely enough , Kelaen'a most vehement Opponent came from the ranks 
of the "Vlenna School" itaelf : Fritz Sander, who originally was an 

enthualaatic devotee of the Pure Theory of La^' ,- /.ater turned with the 

^ ' • • • ■ - •■ •' 3fl 

typlc^l zeal of an apoatate againat the maater/ In con+raat, a very 

dignifled criticism of Kelaen'a (fioctrine was put forward by Ad olf Menzel. 

V/hile recof^nialng the merita of Kelaen's logic, he emphaslzed ,at varlänce 

with the latter, the positive value of what Kelsen called the '*hypostat?i- 

zation" of the atate: Menzel saw in it one of the mopt important phenomena 

of human hiator"" and declared it a^ very doubtful whether "the normative 

hypotheaia will be able to replaoe in the soula of men the millennial 

ideology of the »täte/' Fürthermore MenzeT pointed to the taaks of 

jurisprudence, like the fixation of the cuf^tomary law, which cannot be 

achieved by a purelv normative method and declared that a cautious uae 

of the empirical method waa adaiaaible. As to the aicrn ificance of the 

natural law, Walter Eckatein in hi^ work on the ancient natural law ( ae' 


bove p, ) came to the result that natural law constitutea a concept 

which in the past haa become the carrier of revolutionary ethiC;! reforms 
and that it -.'ill continue to function in this way. Finally F ,R. Bitnenfeld 
( See above p. ) in his study Redlacovery of Justice ( 19^7 ), by an 
analyals of the feeling of Justice linnate in childr n tried to pave the way 
for finding the very elementary qualities of justice. 

' - 101 - 

In Gcrmnny Eri ch Kaufmann devotf*d a special studv , Kr itil: 
(ffri* ne ulcan ti schen Recht s philo90ohi e( 1921 ) to the examination of the 
normative trend in Juripprudence . Me reco-^gnised that Kelsen Üy a 
"crltical »cumene" whic'i is unparnlleled in our .juri^^tic literature" han 
found out and r^vealed the "halftruthp" in contemp4rary legal theories, j 


but the werk which, accordinp, to Kaufmannes Judp-ment, has to be done 
after that purification has been refused by Keinen without ,5ustification. 
Juris ':ic purity has been made a fetish to whoin sacrifices were brou<rht 
and who has been so loudly and pathetically extolled that one did not 
realize that nothinp has feeinl«ft of the .idea of the Law in the empted 
l-oglcal forme. iCaufmann reco^nizea the l:sw ag a divine order which has 
implanted in m^n the task to take coi?n4!zance of the comrr.andm nts of the 
law and to expresa them in Statutes and Judp-aenta. /i^ithin th^- divine order 
- an evid ntly Judaic notion •» Kaufmann distinpruishes an unshakable 

element, the ur'^e to formulate the orincioles of JusMce which, ho ever. 

are subjected to changea acf^rdinp to the time and territory, -rom a 

different an^le, the adherents of the phenomertoloffiöal philoflophy of 

the^Jewish philosopher Edmund Huaserl, his son t G-erhard Husserl, 

H ermann Heller and iiermann IsaTi opposed the Pure Theory of Law by 

claiming also for the legal norms like- for all values the character of 

phenomenological existencc. A very acute analj'-si» of Kelsen a theory was 

offered by iol fgan^ Friedmann in his Le/ral Thec ry.xx He demonstrates 

particul^rly that the Pure Theorv of Law cannot avoid the question , which 

is the valid fundamental norm and that, since this que'-'tlon cannot be 

aolvedÄ^ithout an inquir-^ into pölitical and social fact?, ouritv here 

i ^/^ 
ceases .'V^oat recentlv ä criticipm of Kels<^n'p th^orv, based on tenets of 

existentialist Philosoph^', was advanced by Georg Cohn « kkkxxkxe u Döfilsh^ 

Jewish Jurist. In the vein of the Free Law Theorv, Cohn maintai^is tha"" 

each case which has to be decided by a law court can be Judp!ed only 


- 102 - 

by taking into account or rather **rellvlnjr" the concrete reality of the 
particular caae. Thus a doubt Is cast on the ef fectiveneap of general 
norms and eVeti on the usefulnesa cf abatract notions. 

In England Harold J> Laskl, In aplte of his admitation of Kclsen'a 
woi?k, in the forth editlon of his Grammar of Politioa came to the conclu- 
ßion: "Granted ita postulstes, I believe the pure theory to be iinanewerable 

but I believe also that its aubstance ia an exerclae in logic an not in 
life." Ä'a to Kelsen's rejection of the natural law, one of the stauncheet 
American followers of Kelsen, H. Lauterpacht i uttered his disFent from 

». , ^ 

the atftnd of the Pure Theory of Law in this rsapect. It was also 
Lsuterpacht who raised the queation whether natural law principles, 
instead of beinjr banned from the hierarchy of legal norma, ahould not 
be included in it a^ proapective positive noras of a higher order. 

Ap?^rt from being the founder of the Pure Theory of Law and the 
Initiator of an tinprecedented grlobal discussion -^bout the essence of the 
läW' - whatever ma^^ be its ultim??.te reaults - , Kelsen has performed 
legislative works which are of an undiaputable perfe-^tion. When in 
1920 the Austrian p-ovemment embarked uppn the creation of the Constitu- 
tion for the newly establiahed republid Kelsen, then Professor at the 
University of Vienna, was entruFted with this taak. It was not for the 
flrat tlme that h« was called to serve in public affaira. In the last 
years of the x^ustrian Empire, he had become the J iristic counael of the 
Miniatry of ^^ar . In this capacity and in immediate contact with the 
Emperor Karl, Kelsen took a leading part in the frustrated at'empts 
to rcorganize the Empire, After the end of the war, however, Kelsen' a 
public activity became one of lastiJng significance, for the draft of the 
republican Constitution which he prepared in Cooperation with Georg 
F roehlich ,the ( likewiae Jewish^bom ) head of ä department in the 
FÄdÄPÄlwChanoelle]!^^» baa ^^eenafter protracted debates adopted without 



-V ■■■'^■' ■■ " . 103 - 

/'chaiifi'äfl. Thus the f Irstjconstitution of the Austrian Federal Republlc 
of October 1920 is easentially Hans Kelsen's work. Alth'ou§g;h tt was 
replaced by anotijier Constitution at the time of the regime J^llfu^a ,, JLt 
was destined to becoaie re-enacted after the abolition of the Nazi 
domination with some amendments madeon July 30, 1925. 

Among the many reco^nised merita of Kelsen's concept of the 
Auetrian Constitution the shifting of the polnt of -Gravitation from 
the "Bundesländer" ( federal countriea ) to the "Buni'» ( federÄtion.) 
must be particularly mentioned . The most out8ta>idln/7 feature of the 
Constitution is, however, the incorporation in Its atructure of the 
"VerfasFungarerichtshof"{ thi Suprem^ öonaitutional ^ourt ). It wks 
Geor^ Jellinek who as earlv as 1885 in a pannphlet had su^f^ested : the 
transformation of the Austrian "Reichsgericht" , Court of the Empire ) 
into a proper court for the control of the Constitution. Yet the idea 
was carried out on"v by Kelsen after thirty five years within the 
framework of the consti>iLUtion of the Austrian Re'^ublic. Moreover, he has 
modelled the constitutional court accordinsc to hi? own normative theory 

and thus enriched the realm of the public law bv an entirelv new inatitu- 

-''j*' thi. VerfaB'^unirssrerichtshof 

tion.' ICelsen himself has catledl ktx Uli s "moat beloved child," and Ren ^ 

Narcic , the Austrian JuriPt, has declared only recently that throusrh it 

Kelsen has materialized what all the theories of the natural law could 

not achi«Win two t'^ousand years: to secure an effective guarantee of the 

obeipance by all the organs of the State to the law. ^here is yet another 

historic orovivSion in the Austrian Constitution which Kelsen has advocated 

f.; ■ 

with great vigor: th ■ abolition of the deatn penalty. Thus the last 
Austro-Jewish legislator folliVeü the human itaricm tradition of Sonnenfels 
and Glaser ( see above p. and p. ) . 

Kelsen ala^ became the authoritative and eloquent Interpreter 

.. " ' ^1 ' ■, " ■ ■ ■ 

of tr^ Austrian Constitution. In the yearr ! 1919, 1920 an. Ii2^^ he 


- 104 - 

edlted the constitutional laws of thc Rapublic with an hlstorical 

survey and critical comments In flve volumes. Already in 1923, the aystem- 

atlc work, Oeat^rrelc h lschea Staatarecht» follov/ed .Thla afitoniahing 

production performed alongside of Kelsen's ^,reat t:ieoretical works , 

diel not prevent him from wrltlng many articles in which he dealt either 

with the Constitution in g:eneral or with specific Problems, particularly 

those which were caused by later aAifendmöntax. In addltion, Kelsen served 

as a Member and Permanent Advlser of the Supreme Constitutional Court. 

Numerous cases were dealt with durinrr his tenure of the ©ffice, ■^»mriniT 

them particularl'^ those concemin?? the so-cal'' ^r! "diipen^ntlnn nnrri':''res.** 

were not tOMpetent to declde 
The decislons of the Constitutional Court deciLaping that opfllnary courtiY' 

constituting the dispensation 
Äbeüt thlB legal ity-of an administrative abtv^ecame one of the mai^ rec?gong 

of attacka by cleric^l circles and papers aprainA the Constitutional 

Covrt, and - in the end - of XR an ominoup airiendrrent rep-ardin^ the 

appolntment of the members of the Constitutional Court. VVhereas accordinfr 

to th ^' prfevious constitütiofial lawi the memberF! of this court be 

elected for life by parliament , the new law of JJecember 1929 introduced 

the appointment of the members by the President of the republic, partly 

upon nominationa Ä by the cabinet, partly upon pro:-os5 tit1 or^-^ of thr 

these and other 
parliament. Kelsen has in vain wamed against jtbteyreactionary innovations 

of the new constitutional bill . -lien it, neverlyf^les«^ , was enacted he.. 

clearly realised that the pillars of dem:^cracy he had erected in the 

structure of the constitutione, were dan^^erouslv shattered. Deeplj^ 

reaenting the impairmaent of hia "dearest chlld" ,1/^« decided to leave 

i^ustria and taerefore gladly accepted the call to the University of 


Like the wanderinpr Solen, Kelsen now watched from the various vantajre 

polnta of the foreignJuniveraitiea in Europe and America where he taufrht 

the turmoil in which his le^islat ve work became submerFed . Bul eyentüfilly 

, - 105 - 

«1 -^ ■•. •• 


he ey.perienKEed the ^rreat satLsfactlon to aee the Constitution he had 
drafted shartly after iVorld War I re-enacted after .Vorld ^Var jl by th^ 
newly established Austrian Republic). Now Austrla'« indebtedneas to her 
leglslator was recognised and offlcially expressed by a series of solean 

4 ' 

acta on theoccaalon of Kelaen's eightieth birthday in 1961. The Austrian 

Government bestowed on hlm in recognition *'of his merite as author of the 

Austrian Federal Constitution" the öecoration for 'cience and Arts 

( Oesterrelchscaea Ehrenzeichen fflr WlasenschaTt und Kunst )> and a 

congratulatory tele^ram was sent by the President fcfjAuPtrian Republic . i 

on behalf "of the /rrateful Austrla to the creator of the Austrian 


Constitution and the great legal 8cholart"whii^ the President of the I 

Auatrian Acedemy of Sciences in a special address emphaslzed Kelsen's 
"merit of havinr^ as Jurlstic counael of the Republic suffprested to 
incorporate the Idea of the '^uhdesverfassungafirerlchpthof • into the 

These and other honora which were heaped on Kelsen on that occasion 
( amonfT others' three new honorary doctor degrees to tlx previous ones ) 
found the octogenarlan not at lelsure. is ^cholarly, llterary, teaching 
and public actlvitles have , in fact, npver be n Interrupted. ohortlv 
after the end of -Yorld '^ar II hte had been appointed Consultant of the 
U,S. L»epartment of War for tne preparatidft of th* Nuremberir trials. In^the 
yeara 1952-53 he was active as Visltinff Professor at the samt Gra(ftuate 
Institute at Geneva whrre he had taught in pre-war yearp. The' hext tWo^ o 
years aaw him as Profea^-or of International Law at the Naval var Col.le^^^. 
i^ewport, Rhötle Island. It was in the "InternatloHal Law Studie» " of this 
College that Kelsen's importart book, Colle cti ve Se curit y an d In ternattbonl 
Law, has been publi^hed in 195^- ^ince the-: frequent lecture toura in 
the U,S., In the Latin American States and in Europe f ollow^d , and a new 
activity at the prospective Institute for Advanced Study xxxxx in Vienna 
is in Store for the tir^'^.ess apiritual fighter. ' ^ 

i\fi -^n^ 

F/zmt Koeucß. CoLL€crr-x.oti 


3/8 0(9ee£o<^Nii>eNiC£ i^^^/ 1762-/96^ 


Dr. 3ofef ®cf)ca 

2Bieit 1927 
93Ton3fct)c 33crlag6= iinb Uinuer|ität5«55uc^I)QnMung 


Separotabbrucf aM bcr „®fi-id)tl-8eituna", 1927, 9Jr. 5. 



O5eted)tigliejt0iöec uiib Jlictcngefe^- 


Dlaä) einem om 12. Jänner 1927 in ber SBicnec 3uriftiid)cn 
ÖJcjeüfc^aft ge()aUenen SSortrage. 

^ aSon Dr. ^oH S^ell. 

T. 9??ctl)obo(üoi|rf)c (^nniblcfjuiirj. 

Ct§ ift für liniere ;]eit, üicüeid)t and) für unfor 
l'anb ff)araftcriftifcl), bafj OicfctniobunniSpvoblciiic faft 
an!?fd)Iief;Iirf) ii ad) R)irticl)nftcipo(itifd)Ou Oicfirf)ti5piinfton 
erörtert luerbcn. Tic t?(ufred)terf)a(tung ober ^Hnberuiui 
cine^ Deftimmten ^Kedity^nftanbCiJ bringt einer 3"ter= 
cffeuteiupiippo "Dtadjlcile, einer anberen ^l^ortedc; bicitio 
in pailcs erfotnt unter aii-Sidiliefdidjer 'i^erüdfid)ti= 
gnui] per|öntid)cr ^sntereffcn lutb man uermifjt fd)mcr5=' 
lid) bie Stimme beö fit'i'editeii liJamie^j, ber, lueiiu if)m 
ein ^Keditc^^nftanb uiin^'i"^'rf)f erfd)eiut, bic \Hnberung 
bo'^felben aud) bann bcflcljrt, lueuii er perföiilid) ju 
feinen "Jfiituuefjern 5äi)li. "Kud] bei ber Si-^fuffion 
über biii? Wietred)t »uerbeu uor aüem mirtfd)aftlid)e 
^(rguinente in bie 'UMinfd)ate c^eiuorfen: bie .Slämpfer 
gciieii bcn f)eutigcu j)vcd)t!55nftanb lueifen auf bie Sjer* 
iiid)tiiun ber '')lc]tc be5 "^iHUföücrmöiieni^, bie Öefäl)r* 
buwci bc§ .S>i)pütf)efarfrebitC'j, bie ^^ereiuiiiunn ber 33üI)* 
nnngyiiüt I)in, bic ^.^ertcibiiier auf bie i^erelenbuug ber 
■i^eiiölferunn unb bie gcfäl)rbetc ilünfurren5fär)igfeit 
ber'-ilMrtfdiaft. '^a man aber iii beu ^?Jlietred)t§bebatten, 
in bellen irrineriueifc iiod) immer ba§ Si^ort „'"MkttX" 


fd)ut^" bcu Wittclpiiiift b'üM, uiicbcrf)ült aurf) &c^ 
rcd)tigfcitCHn-ninnciUc \)öxi, jo anrb C'5 firf) Dcv(oI)iicn, 
bcu (^-vagcnfoinplci' bcu lifictciuicieOncöii"!! cinninl 
unter iHueMcI)altiniG anrtic()aiti5pütitiid)cr ^iJiomentc 
unter beni (sieiicfjtepuiifte bcr OkrccIjtiGfcitöibec jn 

^ii^cnn I)cntc öor fünften, bie im Okbanfenfrcifc 
bC'S "^ioiitiüi^nuiy ant!ieumd)fen finb, bay '^i^ort (Sk-- 
redjtiflfcit fällt, fo luirb fofort ein C^kiüljl bcr Sfcpfia 
rege. illMc faun ein ^^^roblcm mit bcm lUatlftab bcr 
Ök'rcd)tigfeit gemeifcn lucrben, mo bod) bcr (iicrecfjtig* 
fcit'^bcflriJT inl)nltlicl) (\a\VQ unbcftimmt ift, üon per* 
fönlid)cn Ivrlcbnifjcn^ (irfal)rnnrjcu uub ''?(nfd)anunocn 
nbl)nngt nnb nad) Ort, ^nt unb itultnr Jucd}yelt? 
Unb bod) gcl)ürt bic ^-ranc nacf) bcm Öcrcdjtcn^) ju 
bcn cmiiicn Js-rnncn bcy l1Jcnid)cnGcfd)lcd)tciS. üöenii bn^^ 
'Bcfcn, bic (i-rfd)cinunivMormcn unb bie Grforfdjungä* 
möglidifcit bcö 3cl)öncn unb bcö fittlicf) Ohiten (^c* 
flcnftaub lui)icnid)aftlid)cr *öetrad)tung fein fön)icn — 
9iftl)etif, (vt()if —, fo ift nid)t cin3ufcl)cn, luaruni bcr 
mcnfd)lid)C lirfcnntnic^tricb fid) jum 3cf)iücincu ,vyi"n'^>^ 
füll, meun er uor bcr Z'^'ac^c ftcljt: Söa-ä ift gcrcd)tV 
£h man bic '^Mffcnid)aft, bic ficf) mit bcr CSrfcnntni^ 
bc^ 03crcd)ten bcfafjt/ 9icd)t'imiffcn)d)aft nennen foll, 
ift eine '(^•xac\c (Vuciteit 9{ange:3. (V'5 imirbc in bicfem ^n^ 
fammcnl)ange ju tucit fü()ron, bic Untcrfud)ung üon (iJe* 
fc^^gcbungöproblemen und) Okrecf)tigfeitögrnnbfä^^en ex 
professo rcd)tfcrtigcn ^n moUcn; Ijic^u märe ein (Sin* 
bringen in metl}obolügifrf)c unb rerf)t§pI)i(ofopl)ifcf)e 
^•rogeu notiucnbig, für boä I)icr nid)t bcr ^ia{^ ift, 
§u U)clcf)cm bcm ^^crfnffcr nber and) bie 'iöerufung fel^It. 
ISinigc furjc mctl)obolügifd)c !öcmcrfnngcn muffen aber 
iiorau§gefd)irft luerbcu. Xcnn bic gröfjte ®efal)r für 
juriftifd)c Grörternngcn ift ba§ 3(ueinanbcrüorbeireben, 

1) 2:er Definitionen flibt C'3 uiele. 5?gl. ^ocrgeS, 5Red)t 
unb ®crcd)tigfcit. S- f- •){• ^^f)-, H- '-ob., 3. 173 ff.. 207. 

— 3 

bag 5(rgumcnticrcn mm iierfd)iebenen Plattformen auä. 
3Ber 5. 58. an eine ^^-ragc be§ pofitiDcn 9kd)tcg unter bcm 
(ycfid)tgpnnftc bcr I)ifturifd)cn Interpretation, bcr 5(u§^ 
Icgnng ex turic, I)crantritt, fann §u feiner dinigung 
fommcn mit bcmjcnigcn, ber bie 9(n§(egung ex mmc, 
bic teIcoIügifd)e aiJetljobc, für allein ridjtig Ijält^). 
So fommt eg, bafj ein grofjcr Xeit ber rccfjtöbogmati* 
fd)en 2agc§litcratnr nid)ty anbercg ift alä ein üon 
ocrfdjiebcncn juriftifdien C^rnnbanfdjauungen anggcljcn* 
be§ 3i"^^ccrercben üljne .straft unb ofjne ^Jiöglidjfcit 
bcr Übergengung. 3(uö biefen Cirföägungen I)erauö mnf5 
für bie folgcnbcn Untcrfndjnngcn üor allem bcr gc* 
banflid)e ^.Jlnögang^pnnft anfgc§eigt unb fcftgel)altcn 

2)ic naturrcd)tlid)c ^^f)ilüfop()ic gab fid) bcm gran-- 
biofcn ^rrtnm I)in, baf5 bay Ou'd)t auf bcbuftiocm Ä^ege 
au^i bcr 58crnunft abgeleitet luerben fönne, bafj CiS baljcr 
üon Ort, ^cit unb ilnltnr unabl}öngig fei. '3)ag immer 
tuieber ^utnge tretenbe Streben nad) Öcluinunng ah^ 
foluter Ökfid)töpnnfte nnb Üikrte ftanb gleid)criueifc an 
bcr 'ÄMcge ber 9catnrrcd)tcipl)ilofopI)ic loie bcr .Slnltnö ber 
iNcrnnnft nnb bcr oiclleid)t nneingcftanbcne Sille, bie 
5U crringcnbcn ll{cnfcf)cnrcd)tc auf eiuigc örunbfä^e 
ber Öcrcd)tigfcit §n grnnben. A'aluni non facit saltiis, 
fagt 2eibni§. Um fo jälicrc Sprünge mad)t bie 
nicnfd)Iid)e (^eifte!ggcfd)id)te. 5(uf bie 5^aturred)tä= 
pf)ilofopl)ie folgte bic l)i)*torifd)c Sd)nlc, bie im Sicdit 
eine g-nnftion beg 35ülfyfüf)leng erblicEte, bal)er fein 
$Rcd)t an fid), fonbcrn nur ^Ked)t!3orbnungcn ocrfd)icbc= 
ner 3Sölfcr fennen loolltc, gcn)ad)fcn unb gciuorbcn 
n)ie ®prad)C, 5lunft unb ^kligion nnb eng uerfnüpft 
mit bcn Sd)icffalen unb bcm ^ü^j^^n bcr Sl^olfägc^» 
mcinfd)aften, in benen fie ©cltnng erlangt l)aben. 3Bie 

-) ßin ^eifpiel für Diele: Die Diyluffion üDec bic 9Ser= 
nnrfung bc^^ SIDfevtigiingöanfprurfjcy nad) 3luflöfung be'3 Dienft= 
ml)ältniffe§. ©rünberg, 3*1. 1926, S. 206 ff.; Senljoff, 
C. ?Inn»3. 1926, S. 83 ff.; Satter, Ö. SR3. 1926, S. 210 f. 

— 4 — 

fcl)r auci) bic 9?aturrcrf)t'5pl)i(üfüpl)ie unb bic l)iftoviid)e 
Sd)uk in iijvcn önnibauffafiunncu oom äl^cfcii beö 
9ied)tc§ aiiöcinanbcnicI)on, in einem finb )ie einig: 
in ber öicringfrfjäluinn ber 9iollc be^ä WcfcOnebei^^. Tiidn 
ba§ ©eje^ fei bie .vtaiiptqnenc bc^i ^Kedjtoä», fonbcrn 
nad) bcm 9?atnrred)t bic ^atnv ber (B(id}(, nad) bev 
I)iftüri|d)cn Sd)iile bivi (yeiüül)nl)eit'3red)t. 

3n ber gtüciten !öälfte bc-j nenn^elinten ^^ahv 
^nnbcrtö entiuirfclte )id) bie l)iftüri)d)e 3d)ule immer 
me^r in ber ^)\irl)tunn be-S 9{erf)t^ipüiitii)ii:imny. Tiv:? 
9iatnrred)t iuurbe in ''M)t unb Ü^anit getan nnb iebo;? 
9{ed)töbcnfen über ba^% püfitioc 05e)cl^ [)inau§ aUi \nu 
n)iffenfd)aftlid) gebranbrnarft. 'i)?od) beuor bicfe ^Kid)* 
tung rcd)t eigentlicl) bie .verr)d)nft erlangt batte, fprad) 
i\)x fd)on .sHrd)mann-') baä Ü^erbammniiivMirteil mit 
bcn )citl)er üiel zitierten Ti^ortcn: „^rei berid)tigeiibo 
Sporte bcä ÖJefe^^goberij unb ganjc ^43ibliotI)efen merben 
9."lhifu(atur!" ©em naturiuiffeitfcl)afttid)=matcrialiftiid)en 
Oknfte ber äiunteu .s^älfte be^J neiin.^eljnten ^"sabrl)inibcrti? 
cntfprad) bic i-^ejd}ränfiing bc3 )Red)ti5bcnfeiiy auf ben 
feftftellbarcn Wefel^c5inl)alt. 2)ic grofjcn Mobififatiouen 
boten biefer 9iid)tung ein fo lueite^S ^^(rbcit^fclb, ba\] 
ba^ Streben über ba^ Wefct^ I)inan'3 burd) bie 'j?tufgaben 
bcö Xage-S ücrbriingt murbc. 2)ic ü)crcd)tigfeit unirbe 
hJoI)l alö 9{icl)tunn2imaf5ftab für bcn Ojcfeiujeber aner* 
fannt, für 9\ed)tfprcd)ung unb 9ied)t^miffcnid)aft aber 
nlö unbead)tlirl) angcfel)en. ''Jhiu fanu nicmanb bie "^e* 
bcutuug ücrfcnncn, »ueld)c bcn beiunubern^^iucrten i'ei* 
ftungcn ber 9\cd)t§bügmatif für bie gebanflid)c Drbnung 
bcg ©efc^eöftoffeä, bie (£-ntiuidIung ber 'ik^griffe nnb bic 
S3erlcbenbiguug ber 9{ed)tänornten jnfümmt Xod) 
fönnen alle biefe iJeiftuugen bic '^•ut^c uid)t jum 
Sd)meigen bringeu, ob bcnn bic 9icd)t^3bügmatif bie 
cinjigc 5(rt ber ioiffenfd^afttidjen 53cl)aublung oon 

3) ti. Slirrf)mnnn, lie ^l^ertloftgfcit bev ^uri^ipiiibcuj 
als 2Bijfenid)aft, 1847. 

— 5 — 

9kd)töpI)änomcnen ift. 3d)on joäfjrcub ber 2((tein()err* 
fd)aft bcö "^Jofitiüiömuö erftanbcn eigeniuilHge, f)od)= 
begabte "iXl^änner, bie an^3 ber 'öinbung ber 9kd)t3* 
tt)iffenfd)aft an ben Öcfe^eginljalt einen 2öeg ing f$-reie 
fud)ten. ^sljcring'^), ber größte 9fted)töbenfer be§ nenn* 
5cl)utcn ^sal)rf)unbert§, toudjö burcf) ba^ pofitioe 9kd)t 
über ba^ pofitiüe 9ied)t I)inau^3 nnb rang fid) §u einer 
2I;eoric bc'3 (^iered)ten burd), ba^ freilid) für il)n — 
feiner utilitariftifdjcn (iinfteüung entfpred)cnb — gang 
mit bem 3lücdmäf]igen jufammenfiel. (Jngen G()rlid)^) 
mad)te ben ^Jierfud), ba§ lebenbc 9kd)t, bic 9kd)tätat= 
fad)en cmpirifd) -^n erfaffen nnb p oeriuerteu, ein 
'in'rfud), ber in jüugfter ^cit üon 9iuübanm*^) 
miebcr aufgenommen luurbc. ^XII biefen 9>erfudjen trat 
Mclfen*) mit auerfeunenömertcr Sd)ärfc be^5 C^e== 
banfenö cutgegen unb fd)uf burd) bie üon if)m oorge= 
nommene ^sbentifijieruug oou Staat nnb 9tcd)t, bic 
'-IVtonung bcä 3^i)augi3momeutC'3 im 9ied)t, bie ^i^er^» 
bannuug aller „mctaiuriftifdieu" llntcrfud)ung^3metbO' 
bcn lUh^ ber 9ied)tälüiffeufd)aft — ju biefen red)net 
er aud) bie teleologifd)e 9.Uetl)obc — bem (>)efet\cä'' 
pofitii)i'5nnh^, ja, bem Oiefetu'yabfolnti^3mn§ ein logi* 
id)c§^ Si)ftem, bem man mit 9icd)t feiuc (^efd)loffen[)eit 
nad)rül)mt. Ter '-öcgriff bcy "ij.^ofitiüiijmuö nnb feine 
'ii^ertung fiub aber burd)au!ä iicrfd)ieben, je nad)bem, 
ob man bcn "^^ofitioi^Mug ber 9kcf)tfprcd)nng ober bm 
"i)iofitiDi^5muö ber 9kd)t5iüiffeufd)aft meint. ^i?er bie 
9ied)t^3fid)cr()cit I)ö()er ftetlt ali bic (ycred)tigfeit, mufj 

•1) ^Iierinfl, Xcr 3iuc;t im ^Herf)t. 4. 9(iir(. 1904/5. 
."Ourwic,^, ^Kubotf noii ofKiino uiib bic bcutfrfjc 9iccljt'5iüiffen=» 
frf)nft, 1911. 

•') (£f)iitd), Sp,^io(onic unb ^uriSprubcuj, 1906; 
(yrunblcgung bcc <Sü,'iio(onic bc-o 9{ccf)tC'3, 1913. 

^) 5.^nl- bic von 9tuf5bnum ^crnuägcgebenc 3flmm=> 
luno: 'ikitviigc jur Äenmuiö be» 9{crf)tyIcbi'Uö ("i3er(iu, 3"liu3 

~') Tic 3iif'^'"'»*^itT'^11""G bei' 2el)ren ,sTeIfen§ bietet: 
"üülgcnicinc Stant^'Iefjre, 1925. 


— 6 — 

bcm 9?if()ter üor allem 0)cicue^5trcuc nlö l]k[ Kbeii. 
SBcnu nbcc für bie 3{cf()ti5iüificnicf)aft bic 5-"liöt]licf)feit 
übcrpüfitiüen ^-orfcljciu^ in 9(n)'pi*urf) genommen mirb, 
fo I)at bieg nid)t§ gn tun mit bcn ^bcen bcr 'J-ret* 
Ted)tler, bie ben 9{id)ter ^um fclbftl)evrlid)en Souüeräu 
inad)cn moltcn. ^-ranj .Sllein fprad) fid), aU 511 ^^oginn 
bc§ 5n)an,^igftcn 3iif)i"l)inibertö bic Stürmer nnb 2;riin= 
ger ber freircd)tlid)cn ^^clücgiing'^) bie öeifter ner^ 
lüirrtcn, für ha§> ^^bcai bcr üicfeljeötrcue, aI[o für bcn 
rid)tcrlid)cn ^^^ofitiüiämuö aug'-'). ^n feinen joiffen* 
fdjaftltd)cn ^Irbcitcn jur Si^npi'OoCfjrcform, gum £r- 
ganifation§ii)cfen bcr Wegcurtjart, §um ftartcllproDteni 
gab er aber cinilkifpicl bafür, ban bic 3öiffenfd)aft uom 
9led)t mel)r ift alä 3Biffcnfd)aft üom WefcO, nnb ba)] 
and) 5ro(|en bcg merbenbcn unb be» crftrebten 9{ed)tcei 
©cgenftanb lüiffenfd)aftlid)cr ^ikljanblnng fein fönncn. 

3iir glcid)en Seit, in mcldjer .helfen nn bcr 
Tnctl)üboloQifd)cn '(5-unbicriinn beö ''^^ofitiin^^mnö nr^ 
bcitetc, criüad)te in Xeutfd)lanb bic 9kd)ti^pl)ilüiüpl)ic 
gu neuer 53Iüte. 3» ber Sdjlufjrebc ,vim IV. .^ongrefj 
für 9icd)täpr}ilofopl)ie ^i^erlin, Cftober 1926) fagtc 
ber SlMencr ^iomanift iliJ enger: „^urd) faft alle 
ai5cd)fclrebcu nnb bnrd) fo mandje 3?ürträgc 50g fid), 
l)intcr il)ncn ftanb bic eine grofjc, Ijcntc luicber all- 
beiücgenbc ^ragc nad) beut !!yerr)ältni^ be^ pofitiüen 
9icd)teö äiim totgefagten nnb bod) fo fräftig Icbcnbcn 
9?atnrrcdjr^o). ^iefe Sfi^ortc l)ättcn üor brci 3al)r- 
gcljnten oon einem Stcpräfcntantcn bcr bentfd)cn Uni- 
Uerfität^inrigprubenä nid)t gefprodjen lucrbcn fönncn. 
5i)cn ^^Infang Ijattc etammlcr'i) gemad)t. Sd)on bcr 

8) (iJnneuä S-Iqdiuc^ ^er Slampf um bic jRerfit^v- 
tüiffcnfrf)ait, 1906. 

9j ^rans mein, ©3. 190G, S. 265 ff. 

1") 3itiert nad) ?lrrf)iü für 9{ed)t^. unb Söirtfrf'aftö- 
pr)i(ofopr)ie, 1927, S. 3Ö2. 

11) 9iubo(f (Stnmmler, Xic Sct)i-e uom virfitiaeit Sicdit, 
1902; 3:t)eorie ber 9{ed)t§iüi)fen|d)aft, 1911. 

— 7 — 

Xitel feinet öauptiucrfe^^ „Xic £'el)rc üom rid)tigeu 
9ted)t" flingt mie eine 'Xbfage an ben "iisofitiöiömue. 
9iid)tige^ 9ied)tV Xaö gibt c3 ja gar nidjt! C5ö gibt 
nur geltcnbeö 9ied)t; 9iid)tigfeit entljält ein SBcrturteil 
unb jebc 2Biffcnfd)aft muf; loertfrci urteilen. 9tbgefel)cn 
baoon, baf} biefer Oh-unbfau in ber allgemeinen ÜlMffcn- 
fd)aftölel)re burd)au'3 nidit ancrfannt loirb, bat 
Gtammlcr biefcn (iinmentmugcn infofern 9icd)nung 
getragen, aU er auf inl)altlid)c 'ik^ftimmtljcit feine;? 
rid)tigcn 9icd)teö ocrjidjtctc unb aly rid)tige^5 9kd)t 
jeneg bcjcid^netc, ba^s an bcr 9tcd)tyibcc orientiert ift. 
^er 9ied)t§ibee nun cntforid)t jene 'i)c'orm, bic ha^i 
fo^iale 3^t?^t (iii öcriuirflidicn beftrebt ift. Stammler 
fud}t alfo einen allgemein gültigen lelUen ^.Iiu'rt, ocr- 
meibct aber bie ^-eljler be^i ^)caturred)tey baburd), bafj 
er auf jebc inl)altlid)C 'i^eftimmtbeit biefe^^ 3bcali> 
t)cr3id)teti-). Tic anfpvedjeiibfte Üserföl)iuing bc^i un- 
ausrottbaren Strebeuy nad) iiuffcufd)aftlid)er lyrfaffuug 
beS (ycred)ten mit bcn (iiiuuänben, meld)e gegen bie 
Wöglid)feit abfolntcr "ili.H'rtungeu crl)oben lucrben, bürfte 
jene 9iid)tnng barftellen, bic man aliS red)tvipbilofo- 
pl)ifd)en 9\elatioi!?niuv5 be^^ncbnet. Ter bcbeutenbfte 'iser- 
treter biefer C^Jcbanfenrid)tuiig ift ^Kabbrud)!^). "Sie 
Ici^Ucn ;]iele beS 9{cd)te^3 finti nid)t bcr t<:rfcnntnicv 
fonbern nur beS ^iU'fenntniffeö fäl)igii). Cb alfo eine 
9{ed)töorbnung auf bcr inbiuibncllcn ilNcrantiuortlid)- 
feit unb bem '^irioatcigentum ober auf bcr gefellfd)aft- 
Iid)cn Oberleitung unb ber ^iVM*d)ränfung bc'5 "i^rioat- 
eigentumS auf Monfumgüter auf,ytbancn ift, ij't nid)t 
Sad)C bc'3 Cvrfenncui>, fouDern bcy 'in'feunenö. iilHMtn 
man fid) aber für ein letueö (inb^iet entfd)icbcn bat, 
fo finb bie jur 'iU'rU)irflid)ung biefcy 9kd)töibealö 

12) Xrcffeitb m. G. ^Malier, 9tcrf)tÄpr)irofopf)ic, 1922, 
S. 20 f. 

13) 9{nbbrud), öininb^ügc bcr 9kd)t'5pr)ilofopf)ic, 1914, 
€. 24 ff. 

1') 2icfc i^oniiuliciumj ftammt üou 9iabbruc^. 



füf)rciibcn ^JJüvmcn — ol)ne ^){üifiirf)t auf i()rc pofitiü- 
rcd)t(id)c Weitung — mn fo cljor bcr ISrfcuutniö fällig, 
je lücitcr i'ic bon beu \c[\kn i^ub^kkn entfernt nnb 
je näfjcr fie in bor ^Kiiijtnnji ber Spoäiatnormcn 
liegen. Tic Intfacl)e alfo, bnf} bic IctUcn ^^rngcn 
ber 9ied)tgorbunng U)i|feu)d)aftliif)er Ä^ertnug cntrücft 
finb, beiocift uif[)t^3 negou bio Wüglicl)feit, bie nä()er= 
liegcnben, nidjt bic k(\icn Jsvageii boriiljrenbeu Tonnen* 
fümplc;i-e auf i^re i1\id)tiiifeit l)in lüi)ienfd)aft(id) jn 
prüfen, (iö ift d)araftoriftifcl), tci)] e^i ein Staate* 
rerfjticr mar, ber üor faft juici ^aljr^^eljutcn ben Mnmpf 
gegen bic „metrtjnriftifdicn" ^IWnbobeu in ber !jRed)tg* 
U)i)fcnfd)nft mit bem gnii^^iou ^liüft^^cui^ ber Sogif auf* 
genommen fjat^''). '•liMh^ auf bem WeDietc bcy ^tciaUi^ 
red)tcö rid)tigeö 9ied)t ift, ob ^Hutofnitlc ober Temo* 
fratic, ob iWüiiard)ie ober ^icpiiblif, ob gleidjci^ ober 
'iMurn(iiniI)Ired)t, ift eine ^-rage bc'i i^efenuen'i, nid)t 
bc§ C£-rfenneu'5. '?(ui biofem OV^bietc gibt cä ein feft* 
ftellOarcö ridjtigc» )}lcd)t geiuif; nid)t. '2)a^ '^rioat* 
red)t aber, ba^, mnn man von feinen (Mrunblngen 
abfielt, nur lueuige ()r''rt^'"f'^"H'lt'i»'' cntljiitt, in 
bencn bn-^ tyvf^'mu'n ^cm '-l^efenneu lücidjeu niufj, 
I)ätte einen bcrartigcn Jselb-^ug gegen nictojuriftifd)e t\ite* 
tljobcn niemals gercd)tfcrtigt. 

'Ji'enn nlfo im folgenbcn bie öeredjtigfeit al^ 
^cnrtei(ung?mnf}ftab für ein bcftimmte^ 9{e*d)t'3gebiet 
ücrmeubct luirb, fo faun bem nid)t, mic eS oft gefd)iel)t, 
eutgegengeljaltcu Juerbcn, cö gebe überijaupt feine "i^er* 
U)irflid)ung ber Okred)tigfeit, bcnn fd)on, ba\i 5. "ö. 
ber eine rcidj unb ber auberc arm fei, oerftofjc gegen 
bie (^ercd)tigfeit!5ibec. Tie WrunbUigcu unferer i)euti= 
gen gefeafd)aftlid)eu unb rcd)tlid)en Crbnnng lucrbcn 
aB ^(uggangöpunftc fupponiert. .V)ält mau bie'fe örunb* 
lagen für nugeredjt, fo bered)tigt bieg nod) nid)t jur 
^Verurteilung einer Uutcrfudjung, bie -- nad) ber i^Jk* 

^■>) Äclfen, .vauptprobtcmc ber gtaatiivcrf)töroI)re, 1911. 

9 — 

t^obe beä fritifc^eu 9lc(atioigmua — fcftsuftellcn be* 
ftrebt ift, ob ein beftimmter pofitibred)tlid}er 9brmen* 
fontpiep rid)tigeg, ha§> Ijeifjt geredjte^ 9^cd)t ift. 

IL ^at|nrf)(id)c^. 

9ied)t§queIIc für has, llJietrcdjt iraren Diö in 
ben Jükltfrieg Ijinein au0fd)Iief5lid) bie ^^eftimmungen 
be§ allgemeinen bürgevlidjcn Wefc(5bud)C^i über hm 
^-Bcftanbocrtrag. Wit 9{ed)t loarf mau biefen 33eftim* 
muugen üor, bafj fie bai I1t{etred)ti50erl)ältnii:^ gu mcnig 
über bie aubereu beut Cb(igatiouenred)t angeijörcnben 
^^crtragötijpeu emporI)übcu, bafi fie au!§ beut fojialen 
(il)arafter ber 3.lVoIjuung§miete ,^u lucuig red)tlid)c '^oU 
gerungen jogen. OJegen ein ,^u reid)lidjcö CSinftrömen 
fojialer 03ebaufen in ba§ llJietred)t micberum lüurbe 
eingeiuenbet, bafj bie 3SüI)nung§probuftion üoriuicgeub 
bem prioateu .Slapital obliege unb biefcö burd) ju 
n)eitgel)enbe fo^ialpolitifdjc IH'afjnaljuien — ftreuge 
löauorbnnugeu, ti-rfd)iuerung ber .Slünbbarfcit — bnüon 
abgcl)alten merbe, fid) im ."oauSban ju betätigen"^). 
^n Üfterreid) fam ju biefen IVomenteu nod) eine üer* 
fef)Ite, roljc oteuergcfcl3gebung l)in§n, \vdd}c bie ioauö* 
ginöfteuer §um 9iürfgrat ber '^ubgetö ber öffentlidjen 
(^ebietöförperfd)nfteu mad)te. 2:ie loau^jinöftcuer, al§ 
(S-rtraggftcuer mit bem ^luedc ber 35orbeIaftung fuu= 
bierten tiiufommeuy gebadet, lüurbe auf bem 'iBege 
regelmäßiger Übcriuäläung ju einer 33elaftung be§ 
'il^oljuuug^ifüufumcutcn, bie — etioa 45o/o beö'örutto* 
ginfcg betragenb — ba^ 'il'obnunggeutgclt auf ein 
im IVernleid) jn bcn i^erljältuiffcn in ben 9hid)bar* 
ftaaten fel)r I)oI)eg ^Jtiocau I)iuauftrieb nnb babnrd) 
ungünftig auf bie 3BoI)uDerl)äItniffc eiun^irftc. Tnrd) 
bie Einfang 1917 erlaffcnc llifieterfd)u^ocrorbuuugi') 

ip) ^f)ilippiniid), Ok-unbriü 
nomie, II 2, S. 337 ff.; bort aud) 

ber pülitifdjen ßfo^ 

einfrf)Iägige Literatur. 

17) 3?crorbnun(i nom 2G. ^nnner 1917, 9t(M33I. 9tc. 34, 

— 10 — 

lüurbe bog Slünbiöinig^rccf)t bc^ ionu^cincntümcr^ 
tücfcntUd) einni1cl)ränft unb jebc "i»Jtiet5in^crI}öl)iing Der* 
boten, iamalö ()ätte man biö lueit in bic ilreijc 
bcr tüiffcnldjnftlid) 03cbi(bctcn Ijincin feine ü^orftethmii 
bouon, hü\] bie Ql(entl)atben iüaI)rnenommene (ir= 
I)öl)ung bcr greife jum Xctl aud) nnf bie (i-utiuertiinn 
\>c^ Üielbcg §urürf5ufül)ren )ci. ^^Preiötreiberctocfel^ unb 
9)Zicterfd)utiöcrürbnung entsprangen beibe bem Streben, 
gu Derl)inbcrn, bafj fid) bie 3>erminbernng beö ^^higc^ 
botc§ auf ber 2iJnreu)eite in '^reiv^fteigerungen aibi^ 
U)irfc. Sq^ Steigcrnug^Suerbüt iuar eine '*Xrt .v>öd)ft* 
:prei§nonn für 3ikil)nungen. liiJäljrenb aber bivi %xc[^' 
treibcreigefe(v bn^ uon ber üülf3iuirtfd)aftüd) uurid)* 
tigen ^robuftionöfüftentljeorie ausging, praftifri) nur 
ouf ßJüter 9[nlücnbnng faub, bic inuner iumi probu« 
giert lüurben, bei benen alfo bie üeräubertcn Üserljätt* 
uiffe auf bcr Slnircn^ unb auf ber Oklbfeite ficf) imnier= 
f)in in ben (^eftcljungyfüfteu ber ueneu "^irobuftc aii^' 
brürften, fonnte ba§ CÜ-ntgelt für bie Wiete, baiä ja 
fein Gntgclt für bic 'i^euütuing neu probujierter 
.SSäufcr luar, ber bantaligeu "Xuffaffuug cutfprcd)cnb 
imutcr ba^^ gleid)c bleiben. (Sa> ucriinberte ficf) aud) 
nid)t, n(^> bie üielbentiucrtung uont .s>erbft 11)19 an 
unaufljaltfam fortfdjritt. ^\m Sommer 1921, nl^^ ber 
©elbluert auf ctlua ein !önnbert)*tcl gcfunfen )uar, »oar 
bie ©efamticiftung für bie l^tietc et)ua ba^S doppelte 
bcr 9füminalfnmnte oon 1914. Tic parlamentarifdjc 
58cf)anbluun bc;^ gcgeutuärtigcn ^.IJieteugefcl^c^i fiel in 
bie 3ctt iäl)efter Wclbentiuertunn; nur fo ift csJ ju er* 
flärcn, bafj ba^ ^Wieteugefeo, ba^j nad) erfolgter Sta* 
bilificrnng bc§ Oklbiuertcy befd)Ioffen unb fnubgcmad)t 
tüurbe, alg normalen 3nftiiiibl)altnngö5im5 bay 150= 

„über bcn Sd)ut} bcr 9?iictcr" Tauf ©runb bcr .siaif^iii. üom 
10. Cftober 1!)14, 9{0Wt. ^r. 274); fpätcr: i^crorbnung üom 
20. Jänner 1918, ^IWJ^iM. ^Jh". 21, unb SScrorbnintß Dom 
26. Cftober 1918, 9{W^.i3I. 9Jr. 381. Über bic llutcrfdjicbc 
ä»otfd)en bicfen 33crovbnungcn, ügl. Stcniberg, S. lOff. 


fad)e beö Ü^orfriegönomiualc^^, alfo et)ua ein ^^U-ojent 
bee 58orfriegöäinfeg, feftfcut. !i:a oon bem im ^aljre 
1914 ge§al)lten iWiet.^in^^ etiua 80.0 für o»Üi^"b()al* 
tung§5lüerfe berloenbet luerben mnfjten, fo luärcn 
I)eute, luenn nur bie (^k1^entll)ertnng berürffid)tigt )uirb, 
1200 ÜBorfrieg^^jinfc, loenn bie and) in C>iolb loefent* 
lid) geftiegcucn uiirflicben ^"ftanbbadungyfofteu §U' 
grnnbe gelegt loerben, minbeftenc> 1800 "«.^orfriegij* 
^infe ,sur 3"ftii"bl)altung Der .N:änfer nötig. 

Xie iWicter be,vil)len nun anf?cr bem 3"ftnnb= 
baltnngöäiny uod) bie ^iknriebsfofteu, bie •il^ol)ubau' 
ftcucr unb ba^i l)albc ^icominale beö ilNorfricg§,ynfei^, 
biefe^ alö .S^auöbi-'vrcnrente — ctioa V- Ok-Dfd)en 
inonatlid) für eine Ciinymmeriuobnung, •'*', Wrofd)cn 
für eine 'Dreigimmenuobnunii unb 2 biy H Wrofcl)en 
für eine 3ed)'55immcr)ool)nuug! ;\-ür fleine unbWittcl* 
ftaub'3iuol)niingen beträgt ba^^ Wefamtentgclt, menn 
feine Cvrl)öl)nng bciS ^suftanMialtungv^^infci^ oorgenoni' 
meu mürbe, cttüa ba^^ HOOf acbe be« ^isorfriegijnomi* 
nale^3. ^0 jebod) in bcn meiften .s:äufern mcit mel)r 
aU baä ir)Ofacl)c an ouftanMjaltungö.Mnö ge,vil)lt luirb, 
barf man uielleirbt - genaue Xaten fel)len — oon 
ber ^iNorauöfebuug ausgeben, ban bic öftcrreid)ifd)C 
5l^eoölferung im Turrbfcbnitt für bie ^>3cfriebignng be^ 
älHd)nungv3bebarfc^3 bas 1000* hv$ ir)00fad)C beö l^or* 
friegsnominale'3 be5al)lt, alfo ctioa 7 bi^ lOo/o bcffen, 
tuad oor bem Kriege be,vd)lt lourbe. Unter ber 'ütn- 
nabmc, baf; eiiu^ Ivinjimmenuobnnng oor bem .siricgc 
30 K, eine Trei.vntmenuobunug löO K unb eine 
eod)'55immermol)uung 400 K monatlid) gcfoftet {)abcn, 
beträgt ber geiicmoävtige Tnrcbfd)nitt!5aufmanb für 
eine liin^immenoobuuug ;> S bi§ 4,50 S, für eine 
^reisimnieriuoljnung 15 S bis 22 S, für eine Sed)S- 
5immermol)nung 40 S bi^5 60 S monatlid). 3n fcnen 
!^;Ȋnfcrn, in benen mau uod) beim 150fad)en S^m 
'{alt, loären bie analogen ;^iffern etma 90 Ö)rofd)en, 
4,50 S unb" 12 S. ^u i^ro^icntiägcn au'3gcbrüdt, be* 


beutet bieg, baf3 beim 1000^ bi^ 1500faff)eu ißor^ 
frtegönominnle 7 bis lOo/o, beim 300füd)cn ^orfriegä* 
nominale etn^nS über 2 o/o beffen begafilt tnirb, \va§> in 
ber 3^it üor bem Kriege alö Gntgett für 5ll^of)uiingen 
unb @c[i^äft§räume geteiftet lüurbc. 2)emgegenübcr 
finb bie greife ber übrigen "öebarfägcgeuftänbe nuf 
150 bi^ 2OO0/0 ber ^or!rieg!ol)öl)e gefticgen. 

(£-S fnnn aI[o — mit erlaubter Übertreibung — 
be[)auptet werben, baf] baS 2Bof)nbebürfniö I)eute ent* 
geltlog befriebigt tt)irb, ha}] bie ?JMetäin[e uunifi5iert 
finb. (Gegenüber biefer grunblegenben 2;atfad)c be^S 
I)eutigen SSoI)nung§mictred)teö fiub alte anbercn 9tor== 
men be§ "iiJJtetredjteö, ingbefonbere bie .^ünbigungSer* 
fd)iüeningen, Don fefunbärer !öebeutung. 9Jid)t fo fel)r 
ber Umftanb, bafj ben .s^au'5eigcntümern ber ßrtrag 
il)rc§ (iigentumg geuommeu löirb, alS bie Jatfadje, 
ba^ bie lliietcr il)r 'ilkil)nbebürfniö entgeltloä be* 
friebigen, brüdt bem I)cutigcn iifterreid)ifd)en Wict" 
red)t ben Stempel auf; fie ift bie Urf ad)e jener ßr- 
fd)einungeu, bie audj ein primitiüeä ^)xed)tSgefü^I tief 
betrüben unb bie im folgeubeu einer fi)ftematifd)en 
Unterfudjung uuterjogen luerben füllen. 

ni. 3^nö t^rtnsiV ber ©Icid)l)cit. 

2Bie ba0 Söefen beS (5d)öucn el)er auS ber 33ctrad)* 
tuug unb ^>3curtcilnug von l^iifjgebilbcu erfr()(offen mer* 
ben fann, fo faun man and) baä 3Sefen beS (ycred)ten 
am eljcften burd) bie Unterfudjung foId)cr ^Jtormcn 
crfcuncn, bie bem 3kd)tggefüt)I offenfunbig luiber* 
fpredjen. Xic 2)urd)forf(^ung beö gettenben öfterreidji* 
fd)en 93tietred)teä förbert öeredjtigfeitögruubfätjc zutage, 
bie allgemeiner 5(nmenbung fäl)ig finb.- 9luä ber Untere 
fudjung gerabe biefeä 9ted)t£^gebietcg ergeben fid) folgenbe 
(^ered}tigfeit§gniubfät^e allgemeiner 9^atur: 

1. ber ©ruubfa^ ber ®Ieid)I)eit; 

2. ber ©runbfa^ ber 91ormeu{)armonie; 


3. ber öruubfau ber ^'Utuiuatenj; 

4. ber (^runbjati bc^5 ^-öercidjerungSüerboteg. 
®iefe Üirunbfäue licgeu iiid)t alte auf ber gleid)eu 

Iogifd)en (Ibene. Xie ^iscrleUuug beö (^runbfat3ey ber 
92ormen()armouic ift oft bie llrfad)C üon ^erftöfsen 
gegen anbere (^ered)tigfeiti?nruubfäl3C. 58er(etunigcu ber 
•i^srinjipien ber W(cid)()eir, bor ^iUiuiualen,^, beö Ik- 
reid)cruugi5oerbütey ge)d)cl)eii maudjmal mit 'il^iffcu 
unb 'Tillen be» 'ilioruifet^ery, öfter aber ergeben fie 
fid) — öom Wefeugeber gar uid)t geluoüt — barauö, 
bafj ber Wrunbfau ber 'Jtormcul)aruionie uid)t bead)tet 
tuirb. 9ceben biefeu C*>kred)tigfcitöprin5ipien gibt ei? 
nod) maudjo aiibere mie i)cn Dk'unbfaij oom Sdjutk' 
crlüorbeuer l'liodjte. Cs'" luefeutlidjen aber finb e!^ bie 
eben augefüfjrteu Wcvcrfitigfciti^grnubfäi^e, mit bcncn 
fid) eine 'l^etrad)tuug bey l)eutigeu lUietred)teö am^ 
eiuauber,yifeiuMi I)at. Xiefe Wruubfätjc fiub iul)a(t(id) 
feiueiSRiegci abfolut. Sie ergebeu fid) ütelmel)r a(S 
b(üf5 foruiate 'l^riu.^iipieu aui^ ber ':}(uali)fe beiS Ök** 
red)tinfeitc^begriffe'5. 2ie ^.}tuffaffung barüber, Juaö g(eid), 
mag iiquiüaleut, mag ^ikn-eid)evuiig ift, nied)fett; alg for^ 
male Mategorieu aber fiub biefe (sirunbfätK bauernber 
iöeftaubteil utcufd)lid)cu 9ied)tc>beufeng. 

Tag ^i>riu,^ip ber ü)leid)I)eit, ha-j in ciiicn euro* 
päifd)eu iserfaffuugeu luie^ertVl)rt, mirb geuieiubini^) 
in bem Siuue oerftanbci;, baf; oor bem C^efei^e alle 
Staatc^bürgor gleid) fi^^, ba^ Üiefe^ alfo auf alle 
Staatc^n'irger gleidiartig augoiueubet luerbeu muf;. 
3n biefem Siuue bebeutet, luie yeibl)ol§i-M über- 
geugeub uad)geiuiefeu bat, ber Wruubfat^ ber (N5leid)l)eit 
nidjtg aubereg alg bag ^l'riujip ber (s^efetunäfjigfeit. 
Xeuu ba]] ber an ba^i C))cfeii gebuubeue 9iid)ter ober 

6. 30 ff. 


SScriualtuiuiijbcaintc ba^ (^ki'c^ nid)t narf) ber ^^crfon 
Dcö j)\cc[)töiintcmiürfcncn, nad) feiner S^onfeffion ober 
anbcrcn pcrjönlidjcn, aber rcd)tüd) irrcieüanten (vigcn- 
fd)nften üerfd)icbcn amuenbcn barf, ift in einem 9vcd)tä* 
ftnnt fcIbftDerflänblid). ^a§ i^ringip ber ®Ieid)t)cit bc* 
bcntct jcbod) mcfjr. 

■;?((§ in ber stuciten .v^älfte bei ad)t5el)nten 3iil)i^' 
f)nnbertg ber ölcid)f)eitlgcbnnfc .verjcu unb §irnc er* 
oberte, oerftanb man baruntcr fcinegiucciä ben 9inf 
nad) g(cid)arttger '^(niucnbnng ber bamaligen öefct^c, 
fonbcrn ben 3{uf nad) ilircr '^(biinbcrnng im Sinne 
ber '^efeitignng üon Ung(cid)r)eiten. Senn bamal^ 
bCi^S .Vanptgeuiid)t baranf QC^t^gt mürbe, bnf; bie 
priünte 3{cd)t?jäl)igfeit, bie \nmterfäf)igfcit nnb bie 
pülitifd)cn ^Kcri)tc Don 05cbnrt unb ^^(bftamnuing nn* 
abbängig, aljo g(cid) im bamnligen 3iune, [ein folUcn, 
}o entmidette fid) ber 03Icid)()cit5grnnb[at^ oKmäblid) 
gu einem allgemeinen öiered)tigfeitögrunb[a^, ber bem 
(^kfcl^gcbcr bie ''^iüd)t auferlegt, glcidjgcartete Jat* 
beftiinbc g(eid)artin $u regeln. 2)er ©treit geljt nun 
barum, mic lueit bicfcr ©runbfay in ben üerfdjicbencn 
^)icrl)t!?ürbunngcn püfitiurcd)tlid)er iBerfaffungciinljalt ge= 
morben ift. 

^ie beutfd)e üerfaffungörcd)tlid)e Sitcratur negiert 
nberiüiegenb einen oerfaffung§rcd)tIid) gefd)üj3ten '^Ui' 
fprnd) auf QJ(eid)beI)anbhing bnrd) ben Öicfetjgcber. 
^u Staaten febod), in bencn man fid) bon ber .'öerr* 
fd)aft beö öefetjcöQbfoInii-jmnö freier erl^alten fonutc 
alö in '3:)eutfd)Ianb — in ber (Sd)mei5 unb in ben Ü^er* 
einigten Staaten non ^torbamcrifa — fommt c§> nid)t 
feiten wx, bafj bie obcrfteu C^eridjte ©efcjjc auffjeben, 
bie bem öerfaffung'3rcd)tlid) gemöl^rleifteten öirnnbfat5 
ber ®leid)t)eit im Sinne ber 'lßiüd)t be§ ©efe^'igeberiJ 
5ur gteid)artigen :')iegclnng gleid)artigcr Xatbcftänbe 
mibcrfbrcdjen-"). Seibbol^, ber ebenfalls baö ®Ieid)=^ 

2") Seibf)oIj, S. 112 ff. 

— 15 — 

I)citöprinäip alä eine nid)t nur an bie (L^efc^clüoII^ 
jieljung, fonbcrn aud) an bie Öefe^gebung gerid)tete 
^orberuug anficl)t, befinicrt ben '-Begriff ber @IeidjI)eit 
aB bie nad) bem jemeiligcn ^){cd)töbemuf5tfein nid)t 
mil(fürlid)c .'s:)anbf)abung bcso an bie 9tbreffe üon 
Oted)töfubiefteu geridjtctcn ^J\ed)te§ bnrd) ben (yefef5* 
geber unb bie !l^oll5icl)nng-\). 'ilad) biefer Umfd)rei* 
bung unterliegt ber Ocrfaffung0red)tlid)en ?(nfedjtung 
anä bem Xitel ber i^crleiuing bei ÖIeid)I)eitlprinäipö 
ein öiefet^ nid)t fd)on bann, wenn glcidjartige ^Tat" 
beftiinbc üerfd)icben geregelt uicri)cn, fonbcrn erft bann, 
menn biefe ^^(nberlartigfeit ber ll^ormierung auf äöill* 
für bcrul)t. ^ic Untcrfdjcibung jioifdjen äUillfür unb 
bead)tlid)en (yrnnbcu fpottct einer allgemeinen ^-or* 
mulicrung; immcrl)in finbct ber l^egriff ber äöillfürbel 
(^efci^gebcrl einSeitcnftüd in bcnr-lkgriff bei 5Jtif3braud)l 
bei freien (£-rmeffcnl bnrd) ii.^o(l5icl)unglürgane. Sfi^enn 
biefer iöegriff fid) bal pofitioe 3kd)t erobert I)at — 
9rrt. 129, m- '5 oft. 'B'm:--) — , fo fann man biel- 
Ieid)t bod) l)offcn, bafj and) ber li?ipraud) ber öefet\= 
gcbunglgcioalt einmal ücrfaffunglgcrid)tlid)cr .Slogni= 
tion unterluorfcn merben uürb. ÄMc »oeit bal in bicfent 
Sinne gcfafjtc (yicid)l)eit!?prin5ip bcrciti ©egenftanb 
ber pofitiücn 35erfaffungcn ift, mag bal)iugcftellt 
bleiben; fid)cr aber ift, ha^ bal 'iprin§ip ber ÖJleid)== 
bcl)anblung bnrd) ben 9tormfcljcr eine ^-orberung ber 
®ered)tigfeit bebeutet -2). 'IsJcnn ein Sd)ullel)rer auf 
ba^ !^ärmcn in ber illaffe bcrart reagiert, bafj er nur 
bie in einer 33anfrcil)e fitHMibcn 3d)üler äum 9Jad)fi(\en 
ücrurteilt, fo mirb fid) fcbcl betroffene ilinb über bie 
Ungcred)tigfeit befd)meren. Si^orin befteljt biefe? S)arin, 

21) ßetbr)ol5, S. 87. 

22) SSfll. l)te5U S3emerfitngcit Slelfen§, Kommentar 
3UC 53unbeSücrfaffunn, 6. 242 f. 

-3) 9SgI. 9lcicf)ef, Unflagbarc 5litfprürf)e. :5I}«inGä 
S«., 33b. m, S. 82: „^ie @ered)tigfeit forbert ©leid)« 
bcl)anblung gleid^et 2)ingc." 

^. J(, — 

boft - wenn frfjoii riirfjl inbioibu^K oü^r-?»: n^trs — 

nur bie Jtiiibcr bcr ciMcn i/ianfre • : i'-f :-e 

b<^t anbeten i/iaiifrciljf norfjfiljcn mw^ir., aii'o m 
l^erle^unfl cx/s f'';Ii'i(f}f)('iW(jrtr^ic3, 

Xaf} flprfjbc im ."(larnpf um bas iRir.rcif: :: = 
C^A^djtjeilQmnj^iV mit brm fy)eTec^ti3f*i:2c».;r:f'' ::* 
foI(f)em ibenlifi^iicrl tuirb, ^ciqt bog oon beii ^^rr^-^iaerr. 
bes fjciuinni J)lerf)tö;inftanbe3 ftänbi.q c*rrr^r.;-c:c 2r= 
qumcnt, ba]^ bie öniiöcincntümer ntc^t }±U-±ziz zy- 
ftellt feien als bie nnbercn ^43efiBer Dor. iSorfr:^?* 
öermbncn. Uüenn bie ^Heuten- uno .nrieg5inle-.3^ir:5:r. 
bie l^fanbbrief* unb .s:»i)püt^cfargläu6igex, Dti Z'z'.:-- 
gationäre, iwx}^, bie .SlrunenroertbeuBer, nicbt r/ar hr. 
(irtrag i{)rcs ^i^ermönenö, fonbcrn auc6 bis S'2rTr.j;-:r. 
felbft ücriorcii l)aben, fo fei es fein Ur.ri±:. ~-:r.r. 
bie >;Quseiflentrnncr be!5 (itlranc^ ibret .^äu^er üiutir.:' 
Derhiftin n^'^)i'"- v^^" biefer x'Iriiumentiiiion lie^: ror 
allem ein nri^ber 'iVn-fton n^n^'" bie ÖninDgeiese njin» 
fd)aftlid}en i:enfeui3. 4*Jenn uom ^tii einij «liegen» 
ftanbes geiprorf)en luirb, fo meint man Den üSen für 
ben (rinentiimer. ^üi* bicicn \)^\im il^iierhäufer irfoUie 
ber Miinbigiiniv^be|d)ränfuiuien, \\\t prafriidi ilüni::« 
gung^iuerboten gleidifonimen, feinen i'ubiefiiDen i?e» 
braudiemert. \Hber aud) ber objeftiiv' ^■.:uf±n?en eir.e-i' 
Ohitecv bie Aübigfeit nänilid), auf bcm '?.''iarfre einen 
"l'rei!? ^n eqielen, ift, luie bie öfterveidiifctie nj^cn^l« 
öfonomiidie 3d)nle inid)i^eu)iefen bat-* , nidit-5 ani^erej 
aliö eine Aolge ber bent (^hile innenHibnen:*e:i ctjcn- 

« • « *■ 

1d)a|t, lür ben (iriuerber über einen ^iiadiinaui: ^c>5^ 
felben Janglid)ev5 yjc'iiiel ber ^iV>bürfniAbcfnebt.iurui \\i 
fein, euuieit nlfo ber objefiiiie Janfd)niort auf Dein 
fnbieftiuen (s\ebniiid)s-5Uierl beruht, ift er für ^Viicrbaufer, 
bie beul Oijn.|iiiiuici iiidii \\\\ ^>^efriebiiinru] feine-? 
il'ooljnbeburfey bieiu-ii fnMueu, lUiogefdialter. ^"ine an- 

^') !!JUH)iii 'Mdiiii I f, Ciiimhiilni' ^^•l IlKorie ^'-5 :virt- 
fd)aftlii1)ni (^iiitniuciii-^,, ..v ). ^M ii. ol. ISSii, -to. 'i^c*. 

- 17 — 

bere CneKc beö objeftiüen Xaufd)it)erte^ ift bie 
(j:rtragöfäf)igfeit. äi^Min aber ber (Srtrag ber ioaufcr 
nullifiziert bleibt — \\\\^ nad) bcm '^srogramm ber 
9fnl)änger beö fogeuannten ^l}iietcrfd)ut'iC!^ foll bie 
ii>au^5l)errcnrentc nid)t mefjr aufleben —, bann 
lönncn Wietfjiinfcr nie luiebcr einen obicftiuen Taufd)= 
lücrt erlangen. Xer gegeniuärtigc geringfügige i8cr= 
feliryluert ber beut ^iWietengefeu unterliegenben Ji>ül)n= 
Ijäufer lüirb nur burd) bie .s^offnung auf eine balbige 
23efeitigung bcö I)cutigeu ^)ied)ty,^uftanbe-3 aufrcd)ter* 
I)alten. 3.lMirbe feftftcl)en, baf; ber ßnft'Jiib ber iWietjin^S* 
nultifiäierung ein Xauer.yiftaub bleibt, fo müßten bie 
ionufcr 5lüangölänfig — für bie Ciigentünter — üöllig 
tuertloö luerben. Xie 'iöelianptung alfo, W\\ ba» gegen* 
märtige 'i'Jcietred)t ben .s^aucnngeutümern nur btw (ir- 
trän il)i'eö il^ennögeny ent.^iebt, il)ncn aber ben iii>crt 
be^felben beläfu, ift uurid)tig. Äk^m nun feftfteljt, 
W^ b^^ l)cutige 'i>.1?ietred)t ben (i-igentümern (Ertrag 
unb Subftang if)rcü isermögeu^i ju ent(^ie[)en geeignet 
ift, fo ntuf5 unterfud)t merben, ob beim luirflid) bie 
red)t!?politifd)e \Hnalogie ,yi ben Mronengläubigern ge» 
fleben ift. 

%\\^:> beut Xarleben ftebt bent OMäubiger luie bei 
allen reinen Welbforbcruugen nur ein perfünlid)er ^w 
fprud) auf lantuiidoiii eiiisdoiu goiicris ju. "Xa^ä 
gcmis Sinil^rungögelb unterliegt btw 3dndfalen ber 
Si^älirungebeiuertung unb be^J 5xHil)runggred)teö. Xurd) 
bie ^Wiete luirb ein mel)r meniger bauernbcö "iöebürfniö 
burd) ®ebraud), nid)t burd) ü^crbraud)^'') einciS (^e= 
nufjgute'5 cntgeltlid) befriebigt. o'» gefd)äftlid)en ^'eben 
lüirb biefe-5 :'Ked)t^5lierl)ältnii5 oft i!cil)C genannt — 
luie bei Sd)reibmafd)incu, Hleibcrn, !öüd)ern — ift 

2"') Xec öegenfatj üoit öJcbraud) unb 33erbi-aud) ift 
)uriftifrf)cr 9?atnr (i.H'rbrnud)[inre, unncrbraudjbavc 3ad)m); 
iuirtfd)attlid) unterfd)cibiMi fid) Die — im j){ed)t*5finnc — un= 
Licrbrnudjbaren >5od)en nou \ii\\ üeibiaud)baien nur babui\i), 
ho!^ bei ben crfteren ber i^crbrauri} längere ^di erforDcit. 

— Is- 
abel- rcri)tlid), iiHMiu Mc ^>^cnüt.unin (icflon (i\\tc\c{t er- 
folgt, inuncr tliiictc. 'il^cr ein .'onii'S bcr Xorfimn bo^^ 
^ilkiliiibcbarfci^ frnnbcr ^Vtcniriicu luibmot, tut uirlitö 
anbcrcö ciU bcr Mlaincrücrniictcr, bcr Sfl)rcibmaid)inon- 
uertcidcr, bie l'cil)bibliotl)ofi?iiil)abcriii, bic biirfl)luoiv^ bc= 
iiül^biUT Taucrfiütcv ncncn ucrcinbartc iHMtütuing^^ontndte 
bcr ^ikfricbininin frcmbcii 'i^cbnrfc':? luibmcii. Taf; bei 
übcrjliid)lic()cr ictrad)tiinn bic .vxiii'^^cincntümcr bcu 
^Kcntncrn, ^^ifanbbricfbcjiocrn, .s.M)pütl)cfarnliiiibii^cnt 
nlcid)(^cftcllt lucrbcii, bat icincn C^iruub baviii, bnf; 
bcr N:aii^ibciil^ fo luic bcr "i^cfil^ uoii .Slroncmucvtcii 
feiner (S-niftcbunn iinb feinem priüatnnrtfd)aftlid)eu 
^merfe nad) nvöntcntcilij crfpartci* 'i>erfiirnuniv:?finntal 
barftcKtc, uuil)renb bic ben Ok'nenftnnb nciucrbijniär,iiier 
'luTmietnnfl bilbenbcn ('»^iitcr ^iHnricb^iifiUntal ncfcbüft- 
lirijcr Unterncbnninncn bilbcn. Tiefe nid)t ciniiuil 
bnrri)nvcifenbc 'iHnfd)iebcnbcit in bcr priuatnnrtfd)afi' 
lid)en Aimftion rcditfcrtii-jt eine Xiffcrcn.^ievnnn in 
bcr J)iid)tunii bcr ,^iimniicMucifcn lintflclti^nnllifi.^ienini] 
bcr einen Wnippc (\m\\] nirf)t. .v-^nttc bic ))icd)tciorbnnng 
bcn .sUnüicnierleibcr flc,vininj-|en, bn» llfictücrbiiltni'^ 
mit bcm iWictcr uon lill4 ^u beut uüniincll n(eid)cn 
3infc üon ctiua 12 K numatlid) anfrcd)t,yierl)alten, 
fo biittc bcr MIauicrmictcr beute an iWictciitncIt einen 
'^(d)tc(iirofd)cn nionatlid) ,ui Iciftcn nnb nuire nur 
nod) nerpfliditct, bivi ^nftrumcnt in brand)bavent ;^u- 
ftanbe jn crbnltcn. Xic '4>erUnuin(^ bc^:^ '^irin,^ipö bcr 
C^Iciri)I)cit burd) ba>ö bcntinc '.l'nctrcrfjt licjit nlfo bariu, 
baf3 üon ollen lintnelten für bic bnucrnbc 'iUMtütuiug 
oon £ad)nütcrn allein bae Ci-ntgclt für bic 'i^cnüiuinn 
oon 'il^obnuniien unb l^W'fri)äfti5ränntcn nn(Iifi<MCVt 
mürbe. Tic frbarfc Trennung, bic I)icr jmifdien ben 
Mroncmucrtbefiiun-n unb bcn .»oan^^eincntünicru oor* 
Oenommen luirb, foll nid)t ben 'Xnfd)cin eriuccfeu, 
als ob bas bcn Mroncnnlänbinern burd) bic OJelbent 
lücrtnng iüiberfal)reuc llnred)t nering cingcfdjiiljt mürbe. 
3lber bicfcö Unrcd)t liegt auf einer ganj anbcrcn l'inic, 

— 19 — 

eg bcbcntct feine iöcrtetumg bc^ ®leid)I)eitgprinsipö, 
fonbern nur eine — nid)t einmal allgemeine unb not= 
menbigc — ik-rlelwuii beö ^^irinsipä bc§ ^-öcreid)erunöä- 
üerbote§. Tq§ Unrcd)t, baä bic tronengläubiger ge* 
troffen l)at; burd) tcilmcife 9(ufmcrtung gu linbern, be* 
beutet red)töpoUtifrf) etma§ burd)aug anbere§ aU bie 'iBc* 
feitigung bc^ Suftanbcg bcr ^iiHctgingnuIlifiäicrung. 

©elbft mcnn aber bic ^rinjipicu be§ ®clbeut=' 
mertung§red)tc§ auf bie 9}{ictsiu§fragc augcmcnbet mür- 
ben, foioäre aud) nad) bicfen cyrunbfö^cn berÜÖo^uungö- 
mieter oerpflid)tct, eiu angcntcffenc§ (i-ntgclt ju leiftcn, 
mibrigcnfallä bcr 58ermicter bcrcd)tigt märe, ba§ «Jict- 
oerljältni^ ju löfen. (£-g fei einen ^JlngenblicE angenommen, 
baf5 bie SBicucr Sl^ül)nung§mictcr im ^aljre 1914 im 93e* 
fi^e ämanjigjäOrigcr "LJ^üetü ertrage mit fijeicrteu mkU 
^infcn gcmcfcn mären! 'Ii^tv3 märe ba§ ©d)ictfa( biefcr 
langfriftigen ilHctncrträge gcmcfcn? Tic erfte ^^rcfdjc, 
bie "in bic gcbaufculofc öleid)fef}ung oon islroucnbcträgcn 
ocrfd)icbcncn a"j>crtei^ gcfd)lagen mürbe, betraf bie Öelb- 
(eiftnngen auö pcifcitigen ^iserträgcn bei nod) nid)t 
erbraditer ober bauerub ju crbringcubcr 3ad)leiftung. 
Tic Sugnmjugleiftnnn cinc^5 ()od)mcrtigen Snd)gnte'3 
gegen ein mcrtlofc'5 li-ntgclt mirft eben öiel aufrci^cu^ 
bcr al^ bie ^^csaljlung einer reinen Öclbfd)ulb in ent- 
mcrtctcm ^^apicr. Unb fo haben fid) Öefe^gebuug imb 
^licd)tfprcd)nng fogar in Cftcrrcid) gn einer ^:8crürffid)^ 
tignng bcr cyclbcntmertuug bei nod) nid)t erfüllten ober 
banernb ^n crfüllcnbcn gegcnfcitigcu 58erträgcn burd)- 
gerungen-'«). (£§ fei auf bic öfterreid)ifd)cn (^efe^e 
über (iinignng^ämtcr für 3trcitigfciten au^ Sicfcrungä* 
»ertragen ^'"), auf bic '"^ad)toertmgöänbcrung§gefe^c2^^), 
befouberä aber auf bie (futiuirflung bcr reid)öbcutfd)en 

26) t£. b. C@.s^. n. 9. ^cj. 1925, 9?r. 390; Ijieju ric()tig: 
1^1 a na, S^l. 1920, S. 272. 

27) öef 11. 4. 9(prU 1919, 2tö«I. 9?t. 220. 

2S) (ijcf. ü. 20. Tcj. 1921, «05331. 5Jr. 746; öcf. o. 
7. 3uiii 1922, «©«(. 9Jr. 343. 


- 20 — 

Ü)clt)cntiücrtiiii|]!?jm^ifalur-'*) ucnuin'cn. ^^i^^iI)l•clI^ in 
2:ciii|ff)lanb bei nori) nirf)t orfiilltcii nci^'nKitinni ^^nn- 
trägen unb bei Xaiierucrträjicn idjoit im 3al)re IülM 
ein J)\iifftritt!?m-f)t iienebeii wnxbc, luenit baci (S-]\U]cii 
nidjt eiitün-eflienb aiiiiieiuerlct umvbe, be^lü•ite cij einei 
laiuieii (iiinuicniiiui imb bor tiTreiiliiiiii^ ciiiO'^ fanm 
md)x 511 übevbicteiibeii Ö)rabec> ber '4iH'il)ruiuiöeiitiuer 
tung, biö man bcu [aft reuohitionaren 3d)ritt ,5111- 
^:?(nfuievtnnn and) ber reinen Welbforberungeii. luagte, 
9cnr bie rid)terlid)e ^Unfiuerinng reiner, olinc iseruhi 
crr'nüterWelbforbernnnen [teilt einen - bnrd) ben(^)rnn^ 
[ajj Don :i:ren nnb OHanben uielleidjt nereditrertinteit 
— ^-örnd) mit bem ;inuin!V^fnr':*d)arnfter be^i ^^iHihrungö-^ 
Oelbe-e^ bar; bie rid)terlid)e V(ufl)ebnnn von Xaner 
bertriiiien infolge ^^iH'rtduömerbenö be^i in oK'lb .^i 
leiftenben tintgeües} bat mit ber ;^-rage ber ^Jlnfmer^ 
tnng nirfjt^ ^n tnn. 2o mie fid) fein ^Kiditer neinnben 
Ijätte, ber ben im ^abre H)14 mit einem il'tonai.-- 
geljalte uon lOUO K für ^cl)u ^abre engagierten iJii- 
imtbeamten im ^sabre U)2:\ uerpfliditet b^itte, nm ein 
14.4üüitel beö liiitgelte.^ weiter ju bienen, fo bätte 
bte Oied)t|pred)nng m Ikxmickv geiuif; nid)t an lang^ 
bmiernbe ^-lHnfrieg..inietnerträge mit nnerböbbave'm 
-iunfnegö^ö gebnnben. ^)lnu aber Derftüm e.-> 
giueifeüoiS gegen bie Wered)tigfeit, menn bnrd) (Niefer. 
eincj){eri)tc>lage ge)d)affen n)irb, bie, bnrd) ^i^ertrag ge^ 
Kt)arKn, |ci c^i lucgen ^l^erftoiu-ö gegen bie guten 3itten, 
)ci e:^ luegen Doliftänbiger ^»inbernng ber WeKbäft'->' 
grnnb(agen, ben 3d)ni;. ber (sK«riff)te nirfjt ^i"be•^^^ 

5) ^? J^f ^- ^^"''^'""•^•»'Iteriintn in bcv ^^^oila.ic jiir 
■^- \50- ö- 1. Wiu-^ 102Ö. 

S-tcluna 2/'"""^^" 3tcuer,^nl,l»„g nonnicre«/ eine 
rtbaS h ' ^^"' ^^^"■^^'tMlf^it'^nnn.bfäiu' bar: eine ^.^n- 

-^««tr bic tscxmidnunc^ ^ux ;]ablunii einer M ono ntional^ 

— 21 - 

3n ben 3?erinfr)cn, bic 'i'}Het5in§nutli|i,'iiernn(] 
mit bem .'oinmeiio nnf boig 3d)idfal ber anberen i3efi|[^cr 
mn '-Isorfrieivjüernuigeti jn recf)tfertigcn, liegt über* 
bieio eine nnangebradjtc "il^erpflanjimg nun ^Jtrgiimcn* 
ten ber Sten erger eri)tigfeit auf ha§> Ciicbiet ber '^^ni^^t* 
rcrf)töpülitif. 3citbem 'lUbam 3mit() feine öier (s5runb=' 
fä^e ber 3tenergered)tigfeit nerfünbet I)at''^), luirb 
eä alö eine .Sj>anptanfgabe ber Jinan^lDiffenfdjaft an^ 
gefefjen, Wrnnbfäue ber otenergcrerfjtigfeit gn formu=» 
lieren nnb furtjuentundeln. 'Ocad) nbereinftimnienbcu 
llUeinnng ber ^iiian^tbeoretifer mirb ber OJrunbfau 
ber Stenergeredjtigfeit nic()t uerle^U, if)m üielmebr gc* 
rabe bann entfprüd)ejt, menn bem Iragfäbigeren büberc 
iieiftnngen im 2)ienfte ber ^.Hügemeinljeit anfertcgt tuer* 
büi nbS bem meuiger Xragfiitjigen. Tiefer Wrnnbfai3 
gilt nid)t unr für Steuern, fonbcrn für alle i'eiftnn= 
gen im ^n^t'i'^'iK ber xHllgenunuIjeit. SIUmiu in einem 
XHIpcnort ein Xei( ber .väiifer uon einer iiaiuine Der= 
fd)üttet luirb, fü luürbe ey ai-i bnrdjaui^ gered)t cmp« 
fnnbeu uierben, menn ben tiigentümern ber unoerfebrt 
gebliebenen .s^iiiifer eine \Hbgabe 5um ^wcdc be^3 
'ii>ieberanfbanei5 ber iierfdjüttetcn )gänfcr auferlegt 
lunrbc. Üiniö un'trbe mau aber fagen, loenu ber C^cfc^* 
gebcr anc^ biefem Unglüd bie legiölatorifdjc t^ofgcrnng 
,Uigc, ii([)] bie '^Hid)ter nnb Wieter ber nnbefff)äbigt ge== 
bliebenen .'öäufer unnmebr feinen ^in^S jn be.v^blen 
brand)enV Ciü gibt eben feiiu'u Oiered)tigfeit^igrnubfa^ 
be!§ ^"sufjalteiS, in\\] be!?b'ilb, lueil eine Oknppc uon 33ür* 
gern bnrd) ein Unglnd il)r 'isermögeu nertorcu t)at, bic 
"isertragöpartner ber üou biefem Unglürf nicfjt gctrof* 
feneu '^sermügeniöbefil^cr bai i)\C(i}t erlangen, bie 9?er= 
mögenfdjaften ber 5?erfd)onten cntgeltlüiS §n nut?en. 
'i)?id)tö anbere;§ aber bebentet bav I)cntige ^"iJJictrcdjt. (£-^5 

ftrnfc Pon 2öoo be^ 3d)uIbbetrai]eo tnitpft, luiirbc bie 
•^Sitfignufl M-> ^)iid)tcr>3 vi'cifctiov ntdjt finbcu f§ *)3G 5t53(y«.)- 
•^'j 5ilgl. 'Jtbott 'i'oogiter, ^inan^iuiffcnfrfjaft, Tl., 
g. 192 ff. 


— 90 

lücirc burrfjciihj 511 uciftd)cn, iulmiii alliMi jcnoii ^i^ciiluMit 
Hüll ilHirfricnyUcniuincii — niriit nur bcn .'öau^öciiioii' 
tiiimnii -, beiTii ^^nn-iiiüniMi biircfj bic l^Hnboiitiucituna 
iiid;t uin-iiirf)tet luuvbc, Cpfcr aiifm-lont wiivbcu, bic ,mi"i- 
üiitberinin bcr H^Mmbcn bor Wdbciinucrtiim] üci- 
lücnbct luürbon. Ion 00m 5fl)iff)al in iicunifoni 
Sninc ^i^cniinuintcn im ,-\ntcro))e bm- \niliiomoinl)oir 
Cprcr anr.yiorlcncn, ift eben etJua^^ burrf)iiiie anberer> 
al^ au normieren, bdfj für bie nun biofen ^i^ei]iiu)ti.nen 
511 erbrinoenben 3m1)= ober ^J(rbeit^.Iei|ninneii feiten^. 
ber i.'ei)tunni5emp[änt3er fein Cintöelt oeleiftet ui u)er- 
bm brauri)t. 

^urcf) ba^ [)eutine Wietreri)t luirb aber ba^^ (sie 
rerf)tinfeitöprin^il) ber l^ileiri)l)eit and) nod) in nnberer 
3{iff)tnn(i mim. Xer .Wieterfdiuo" bebeutet umnlidi 
nuljt, ha]] allen, bic ^Scbav] an 'i^Mm ober (N)e)d)äft-> 
raunten I)aben, bu^ entneltloie ^i^Mtüiumq biefer ^)i\iuino 
crmonltdK mirb. Ci^. merben i)ielmebr"nur bieieniaen 
^ neter b.e im ;]eiti.unfte ber Cirlam.itn ber erfte.t 
-»luneridiui^uerorMiunrt im tWm uun ^^^Mm ober 
Weidjarteräumen nuuen, in bem )Hed)te auf bereu 
ni neltfoie ^'^eniUuiun „ne|d)ütu". Xa immer bort, ii-o 
baö neield.d, normierte C^iitnelt für eine Veiftunn iuefeut = 
hd)l),nter em ber ^^iMrtfd,aft.lane entfpredjo.tben (im-^ 
öcltt 5ui-udble,bt, ba. )Ked,t auf bie weiftuu.i m. 
m ai einem ^^ermörtencMuert tuerbeu mun, tuirb ber 
^rmooen^uert, ber im ^Vfiue einer ^^o^unt, obe 

P Ott ,d,e,i ;^n.ereffe^ an ber ;vortbauer b^l m^ü 
r i ' hr "'f '^^mv^^^^^i. 3one ^aria. ber ^Viet= 
u^ nun, enen nid,t burd) ftaatlid,e ^an-m ba, 
am^,L/'s''' -'■''' ^■^^^^^''"""lV^''m3unn sum (sK'fd,enf 
b en i s''^;\''''' ''''^'^ '^nneunefeu, ^Kannte, an 

Serifd n l '''''''''' ^^'"^^"'nvired,te l,aben, ne,en 
ttmln ""'^'^■':;^:^-^'"^> U"tei;y,mieten ober itrd, 
^Hmuiü oon Vlb)tanb.öelbern, bk uidn^, nnbere. 

— 23 - 

alö fapitaüfierte ii)irflid)e ^JJietjinfe finb, au^ ber 
Ä'laffe ber ^(uggeftofjcnen in bie Stia\ie ber ^egünftifl* 
ten emporäufteigcn. (^ür ba^ g(eid)e Ö)ut müffeu alfo 
3loet (Gruppen ber 33eüiUfcrung üerfd)iebene (Entgelte 
hc^ai)kn, je nad)bcm, ob fic ju ber begüiiftigten klaffe 
ber Söofjnung^befiucr oon 1917 geijören ober ob fie 
aufjerljalb btefer C^ruppe ftel^en. 

Giue anbcrc in ber gleid)en 9iid)tung (iegenbe 
^erle^uug be§ (y(eid)l)eiti3priu5ipeö beftef)t barin, baj] 
bk ^sn\tanb\)a{nuuyi^ink gerabe für 3Bol)nungcn in 
bcn fd)Ied)tcftcii .'oäufern mcfentlid) ()öl)er fein muffen 
alä bie 3"ft'^"^^)iitt»"9^5i")e, bie für Sii;i-ui?mof)nuugeu 
in ben bcftcn .'oäufern ge^aliU mcrben. tSine ^^Ui^* 
g{eirf)ung biefer ül^erfdiiebeubeiten burd) 3d)affung eine^^ 
9(uögleid)öfünbö (^ 11 Wiet(^).) ift bei ^Xufred)terl)al= 
tung be'5 ''^rioateigentum^^ an ll)iietl)äufern faum mög- 
lid). 2!iefe ^^crletuing bei ('>Ueid)l)eityprin,^ip'5 I)at il)ren 
©runb in ber für bci-i l)eutige ^liiietred)t d)arafteriftifd)en 
9Zürmenbi!3[)armonie unb leitet fo ju ben int folgenbeu 
9(bfd)nitt anjuftellenben tk'traditungen über. 

IV. Taö l^riujip ber ^Jiormcntjormouic. 

9Jid)t mit Unred)t oergleid)t man bie j)ted)tö- 
orbnung mit einem funftoollen 'öaiuuerf. 'ilMe in 
biefem bie einjehien "i^eftanbteile jueinanber paffen 
muffen, mie bie Vluberung einei? Xeile^i bie "Jlnberung 
anberer räumlid) nid)t unmittelbar mit bem geänberten 
5ufammenl)ängenber Jeile notuienbig mad)t, fo muffen 
and) bie eiuäelneu ^){cd)tijiuüinien eiuanber angepafjt 
fein unb bleiben unb bie "llnberung nur einiger un* 
fd)einbarer 'i)iormen mad)t oft xHuberungen auf eiit= 
ferntcn C^ebieten, ja, ^Jinberungen ber öruublagcn ber 
9ied)täorbnuug notmenbig. '^Ihmiu alfo eine mit ber 
9?ormcngefamtl)eit eng oerfuüpfte 9iornieugruppe eut* 
fernt ober geänbert loirb, bann mufj forgfättig ge* 
prüft luerbeu, meldje lünberungen ber i){ed)t^5orbuuug 

.... "94 

burdj ^kic (i-mrcnimn] lu^cr Vi^^o^I^^ "otiuoiibiq nun- 
bcn. Tkicu i^hmibm bc>3 oiiciiuutbiTnrn'icnci ii'iiD i\«r 
ilbcrciiiftintmiiiin bor ^.Voniint fniiii iiinii aU-. ^i^riirj., 
bi'i- ^.lionunil)in-inoiiic bc,^oid)iu'n-'). XioiVe ^;^riit'«i;, 
ift cl)cr ein Wniiibiau bcr ^Kod)tötoi()iiif ai.^ ein (sirniib 
)a^ bcr ÖnnTdiiinfni. 3cinc il^crknuinq aber ^icijt Cn-v 
Kfieiniinncn nnd) iid), bic fid) alci i^cvlciuniij aiicr^ 
fanntor OknYditiiifcit'önrunbünse biirftcKcii. 

Tic li.iditinmv 3unlnd) nba- mid) tmurinfto 
imüKit bcr ^-liulf^^n.iriKbnfti^tcbro ift bic {S-vtmnnu-^ 
ban bcr ^i^cbarf an uiirt|ff)aftliff)cn mimi iiidjt nndl 
bcni ^^M'ocljrcn bcr ^Ji'adjfriinciibcit (icbcdt luerDcn taun 
ii-ö lüirb nicmakJ eine 3iMrtid)aft^:<urbnnn,i neben h-j 
bcr bie Wcianunmlifrnnc nad) U)ir(|djnftlid)cn Wütern 
ivitro^ erriiUt lucrben fann. ^v^ia^ ^ine ^^iiirt|d„ifi.,. 
orbnnnn ff)araftcri|icrt, ift bie x)[rt, luic bic ^Hn^^fefc 
bin- bei bcr ^J^ :,um ;]n.ic (>k'lannenbcn qcidiiclit 
^a foniicn brci ^.Uc'üolid) feiten unterfdiicbcn R.erben: 

1- bic Tcdnnn mir bcnt IVarfte; 

-^- bie 5citlid)e ^;^riorität; 

•^ bie ^i^ntcilmii^ uoii \)(mt^3 mecicit. 

^ic inbiuibnaliftifd,c:':M ^^i5irtfff)afi.H)rbnnn.i^ 

m miiKnicinen uunt IVarftberfnnnövrin^ip be- 

^crr,d,t. T:e ^^reife ergeben ficf, ai, i.-.aante bn- 

iiber anr ,m ^D^arftc bcncnncnben 

^.HUidcnuinnci, non ^ii^arennnt nnb i^rci^ant ^Mei 

urc^Kbiibcter ;n^,,n,,,„,i,,i,„ nclan,cn 'nnf i^^ 

a L n^ ; s ^''"'^"' "'^^^'^^^ ^'"^^f'^t^^" *^1^ ^ie 
'am.. ^■^'"^•^^'"^^'f'') nrcicOer tiinfcl,äiu.nn bc^5 
2^;^c. nliü ,m arincnieinen bie (^)clbfrnftinercn. 

— 25 — 

^od) and) in ber inbiüibnaliftifffjcn •fßirtfcfjnft gibt e§ 
^^ällc, in bcncn bic ^Jacfjfragc nidjt nad) bcm -^rin^ip 
beg freien ITt'arfteg, fonbcrn nad) ber §eit({d)en Priorität 
gebcrft iDirb. ti-intrittöfnrtcn für 2f)cater nnb ilongertc 
tücrbcn nid)t nad) bcm iDiarftpringip, fonbcrn nad) 
bem örnnbfat? bcö 3iicrftfümnicn^ ücroebcn. 9l(ä im 
Äriegc 9.Vanne( an '-öcbarfygcgenftnnbcn eintrat nnb 
ba§ iWnrftbecfnngyprinjip bnrd) bk ööd)ftprciyücrorb= 
nnngen nnb biVj ''].U-ei'otrcibcrcigefet5 — gnntinbcft üni= 
gielt — bic cyeltnng ncrtor, gefd)al) bic Ük^barfi^^ 
bednng äuerft ebenfally nad) bcm Ok'nnbfn^ ber jeit* 
.Ud)cn 'i^riorität. Tiefer 03rniibfat? mirb immer bort 
an bic Stettc bcy ^iJJrinjipy bcy freien iDfarftCy treten, 
lüo cntmeber bnrcf) .\;)öcf)ftprciy normen bic "i?(nännluing 
ber lUarftlagc oerboten ift ober mo anbcre — gefeilt 
fd)aft(id)e — 9iormcn toic Xrabition, Sitte, fanf^ 
inännifd)cr ^Knf bie (i-igentümer bcr ':)tacf)fragcgntcr 
büjn nerantaffen, an bcn ucrlantbarten ''^ireifen feft= 
änl)aücn, anc() lucnn nacf) ber l^iengc ber 9tnd)fragen= 
ben bic ^4-^rcife oI)nc 3cl)abcn für bic ^tbfcl^barfcit 
bcr Oh'iter crt)öl)t mcrben fönnten. Ci-in brittcö 9tnö= 
Icfcprinjip ift ba^5 bcr amtyiucgigen Wütcrocrtcilnng. 
\Hnd) in bcr inbiinbnaliftifd)cn '^i>irticf)aityorbnnng I)at 
C!§ I)ic nnb ba Oicttnng fo bei '^i.5ol)(tntigfeitynftioncn; 
aber and) mcnn §. ii eine Mlaffiferoorftetlung ,yi 
IjcrabgefctUen greifen oeranftaUct mirb, merbcn (3d)nlen 
iinb ^^ilbungyorganifationcn Märten sngeluicicn: alfo 
eine 58ertci(nng lucbcr nacf) bcm C^hnuibfal^ bcä freien 
•:)3(arftcö, nod) nacf) bcm bcr 5citlid)en ''^Unorität — 
mdgär: bC'3 ,/J(nftcltcn'j" — , fonbcrn i^ertcilnng oon 
'^(mtg mcgcn, )oobci ba^i 'K^on ,,\'(mt" int iociteften 
Sinne ^n üerfte()en ift. Z^m Mriege folgte nnf ba§> 
roI)e Si)ftcm bcr 5eitlict)cn '"^l^riorität, bc^ 9fnftcllen^3, 
bag ©l)ftetn ber amti^iocgigcn ^i>ertcitnng, ba^^ man 
bantat'3 ^{ationiernng nannte. 

2}ic (irfaf)rnng ()at nnn gelebrt, bafj, mcnn bcr 
^rci§ eines OjuteS infolge 3iu'^i'n»»'^^'i«i'''^"iittg luefent* 



lic^ hinter beut '^w'iic ^nvndbkibt, bcr firf) ouf bcm 
freien Mavh entiuiffcln luürbc, auf bie "i^reiöfcftfctuuiq 
hk ^Rationierung folgen mufj, bicö in^ibefonbere bann, 
loenn bie ^^rciöfeftfelumg leben^^iuidjtigc (^3üter Detrifft. 
2)enn ob ba^ iU'bürfni^, ba^i iion^ert einc^ beliebten 
Xenorg 5ubefur()en, nadj geregelten, ber05crecl)tigfcitent= 
fprerf)enben Üh-nnbfäben befriebigt luirb, [)t für 'Bixu 
fd)aft unb 9ierf)t^3ürbnnng gletrfjgültig; f)ier alfo luirb 
bei ^^reifen, bie nicfjt in üoüer ^^üh5nütuing ber iWarft- 
läge erfteltt finb, bie seitlirf^e ^4?riorität entfd)eiben 
fönnen. 5(nberö aber, luenn e» fid) um bie i^reiiS- 
fi^-ierung eine^ in einer belagerten Jeftmig feiten ge- 
worbenen ^Jial)rung5ntittel'^ Ijanbelt. Xa genügt bie 
^^rei§ma;i-iniiernng nid)t, ba Debarf c^$ amtv^iuegiger 
S^erteilnng. ^i^ie^^ gilt nid)t nur bann, luenn wiiter- 
niangel bie llrfad)e für bie ^^sreiönormierung ift, fon- 
bern aud) in jenen nid)t feltencn ;^•älIen, in benen 
an^ ©rünben rirl)tiger ober falfd) uerftanbener 5o,^ial = 
politif ber ^;^reiö einer Wüterart luefentlid) unter beut 
fid) bei freier ^iMrtfdjaft ergebenben ^JiNueau feftgefeiu 
unb erft Ijieburd) ein iWangel an Ojütern biefer ^Jfrt 
^croorgerufen mirb. 9fu^3 U)eld)en Wrünben aud) iiunier 
Wangel an Ieben'öR)id)tigen Wütern entftel)t, bie ^)ied)to- 
orbnung mnn im "sutereffe gercd)ter i^ierteilung feiten 
geiuorbener Wüter ein 5i)ftent ber ^Kationieruitg eiii= 

SBirb nun ba^ C^ntgelt für Sl^oljnuug^ömieten 
bcrart uieit unter ber ^Warftprei^5l)öl)e fi;i-iert, ia]] man 
oon einer ^hdlifi^ierung ber a^iiet^nfe 'fpred)en fann, 
bann fann jjüar nid)t mie bei üerbraud)baren Wüterii 
.Slonfumption ül)ne marftmäfuge ^iiMebererfetutng er- 
folgen, luoljl aber luirb ba^i ^^Ingebot ber m fiel) ber 
3«I)t nad) g(eid)bleibenben ii^oOnungen infolge ber (ir- 
fjarrung ber 5li?or)noerl)ältniffc, be^ ^i^eibe()altenö oou 
^^or)nungen troi^ luegfaüenben Hkbavicii faft gleid) 
Vcull. ^ic 9hillifi,^icrung ber Wiet,^infe i)*t alfo 'nid)t 
bie legiölatorifd)e ^Keaftion auf bie 2Bol)nnng^:^not, bie 

— 27 — 

^of)nunggnot oielmcbr eine ?folgc ber 93Uet5in^3nnUi- 
fijierung. 3öie roöre e!?^ fonft möglid), bafj in beut um 
200.000 9JJenfd)en ärmeren illMen, in bem e^ beute 
um 25.000 Sol)nungen niel)r gibt, nod) immer eine 
9Bot)minggnot fonbergleid)en l)errfd)ty Xer *öimueiy 
auf bie (Steigerung ber ^ai}[ ber §au^l)alte erflärt 
biefe (£-rfd)einung nid)t. Taf} ber t)ier bel)auptete Man= 
fal5ufammenl)ang rid)tig ift, bemeift ber Umftanb, baf; 
bie politifd)e "ijiartei, bie ba^i gegeuJuärtige lWietred)t 
am energifd)eften oerteibigt, felbft jugibt, ba)] bie uon 
il)r in grofjem Stile am!' Steuermitteln oorgenommenen 
$liof)ul)an'3banten jur "Xufredjterbaltnng be-5 gegen- 
ttJÜrtigcn Wietred)teö uotiuenbig finb. Xie ^JJietjiuö- 
nnllifi5ieruug luürbe eine burd)gel)enbe 9hUionie- 
rung unb .Slommunifierung beö gefamteu gut ül^er- 
fügung ftel)enben '-lik>l)uraume'5 notioenbig ntad)en. Ta 
ober berartige llcafjnabmen, bie oon ber Unnuanblung 
beö priüatred)tlid)en llHMetüertragey in ein öffentlidi- 
rcri)tlid)cö 9hi(juugi^üerl)ältniy begleitet fein müfUen, 
in abfel)barcr 3ett "irf)t möglid) finb — liegt bod) ein 
berartige^ 3icl gar nid)t in ber ^'inie bcr allgemeinen 
9ied)t'^entnndlung — , fo bleibt biVi gegemuiirtige Wiet- 
5ins^red)t ein erratifd)er t^lod im Wcfamtbau unferer 
9U'd)t!^orbnung. l^iVi 'Otebeneinanberbcfteben bey So- 
fteniiS ber Wiet,vn'5nullifi,^ieruug unb ber überfomme- 
neu Oirunbfät^e ber auf i^rioateigentum unb 'l^ertrag^o- 
freil)eit aufgebauten '^^riüatredityorbnung oerleiu ben 
©runbfao ber "iJJormenliarmouie unb jeitigt eine iKeibe 
fd)tuerer 3.>er)'töfje gegen grunblegenbe Wered)tigteit'5- 

irot^ ber üotl)*tänbigen 9lu^jl)öl)lung be^o (ligen- 
tum^ an Wietl)äufern finb alle ba^i (Eigentum an 
nnbeioeglid)em Wut unb bai^ ^i}Metred)t betreffenben 
Stürmen im iüefentlid)en nnoeränbert geblieben. Tic 
bnrd)greifenbe Üseränberung beä 9ied)töüerI)ältniffe-5 
ämifd)cn Wieter unb 'isermietcr l)ätte aber bcn Umbau 
ganjer Xeile beä bürgevlid)en unb öffenttid)en 3kd)teö 


crfOl•^l'l•t. ^)inri) § 102 bor 'Biom l^auoxbmini;^ I^aftct 
ber .t-iaib^cinentüiitcr uod) iiiuncr — nidjt nur mit beut 
«Vau^, fonbern aiirl) mit feinem anbefoit llsennöj^en — 
für bie ^i^efolöinia Don ^^(uüriioeii ber ^i?ankf)ür'be iinb 
lüirb bei lliiditbefolniing unter llmftänben fin-jnr ftraf- 
fällig ^^). Xaf5 bcm .'öaii^eiiientnmer ti-rtrag ünb Ritsert 
bc^i .s:nnfe^^ genommen luerben, er aber ^^(nfträge ber 
^i^anbel)örbe auf Csuftnnbiinltnng unnbl)äng{g oon ber 
ÜberiDiiläbavfeit ber Oiepciraturfoften anf bie iWieter — 
>^ 7 WietWef. — erfüllen mnf?, ift eine g-olge ber 
^manncMueifen tS-inriigung pfenbofolleftioiftifrfjer gtormen-- 
fomplei'C in ein J)ied)t^fi;fteju bey ^i^rioateigentumci imb 
ber i^ertragSfreifjeit. 

Taö ^iec()t bcö atJietcrö ift norf) immer ein perfön* 
lirfiec^ troubem c^i meitev nebt aUi bie römifcf)red)tlicl}e 
^inn-foiinlferoitut ber hahilatio unb bie Xienftluirfeit 
bi'r ^^i^obnnng nnrl) § Ö2ü m^mi 2iVi an6 biefen 
Seroituten entioringenbe ?Kerl)t fann nicfit einmal 
ber 'Jlrnjübmig nad) anbern überlaffen n)erben, fann 
nlfo meber oevpad)tet uod) oermietet loerben nnb 
cnbigt mit bem lobe be^^ ^iuTedjtigten; bac^ — rein 
periönlidie — llVietrecbt oon Ijente fann ^nr is^än.^e 
bnrd) anbere ^inn-fonen an^ögeiibt merben, ift im 
internen ^-i.serl)ältni^ möglieber Wegenftanb ber '3cf* 
fiuH nnb mirft - ogl. i< l!), ^ji". n ^WiotCMef/ — 
in ben meiften ;^älleu über ben lob be^^ ^Wieter^ 
llinan^5. Ta bie Xotalitiit ber ^ik^nnunng^^red)te unb t>ic 
lucjcntlidjftcn ^i?crfügnngöred)te ben Widcui cutgeltloiJ 
äintefjen, fo erfd)einen biefc - bei ioirtfd)aftlid)er, 
oom formaljuriftifd)en We)id)tc4ninft kv^gelöftcr l^c- 
trad)tnng^- als ^Witeigemümer m .vanfeö pro parte 
dl Visa. T:nö alte Stocfnunf^jeigentnm lebt in ber Aorm 
beö Ciigentnm^ an ^ii^o^nnugen nnb (s)efer)äft'3ränmeu 
mieber auf; baä Ciigentum be^ ^l^ermielerö aber mirb 

q?v q-'\-..^^!. ^1?^'"^^"»"^^ ^^om 17. Jänner 1883, SOJ^ÖI. 
Jii. öo, ruc bic 9kid)M)aupt= iinb O^eiibenjftnbt mm. 

gur niida proprielas bei:' allrümifdjen ^^Unoatredjte^^. 
3:ro|5 ^^erfebrnng ber nnferer iU-ioatrcd)töürbnnng jn» 
grnnbc liegenben il^orftellnng beö ioirtfd)aftIid)en Wad)t= 
oerfjältniffeg 5ioifd)en iii.Hil)nnng^5üennieter unb 2l^ol)= 
unng^Smieter befteben bie unter gan§ aubereu i^orauö* 
fcf5nngen gefefjaffeuen 3ioihed)tlid)en 9tormen uod) fort, 
.^^ierauö ergeben fid) llnftimmigfeiten fouber '^al)l 

Xie 5ioilred}tlid)e .s.viftung, bie ben 'löefiber einc!^ 
5öanmerfe^^ nad) i< 181!) 'ätm^ij. trifft, beftcbt uod) 
Qufred)t; ebenfo bie ftrafred)tlid)e .'öaftnng für fal)r^ 
läffigc Wefäl)rbung ber förperlid)en 3id)erbeit, trot^bem 
nid)t ber im Wrnnbbnd) eingetragene .'oanöeigentümer, 
fonbern bie iViieter an!eifd)lief5lid)e 'JhiOniefjer bc-S 
is;»anfe!5 finb •'•'•). Xa bie "iWiete lueiter ein perfönlid)e^5 
Sd)nlboerl)ältni!ä geblieben ift, geniefjt ber ^Uüetcr jioar 
aUj ^'Ivedjtybefilu'r "i^efitu^yfdiuu, bat aber nid)t bie 
■iWöglicbfeit, ben otörer feinec^ ^Ked)teö petitorifd) 5n 
belangen •••'). 'ili'od) inuner biiftet ber Üsermieter au'^ 
bem i^ertrag'jüerbältniy bajür, baf; ber iWieter in ber 
?lni5übung feiner ^Ked)te oon niemanbem geftört loerbe. 
^er ."oauyeigentümer ift bei fonftiger 3d)abenerfatHiflid)t 
oerl)alten, gegen ben britten 3törer ber ?KecI)te feinest 
:i)Jiietery '^vo^c]] '^n fül)ren. 

Oklangt ein loani?, in bem ber Ciigentümer mobnt 
ober dn Cs)efd)äft betreibt, jur 'i^erfteigerung, fo fann 
ber Cirfteljer oerlaugen, b(i)\ ber 58crpflid)tetc — ber 
frühere (iigentümer — bie benübten JKäume fofort 
Derlaffe. 'ikrnfung auf ba-^ Wietengefeti ift untnnlicb, 
ba ber frühere t<;igentümer niemaly ^^üieter mar. (xx 
nlfo, ber feine eigene 3ad)e gebraud)t l)at, mirb oon 
ber 9U'd)t'^orbnnng fcbled)ter bel)anbelt al'3 bie l^Jieter, 
benen nur abgeleitete ^i^enütuingyred)te an frember 3ad)e 
^ufteljeu. ^ii^ol)! ift e§ ridjtig, ba]] and) oor ^nfraft"* 

8'') S3gl. ben trcffenbeu ^tuefprurf) bc?> ^aulu§: 
D. 50, 17, 10. 

36) Übcv,^eiinnib Mlnng, Ter ^Ucd)tyfct)iib bed ?Jüetci'3 
(legen Tritte. ^331. 192G, S. 324 ff-, befonbeiä 3. 355. 



treten i^cr ^ViieterfriiiUMlcietinebiuin i'^er .vaihöcineiitiiina' 
^e11ell .s:aiii5 uerfteinert wnv^c, beut Ci-rfte()er iDcirlini 
miinte. ii>äl)renb aber bamak^ ber ,^ur ^Käimimui qe- 
,VLninnene .s:nn'jeineniiimer iinberu'citin Weid)äit>öUifai 
iinb '^ikil)iumn finbeii fomite, bebeittet ber '^serliift i^a- 
^^i>of)iunin ober bci^ (^iefd)äftc^riinmey lieiite Cbbad)- 
über (iriuerbyloiinfeit. Ter biird) bie lUtet,^iiu:imiiiiii. 
.Meruiifl (^eid)iirfene ^Kcditö^iftaiib erforbert eine lir. 
nän^niui in ber ^)iid)lnnii, t^a}] ber .'öancieiiientiiiner, 
ber im eigenen .s;anie luobnt ober ein Wekliäft betreibt' 
burd) bcn (i-i(]entnn!yeruierb feitenö be^5 (irftel)erc' 
IVictcr inirb. Xie I)eutine ^)ierl)t^jlane uerletU bny 
0)leid)I)cii«5prin,^ili, bn ber im .s:an[e moljnenbe iii(ien- 
tiimer fd)led)ter neftellt luirb aUi bic Wieter, iinb'bdci 
Vlqiiiiia(eii,un-in^ili, ba bcn .s:(Ub3eineiitiimer alv ))k(l)Uy^ 
folfie bey ^inn-yiiv^ in ber ^^M\vililunrt ber ."onmnbefnr- 
.^infen £bbad)= unb tiriuerbylüjiflfeit treffen. 

ti-in .s:aii.3 mirb uon einem Tritten ftif)rläiiii] 
üernid)tet. Ci^^ eiitftel)t ein Srl)abener|aluintprnd) miber 
ben Sdjiilbtnineiiben ober bcn fonft nofetUid) .üaftbnreii 
,5- 5^. ben ^-öernbantreibenben. "ruid] ftiinbiiier Vebve 
nnb iUninn fti'f}t biefer 3d)nbenerftnuinfin-nd)' nnr bem 
^•uientiimer, uielleidjt ben binnlid) ^i^ered)tinten, niemal^i 
aber benienipen ,vi, bie blofj perfönlid^e j){ecl)ie auf 
^-yenutuniii beö .H'rftürtcn CbjeftCiJ r)atten •''"). rmu ift 
- mebefonbere luenn e^5 fid) nm meniner c\nt qeleiiene, 
reparatnrbebürrtine ^Vtietbäufer lianbclt — ber iin'rt 
üon Oh-unb nnb ^i^obeii ,yi,^iinlid) be^:? Waterialiuerte^^ 
Der krummer beö .soanfe'^ oft mefentlirf) Ijöl)er al'5 
ber ^i^crfetireiuert bc6 Wieifianfe^i uor ber ;Kn-ftörnn(i. 
^cr .s^auocinentümer bat burd) bie c^rftörnmi feinen 
^djaben erlitten, fann alfo feinen Sdjabenerfal^^ 
nniprnd) neltenb mad)en. Ten Bietern, bcn maleren 
>:enTn bcj s^alm^ unirbe ein bebentenber, faft nncr^^ 
ietUid)cr odjabcn angefügt; fie finb aber nid)t bercdjtint, 

'') l^fjrenjiuciG, 3i)|icni, II/„ 3. 67f. 

ol — 

aii^ biefem litcl ?(n]prüd}c ^u crr)eben. Crine f raffe 
iTonfeqiien§ beg S?ebeneinanberbeftel)cnä be^o '^H'injip^ 
ber t£-ntgc(t(ofigfeit ber 'Ä^ül)nranmnuünng unb ber 
allgemeinen C^knnbfä^c ber ':|iriüatred)t§ürbnunn! 

Xie Wietrcd)te nn ^){(iumen, bie bem ^Hüeten^ 
gefct^ unterlienen, finb luirtfd)aft(id) ii>ermöflcn. Tcnn 
mag ü^crmönen ift, beftiminen bie iüirtfd)aftlicf)en Xat' 
fad)cn, nid)t (yefc|5C§normen. Tag ilJJietengefe(^ milt 
bag gefd)nlUc ä1{ietred)t aU$ Wegenftanb beg ^^ermögen^ 
nid)t anerfeunen; bal)er bie Ununrffamfeiti3beftimmnn= 
gen beö § 18, bie Strafbeftimmungen beiS § 43, ber 
ilünbigungötntbcftanb beö i< 19, ^].^' 10 llJ^ietC^ef. Tic 
(^5cbnl)renbel)ürben, bie fiel), tuo e§ ficf) um bie Öe^ 
bül)renpflid)t üon red)tlicl)en 'i^eriinberungen Ijaubelt, 
an bie luirtfcfjaftlidjen Tatfad)en unb uid)t an bie 
priliatred)tlid)en ÜJornicn I)atten, beginnen bereite, and) 
cntgeltlüi5 eingeräumte iWictredjte nad) il)rem mirt* 
fd)aftlid)en 'il^erte ,^1 Webül)ren,Vüerfcn ^n beiuertcn. 
(S-ür biiiä "^iriuatrecOt bleibt aber bie 3ufti'M]i^"'-'ii5 '^"f^ 
red)t, bafi ein 'Jiedjt l^erinögenyiuert I)at, öon ber 
9ted)t^oürbnnng aber nid)t nl^o ^^ermögenömcrt Oe= 
f)anbelt luirb. Ter üon oilänbigern berfolgte 93cr* 
pflid)tete fann feine !Ji>üI)nuug ober fein Öefdjäftä* 
lüfal übertragen, ol)nc ha]] ein bcrartigeS 3{cd)tä== 
gefd)äft anfedjtbar märe ober eine tiTrefutionöoercitlung 
begrünben unirbe. 3'» .Stonfiuy bilbet ba^i mit cyiäubi* 
gergelb befd)nffte Oiefd)äftölüfal fein neriuertbareö i8cr* 
mögen, ^il'io e^^ auf ÜBertuergleid)ung anfommt tuie 
bei ber erbred)tlid)eu .Slollation muffen SSüIjunng nnb 
®cfd)äft§Iofat unberürffiri)tigt bleiben, tro^bem fie oft 
einen üiel gröfjcreu Ü^ermögenemert borftellen aU aik^ 
aubcrc Cirbüerniögen. 

ili>enn nor smei 3ar)r,^el)nten in iuriftifd)cn Semi* 
narien l)ie nnb ba bie ^rage anftand)tc, ob man §äufer 
berelinquieren foune, fo luurbc fd)on bie Stellung 
biefeö ^^Jroblemg aU '^cmhi für bie 5öcltfrembl)cit 
unb bie £d)olaftif be^^ juriftifdjen Uniöcrfitätgnnter* 

32 — 

ridjtcy anncK()cn. .vaMitc fann bie)'c — im aügcmcincu 
ncnatiu bcamulortcte•'^) -- ^^'(^(i^ K^)i* luoOl prafti|cl) 
lucrbcii. ^iiUc faim firf) bcr li-iöcntümcr ciucy immer 
mdn ücriallcnbcn i-^auicy, ba^> il)m nur 3ov(icii iniC) 
äicraunuürtuiui aujlnirbet, c»l)iic il)ni n^cnb eiiuMi ^^Nür- 
teil 511 briiu]cn, fciiicy lilijonliiniö oiitlcbii]oiiV l^nis 
&)aii5 iiicbcriTiHcii 3" ^^W^h ift il}"i biivd) poiitiüe 
iRcc()t!5nonn üom)cI)i:t^^). iBcmi er jciminbcu fmibc, 
bcr jid) baij .\?aiiy fd)cnfcn licHc, i'o mad)cu 'iiicrt* 
äumadiCHibnabc iiitb 3d)0iifuiuii5ni'biil)r — ^^ufamiucu 
Kiitcr Umftänbcn ()()<»o be» üom llh'ai^iftrat faft immer 
nad) oben abncriiiibctcu „"üinn-toy" — bic 4>orunrf== 
Iid)unf| bec^ 2d)cnfinini>miUeii!3 immönlid). "üilio berolin- 
quicrcnl l^a^:> aber läfu luid) l)orrid)enber !L'el)re bie 
aicdjtcun-bnuiin iiidit ,^ii. Xiird) t5-nnüi"|lid)iinn biefcr 
9(rt, iid) be^3 liiiieiitimiö an Wictbäiiieni ,^1 ciit* 
Icbiiieii, mürbe bie ^)\cd)tyorbiiiiiui nur eine Monfeqiien,5; 
au^5 bem '^U-iit^ip bcr Wict.yiu^iniiKifiMcruniT ,Mcben. 

'2er ^iqiiiüalcnjncbaiifc iinirbc in bcr inriftifdicu 
Literatur, bcfonber^^ in ber (sk'lbentmcrtnniv^bi'^fin'fion, 
)d)mer mifibraudit^"). lUan benrünbetc ba{< 'lscrlnni-|en 
nad) '^dinucrtunfi reiner (^iclbforbcrnnnen baniit, baf-, 
i!eiftitnn unb 0)ci]cnleiftnnii im ;Untpnnft bc^ 'iHn-trany- 
abfd)(iifje!5 n'nd)mertin fein nnb bii5 ^nr luilliiicn lir* 
füllnng n^^'id)mcrti(] bleiben müfien. liin ^'iqniualcns* 
pringip in biejem Sinne ift bcr "ijiriüatrednyürbnnnii, 
aber aitd) bcr (\iercd)tinfeilyibcc fremb. "iltid)! einmal 
im 3eitpnnft ber ^lU'rtrag^^crridjtunc], alfo im Moment 

^8) Strof)aI, 3ur 2cl)rc Hont Ci-iqcntiim an oimm^bilieii, 
®. 164. 

3i>) § 14 53auoibnuni-| für äsJicu; uql. and) bot ^Mcic\i' 
ftratöbeid)Iuf5 h. 20. Xcv 1901), ;]. 128!380 (,\iticit tu bcr 
Wtnnjfdjcn ^J(uönabc bcr ^i^aitorbuung, 3. 24H). 

•*o) Ä(ang, Oidbeittiuortuui] unb )nrifti)rf)e l''Jetf)obe, 


be§ d-ntftcljen^ ber Deiberfeitiiien 9$erpf(id)tiincjen, 
muffen bie uereinbarteu !L'eiftiiniieii luertnlcid) fein. Xic 
^;^iriüatred)tyorbnnng, bie im alhicmcineu baiion au^^ 
gel)en fann, ha)] feber s:anbliuuv5fä()ine feine 'isorteile 
gn maljrcu bcrftel)t, rt^^"^^l'i-"t ba^^ ^Ued)t auf tscrtraijö- 
anfl)ebung lucöcn lUifjuerbältuiffey üon l'cij'tnug iiub 
(Sieqenleiftnng nur unter fdjarf umriffeueu inirany* 
feuuncieu (§§ 87^), ^^Ibf. 2, ^i. 4, 934 ^ämm.). xHber 
and) ^iiHn-tänbernnnen, bie 3iüifd)eu Iscrtraiv5abfd)luf5 
unb GrfüIIuucj ober mäl)renb bcr ^L'aufjcit laugbauernber 
isertrÜGC eintreten, berfd)ren im attnemcineu bie "üi>irf- 
famfeit ber '^erträiie nid)t. iiuMui in ber ^ubifatur ber 
IclUen 3al)rc baö ^liJertlLK^merben be-i :il^äl)ruutv^öclbe'i 
alö 95crtragäauf(}cbunöyni"»"'b aner!auut mürbe, fo )inu- 
cd in glcid)er Äunfe tl)eoretifd) üerfel)lt mie - - unter 
bem C^cfid)töpunft bcr Weneralpräueution - gefä[)rlid), 
biefe nn fid) ridjtigen lvntfd)eibiingeii auf bad ^Hiiui- 
nalcnäprin^ip 511 ftülu'u. Xem fönnte cntncnennel)atten 
merbcn, bajl biv:s pofitiue ^Ked)t a\bi Wrünben ber 
9ied)töfid)erl)eit auf bie uolle ^|serunrf(ic()uun ber Oie^ 
red)tiGfeit ocr5id)ten muffe, bafi biefe cd aber gebieten 
linirbe, bei lV(uberung beö ^ai.Hnli)erl)ältuiffev^ bcr Veiftnu- 
gen mäl)renb ber :^auf,^eit eiueö ^-IscrtragciJ ii>crtrag'i^ 
nufbebnug ober lirböbung ber (Sielblciftung eintreten 
gu laffen. Ser fo beuft, uermed)felt (yered)tigfeit mit 
eittlid)feit. "Sic ^3iorm, bie e^i bem rcid)en Gläubiger 
Qcftattct, ben armen 3d)nlbncr fofort nad) oräHiaf^nt 
bcr Öiclbfd)ulb äu flagen uub ,yt ejt-ei)uieren, aud) 
mcnn ber Sdjulbncr burd) biefe^^ i^orgel)en sufammcn- 
brid)t, ja, mcnn ber 3d)ulbner befd)eiuigt, ha)) er bie 
aUittcl 5ur ^ik'friebigung bed CMIäubigcr^^ innerl)alb 
hir^cr 3cit bcfii^cn )uirb, uerftbnt feiueömegd gegen bie 
^iereduigfeit; m\)i aber ucrletU biefc'3 ^i^cr()a(ten bcö 
CSUänbigerd unter Uml'täubcn bie ^3hn-mcu bcr Sittüd)- 
!eit unb ^^(uftänbigfeit. \\n^ mer bei einem fleincn 
^ifd)ter 5u fi^:en ^i^reifeu eine foftf^ictigc C5inrid)tung 
für feine ^^illa befteUt unb auf i^ertragöerfüUuug äu 


I '1 


bell uciTinlmrtcn X-xciii^n aud) biiiiit Doftedt, uiomi ba>5 
Ö5i'[d)nft für ben Ii)d)lei- biird) eine plöulidje VoI)ucv= 
[)öf)inui 511 einem 'iHM-liiftneirfiiift »uirb, uevnef)i fid) negeii 
feine lliorm bev C'')eved)tiiifeityorbnnn(-i, moljl aLiev Ijmv- 
be(t er -- möiilid)eniiei|e - un|itt(idj. Werecf)t in beut 
I)ior entanrfelten 3inne ift eben nidjt ein '^(ttribut 
nionid)lid)en .s^nnbelny, fonbern eine ti-iflenidjaftöbe- 
äcidjnnnii iiun ^)ied)tynornien. 

SiHMui iiljo lind) bie an] 'iNertran^trene nenrünbete 
"^iriüntredilyorbnunn idy '-Isorani^ietunui für bie '^iMvf 
foinfeit jii'eifeitiiier 'iH'rträiie nienialo bie Ai-H'bernni] 
rtnfftelfen fann, ha\] ber uereinbarte "freies aniv^neffen 
— prcliiiiii iiisliim! — fei nnb bleibe, fo nmf; bay 
*}(qiiiiialen,UH"in,yp bod) immer bort (\cU\:n, luo bie'|>reiy= 
feftfetunu] nid)t bnrd) übereinftinimenben '].HU-teiii'iÜen, 
foubcnt bnvd) aiitüritiire'^türmiernnn erfolnt ober luo ein 
nriprün^lid) lö^barey, eine beftimmte '4>i"i'ii^'iHn-einbarnnn 
bciiil)nltenbey ^Kedityiierljältniüi bnrd) antoritöre '.\'orni 
unlösbar mirb. 3e|jt fid) ber Ön'fengeber über biefen 
WriinbfiH; I)iniue(V bann )*tel{t fein .vnnbeln einen 
iUiflbrniid) ber Wefeiu]ebnn(iyrtemalt miber bie nnten 
Sitten biir. '^in'nn bie '^^reife für "Xr^neien, bie ^Tarife 
für ben Mrafmmiienuerfeijr, bie Soonorare ber ^Ked)t^i= 
aniüälte für "^^rL^^efsiiertretnnjien bnrd) nbiu-iifte iKur* 
men nerenelt merben, fo ift bie normfetu'nbe OKMimlt 
fornfnltii] btirnnf bebad)t, bie (viUnelte fo feft.yifeuen, 
biifj fie mit ben iUTifen anberer OMiter nnb ^'eiftnniien 
im (iinfinng ftel)en unb ben l'eiftenben bei annemef* 
fencr 'i^efd)äftinnn(-i nnb )iiirtfd)aftlid)em '-i^etrieb ein 
'^Jlnöfuminen ermörtlid)en. ^iin'nn bie normfet.ienben C^W' 
lunlten fo uorneljen, bann Ijalten fie fid) im rKabnien 
beö 3(qniüalen5prin,^ip>l ;sni ()entiiien ^l)iietred)t febod) 
liegt eine fd)mere ilserletumn beä — im eben barnefteü'» 
teil einnefd)ränften Sinne iiettenbcn — \'iqniiin(en,Hirin* 
3ip3. 53ebarf c§ I)iefür einc'3 5.k'lücife5? "^a c§> feit faft 
einem onI)r5e[)nt einen ^il5of)nnnn§marft nid)t ntel)r 
gibt, fann alö '-Bergleidjöbafiii nid)t jener ^Vüetj^in-S 

- 35 - 

bienen, ber fid) bei noriualen lltarftuevtjättniffeu bil= 
ben lüürbe. ^i(li^ angemeffener (jinö fann aber and) 
nid)t jener gelten, ber ben ^Keprobnftioiiäfoftcii ber 
?l(ietf)änfer entfpvädje. Äihmui and) bie ÜJütcrpreife fid) 
iiidjt luid) bell .s:erftel(iingi3füfteu befttnimen, fo ()aben fie 
bod) bie Xenben^, fid) uid)t ^u lueit üon biefen 
gu entfernen; bei ÖHitern jcbod), bie eine S^enüinuig 
bnrd) Ciienerationen (Vilaffen, fann ber Slüftenluert, 
um beffeii migemeffcne 'iser,^infnng I)enini bie 'ik' 
iiüt.uingöentgette penbeln müi'jten, nid)t nnf (sjrnub 
ber jeiueiligen l^iarft* unb \Hrbeit6iierI)ä(tniffe erred)net 
merbeii. Xie Sd)iuierigfeit, \a, llniiuirtlid)feit, unter 
ben I)entiiien 1^er()ä(tniffeii feftjnfteKcii, ii)etcf)cr ^\Uiet== 
5in§ angemeffen luäre, i)'t fein iHrgument gegen bie 
U.-^eI)anptinig, ba]] ber ber,^eitige llViet.^inö offenbar nnb 
^lueifelloö nnangenieffen i)"t. Xie ^il^tonat^^miete eine» 
MlauieriS beträgt 20 S, bie einer 3d)reibmafd)ine 12 S, 
bie eine'5 i'eil)bibliotl)efroinane!:J 8 S, bie l^Jciete einer 
Xrei^immeriuobnung unter 'Xnnafjuie einey Wietent* 
geltö in ber ts)efamttjül)C bey l()00fad)en ilsorfrieg^j== 
nominale^^ 15 S. ^er l^iietjiuy für eine oon einer 
ganzen Familie beiüoI)nte l:rei,ymnienL)ol)niing i)*t ein 
'i^rnd)teit beffen, mvi bie (Einlagerung ber ''Möhd im 
Wagasin einc^J Spebitenry foftet. 

9inn fonnte üie((eic()t eingeiuenbet lucrben, ber 
Sa|^, bafj für jebe ^eiftiing ein augenieffeneö (Entgelt 
entrid)tet luerben muffe, entfprecf)e nur ber inbioibna:» 
Iiftifd)en '^iMrtfd)aft!?= unb ^lied)tyovbnung, muffe aber 
in einer auf Ok'meimüirtfd)aft aufgebauten Crbnnng 
nid)t gelten; ba bay gegeinuiirtigc l)tietred)t ein 3d)ritt 
5um So^ialiömnä fei, bürfe mau e§ nid)t mit Öered)tig' 
feit'jgrunbfä^en befümpfeu, bie any ber inbiuibuaüfti* 
fd)en äliirtfd)aft?^orbmtng entiuidelt luerben. 2^iefcr (iin:» 
manb c\d)t fef)t. Setbi't lueiin ey n)al)r inäre, ba)*; ba§ 
öfterreid)ifd)e " ietrecf)t fojialiftifd)^ foI(eftiüiftifd)e Üirunb* 
fätH' oerii)irf(ie()t, fo luiire eben gerabe ber (vinbau 
bicfe^ ben (s^rnnbfcibt'n ber gegemuärtigcn 9{cd)täorb* 


nuitg iuii)cvjprcrf)cnbcu "iliürnuMifompIoi-Cy in biv^ im 
übrioeit intbcriiljvt ticliliobeiic ^^corntciirterüft bor inbm' 
bualifti]'d)cu ^licclitaorbuuini eine Xiöbannoiiic, bereu 
folgen bereit!? aiujebeutet luiirbeii. \Hber ift benit ba^ 
Ijeutigc ^\lfietrec()t luirflirf) ein 'Xiiöflufj )ü,yaliftifff)cr 
(^ebaitfeu? Mciiie^oiueiv^. '^uicf) fo5ialifti|d)eri\M)re nnifjten 
ftiibtijrijcr C^nuib uiib 'i^ibeu luib ftäbtilcfje llUietljäiiier 
biircl)iueny im lii|]eiitiint ber Wemein)cf)(iir uelieit; t^ri = 
nateifleiitiim an biejeu bJütern unire aihäi3e|d)lo)jen. 
Tiefer 9ieri)t!?3uftaiib luirb jebod) nid)t nur uon bcn 
3:i)eüretifern bCiS Sojinliemu'^, [onberu aucf) oon hcn 
auf bcm ^i^obcn ber geiieuuuirtigcn ^lUrtfdjafteovbnuuti 
fteljenbcn 'i^obenreformeru erftrebt^M. ^-Bebcuter aber 
Ü.^erncfellfd)aftunn bcy .s:nucnMnentunt§ ^inüifi^ierunn 
ber WioteuiiieUeV (>)crabeio luie bie "^(ufbebuun be» 
•ij^riüateigeutunty an '^Uobuftiumitteln, alfü hai^ lua» 
man red)t eiiientlid) Siv^ialifierunn nennt, nid)t be- 
beuten luürbe, baf; bie '^^robufte nur liefen (irfaii 
ber auf iljre s^erftellnuii aufcjemeubcten lUrbeitc^ölinc, 
aber uljue '-lH'rüdfid)tii]unrt beiä in if)ncn cntl)alteneu 
®ad)gütenuertC'3 nnb ber "^^robuftiuniiticlabnüiiunn ab^ 
ßegebcn lucrbcn fönnten, fo fönntc and) bie Momniuni* 
fierung beö .v^auöeieientunt^:? nid)t bie '^iMrfuiiii .^eitii^eu, 
baf3 ber 'iiiofinraumbebarf entneltlüy befriebigt luirb. 
2^ic fülleftiiiiftifd)e ^l\>irtfd)afti?form unterfff)eibet fid) 
üon ber iubiiiibualiftifd)en nid)t burd) bie iHrt oer 
Oh'iterprobuftiüu, fonbern burd) bie \Hrt ber Ohiteruer* 
tcilung. äl^e bie fo^ialiftifdie 'iiMrtfd)aft nid)t auf ba^ä 
^robuftiufapital — bie ertranftcirjernben iU-obuftiüUö- 
unüucgc im 3iune 'öö^m^i^atuerfö — üerjicbion 
fönnte, fo mnf;te fic and) bafiir fonien, ba)'j bie in 
bcn .'oäuferu iuueftierte Wütermeune erl)alten bleibt 
unb bau if)re Üieprobuftion öcfid)crt mirb. "S^enn and) 
bei füäialiftifd)er '^iUrtfd)afteüerfaffunii fönnten bie O'r* 

") 58gr. 5[vt. ^i^obcnvcform (Tief)!,) im v. b. Sfii:.., 
Sb. 3, S. 9.") ff. Tamafclife, ;>,ur (^efditrlito ^0l• DnitiduMt 
23obcmefünn[iciiicflung, lUOG. 

— 37 — 

finirniffe ber nationalen '';|irobuftion nid)t gnr reft(ofeu 
i^efriebiiiunfj bon Monfumbebürfniffen ncriucnbct Uier= 
bcn, ba fie uor allem ber (irneuernnei unb bem 9(u§bau 
ber üergefcUfd)aftctcn ':|5robnftit)[iüter gn bicncn bc 
l'timmt mären, 'iiolfserfparniffe, bie in S3oI)nI)äufern 
niebcrgelegt finb, luerben ber ^-örberung beö ^robnf«^ 
tion!?pro§effe!o cntjogen, muffen bal)er in einer (Sjc 
meimuirtfd)aft, bainit il)re 'i^eruienbung gu itonfum=' 
äiueden gered)tfertigt luerbe, ncuau fo mit einer (ir* 
tragöniönlid)feit au^iCjeftattet uierbcn luic in ber inbi* 
inbuali)"'tifd)en 3.ivirtfd)aft;§orbnun{]. ^a§> ^}Jtietcntgelt 
mürbe fid) bal)er and) in ber fo,^ialiftifd)en 2öirtfd)aft 
au§ ben brci ilontponenten ^suftanb^altung, '.Hmortifa^» 
tion nnb '-8erjinfuu(] ,yifammenfeuen, loenn Diclleid)t 
and) biefe^5 (iutgelt nid)t mirflid) beäal)lt, fonbern bei 
;{utcilunn ber anbcrcn OHitcr entfpred)enb berücffid)tigt 
mürbe. Os» ber Avnge ber '-IikibnuugömirtfrOaft bel'tünbc 
alfo ,vi)ifd)en ^iibioibuali^^mu!? nnb Sl\illeftilii^:^nub5 im 
mefcntlid)en nur ber llnterfd)ieb, ba)\ in ber iubiuibua* 
liftifd)en ^iiiirtfd)aft baö iIiHil)nnuoycntoclt bem einjelneii 
.N:auöeitientümer ^^iifällt, mäbrenb c^ in ber follefti* 
inftifd)en 'JiMrtfd)aft ber S>olf'^ni'infi"lfO'ift ciufide. liineii 
;]uftanb beö llmfonftmol)nenö fann and) eine follefti* 
iMftifd)e ^J5jirtfd)aft nid)t fd)affen. Xiefer Seftftellnng 
fd)eint bie Jatfad)e jn unberfpred)en, ba]\ c-ä fcl)r mid)* 
tige l'eiftungen gibt, bie, obiuobl fie mefeutlid)e Moften 
erforbern, bcm einzelnen ^ntereffcnten bod) entgeltloä 
erbrad)t merbcn. 'Man bcnfe an bcn üffentlid)cn IsolfiS* 
fd)uhinterrid)t, an bie Stranenbenütumg! Unb fo mag 
fid) uielleid)t mirflid) in ntand)en .stopfen ber (.^kbanfe 
feftfeiuMi, baf3 — luie llnierrid)t nnb Strafjen — and) 
^ii^übnungen an§ ben l^iitteln ber organificrten 'BkU 
fd)aft gcfd)affen nnb bem ^inilfe entgeltlo^ jur '^Scx^ 
füguug geftcllt merben fönnten. Tiefer 03ebanfe märe 
iebod)'abmegig. Xenn nur s^ei)*tungen, bie jebermann in 
uugefäl)r gleid)cm ^^lu'imafje in Vlnfprud) ue()meu fann 
unb bie nid)t nur im ^ntercffc bcö einzelnen 33emi^erö 

— 38 

— 39 


liegen, füiibern ber AÖrbeniiic] ber nKn^'i^ciueii 'ilMrt= 
]f()ait ober ber iHiIfyfuÜiir biencii, föiuteii ber [pe^ieüeu 
CiiUneltlicljfeit eiitn'icft iinb iiiiy alli^eineiiieit "ilVittedt 
finanziert luerben. iii'ü ber "-l^ebarr biffereiiyert, Me 
^nteniittit ber 3iit^'Wii uerirfjiebcii ift, bort miifj 
— )r()oii bei ber (^iiiilrecOtypifeoc |ief}t man c^ — ber 
Wriuibfali ber ipe.vellen (intneü(ic()feit X^lai} greifen, 
^^üft, Jetenrnpl), Jeleplum finb öffent(irf)e ^.'(nftalten; 
nuf biefem WeOiete ift bk 'isernefellfcfjaftuiii] ber ^4>rü= 
biiftiuniittel bnrfl)gefüf)rt unb borf) luerben bic "^In^^* 
gaben biefer 'i^etriebe im luefcntlicljen naef) priüatiuirt* 
fd)aftlirf)en C^hunibfäuen aufgebradit; iiciftung unb (SiiU 
gelt ftefjen im ^i^erbältnic^ bireftcr '^.U-opürtionnlitä!. 
Si'ü boy i^Nerlaffen be^^ OHmnbfaoC'^ fpejieüer lintge(t= 
licljfeit ein (i-mporfcf)ne(Ien bcy ^i^ebarfey Ijeruorrnfen 
luürbe, wo cä fiel] iiberbioo nm l'eiftnngcn Pcrfrf)iebener 
9(rt I)anbelt, un'irbe bie Moftenberfnng nn^ Mitteln 
ber Vülgemeinbeit ber R)irtfcl)aftlicl)en ^isernunft nnb 
bcm föerecl)tigfeitcnirnnbfat^ ber l'U^niueilen-^ - allge- 
meine '-Iverpfliclitnng ^u 3tencrleiftnngen für 3cf)affn'ng 
Püu C^iitern inbiuibnellen ^ik'barfcö — ^nmiberlanfen. 
Ji>cnn^ alfü feftfteljt, ha)] und) im fo,yaliftifd)en ;]u- 
fnnft'^ftaat ein angenteffencö Wietentgelt geleiftet luer- 
ben miifue nnb ha]] eine ^iniriebininig boö ^^isüljube- 
barfe'3 ber ein.^elnen ^^i>irtfd)aftyfnbjeftc aibi Wittein 
ber organifierten ^,'lllgeineinbeit in feiner ^^i>irtfd)aft'^" 
ncrfaffnng müglid) ift, bebarf e^3 eiiieö lueiieren t^c- 
lueifey für bic oitäquioalen^ ber heutigen lliietentgelie 

(iinc anbcre Seite be§ iHiiniunlen,Hn-in,^ip§ bcftelit 
in ber Aürbernng nadj .v>arinonie ,vuifcf)en ))ted)t'3uer- 
lelumn nnb ^Ked)t5fülge. ^i(nd) biefer Wered)tigfeit^3- 
Oriiiibfal3 ergibt fid) formal am einer \Hnali)fe be-o 
C^crcdjtigfeUiJbegriffeö, fein ^nljalt ift aber feine^3iuegy 
fonftant. Senn barüber, luann ^'(qniualen,^ ,vuifd)en 
^Ked)(c^uerleluing nnb ^Kcd)tc(folge gegeben ift, geben bie 
Wenningen ber oalirbnnberte, ber Slnltiirfreife nnb 

ber äi>eltanfrf)anuiigcu nnöeinanber. Xer 9htllifi§iernng 
ber IHMetjinfc luürbe bie anityluegige ^^erteilnng be» 
uerfügbaren lHiietrauineö aiö notluenbige itüiifegnens 
eutfprecf)eit. Xaburcf), bafj biefe ^-olgernng nidjt gc= 
^ogen luerben foiinte, luiirbe ein Buft^nb gcfd}affcn, 
bei bem 'Ii^oljnungSuerlnft gleid)bebeiitenb lonrbe mit 
Cbbad)lüfigfeit*^-j. Unfo^iale 'illnyübnng beö ill^oI)niing^3= 
red)tey - mangelnbe ^)iüdfid)t anf A1titbeiuol)ner nnb 
iT^^auüeigentümer — foUte bei biefem Staube ber Tinge 
einen cyrnnb 5ur (Snt.veljinig beiä iIi>ol)nred)teö nid)t 
abgeben. SScr fid) gegen bie StraHcnorbnnng ücrgcl)t, 
lüirb beftraft, nid)t aber uon ber ^-Ikmüt.unig ber Strafje 
aiieigefrf)loffen. tiiiie ^Ked)t^3orbnnitg, bie anf bie Sto* 
rang beö .s:aiiyfriebeiui mit ber iHnuirteilung jur 3.l^oI)* 
HUiuvilofigfeit rengiert — i<l'.), \>lbf. 2, %^.}] WietW. —, 
uerlet.U ba^i \Mi)iiioalen,^prin,yp. .s:ier ,zeigt fid) luieber 
bie 2i!?l)armünie ,vuifd)en bem ^"^iibalt bei? gegeniuärti- 
ßcn 9Jiietred)te3 nnb bem AOi'tbeftanb ber red)tUd)en 
Cnalififation be^^ Wietrecbtyoerbältniffe^3 aUi eine« bem 
Dbligatioiieiiredjt angeböreiiben prioatred)tlid)en i^er* 

VI. Ter (Srmiölal^ Ui '^mlAjmn^mxhom. 

Iure naturac aoquuni est neminem cum alte- 
rius detrimcnto et injuria fieri locuphdiorem, 
fagt '':json!poniii'5*3)**}. Tiefer Oh-unbfaU unirbe in 
ber Welbemiuertiuigf^literatur ,vu- ^Hn^gleicbung ber 
biird) bie Welbeittiuertnng uenirfaditen Unbilligfeiten 
I)erangeäogeu. )oiebei beadjtete man aber nid)t, baf} 

'2) 3u ätJien lüirb bicfc .Sloufcciiieu;, biirrf) bic ai'ül)nbaii^ 
tätintoit bei- Woiiiciiibe ein luciiin (loiitilöcrt. Man barf aber 
iiid)t iiergoffoit, bnn bac il'(itioiigo)Mi niicl) für ttciiie i'anb- 
ftäbtc gilt, in benen eine ^aiHiI)nL)aniätig!cit ani Stcnci- 
niittoln nirl)t in ^iVlrad)t fontnit. 

^•') Dig. ;■)(), 17, 2f)G. 


**) 5?ßl. bic allgcnioinc Jormnlicvnng int § 812, 9(0). 1 

— 40 — 

eilt ''Xnüiriicl) auf ','(ii'5g(ind) bc^i biirrf) blc 33croirf)cviini] 
goi'diani'i'LMt ;]iiftanbc^i bann iiirfit gegeben fein fauii, 
uienn bie tkn-eir(jening nic()t intnererf)tiertigt'^^) — 
et iniiiria! — ift, fonbern beiii (yefe|5C ent)pricf)t. ^cr 
Srf}nlbncr, bcr eine 5cfjiilb mit cutluertcteit "»Tronen 
[ie3a()(t, bercirf)crt |ic() geiuin auf Hofteu beö OUäuOigciy; 
bocf) ift biefe ÜHn-eirfierung inrf)t ungerechtfertigt, ba bie 
3a()(ung geniäf; ber ßiuaiuv^ifurif^nürm beä 'iiHil)ruug'3= 
rec()te» erfolgt. ^Wan barf eben ben pofitilirecf)tIid)eu 
'i^egriff bcr ungercdjtfertigteu 'ikn-eidjeruug nid)t mit 
beut überpofitiiieu '-l^cgriff ber ungcred)ten "i^crcidjcruug 
neruied)fe(n. Ta^ iifterrcid)ifdje ^Kedjt feuut einen all* 
gemeinen 'iVreidjerung'oanfprud) uid)t, fonbern fnüpft 
nur an geiuiffe Jatbeftiinbe l'eiftungöoerpflidjtuugen, 
bereu red)tSpoIitifd)er ^^merf ber ^?(ui?gleid) obne ^)ied)ty= 
grunb erfolgter 'Isermögenöuerfriiiebungen ift. ^-ür bie 
C^ered)tigfeit6(e(}re aber ift ber '-l^egriff ber ungcred)teu 
'^ereidjerung überau'S frud)tbar. Xie ^)ied)t'oorbuung 
foll nid)t 9ierf)t^4ageu fcf)affeu ober ,vi(affen, bei benen 
fid) jemanb auf Moften ciueä anberen oljue gered)ten 
Wruub bereid)ert. Xicfer überpofitiue '43ereid)eruugö* 
begriff ift and) für ba^i getteube ^){ed)t nid;t bebeutung-i* 
loi3. Xer ^Ked)tc>bogntatif bereitet c^i 5d)U)ierigfeiteu, 
ber ^Jtnuienbung be^^ 3d)enfungöbegriffcy auf i.'eiftuu^ 
gen 5n cutgel)eu, bie erbrad)t luerben, oI)ne baf; ein 
3ted)t^anfprud) beftebt, bie aber bod) nid)t Sctjenfungen 
finb. Wit CSutfdieibung uom 2. '^c^. 1<)2(), "Jh*. 'A^G 
i)cit ber COiv. ba^i 'iHH-fpred)en, eine jum ^iJominat- 
bc'trage getilgte Mroueufd)ulb aufjuiucrten, nid)t ald 
Sd)enfnngc4ierfpred)eu gnalifi-^iert, baljer aU luirffam 
angefef)cu, objauir (<•, formIo>^ abgegeben mürbe. Xicfc 
inbattlid) ju billigeube Cinlfd)eibuug mirb bamit be- 
grüubet, ba)] eine angemeffene ^^tnfiuertung oon .sirouen* 
üerpflirfjtuugen bcm fittlidjcn timpfinbeu eutfprcrfje, 

*5) ^jßg bciitirfie biirncvlicbo öcicUbucfj ncbiaurfit bie 
^Bortc: of)nc rccfjtlirfjcii öninb (§ 812). 


— 41 — 

ba fie uiirtfd)aftlid) uugered)tfertigte 'lV'reid)erungen 
I)iutanl)alte. .Sllang-^'') ftimmt ber li-ntfdjcibung felbft 
5U, meubet fid) aber gegen bie ''.öegrüubung, bie er lieber 
barauf bafieren mi)d)tc, ba)] C'5 fid) um einen ftrittigen 
3(ufmcrtuiig§anfprud) f)anb(e, bcr burd) einen bem 9to* 
tariat§5mang entrüdteii ii>erg{eid) erfebigt luurbc. tiefer 
35orfd)lag fönnte ine((cid)t beut 3pe5iatfal( gered)t 
luerbeu, trifft aber nid)t ben Mern bci^ ^^sroblcubj, luie 
ein Wd auf gleid) gelagerte A-üKe geigt, (iin 9tufprucf) 
gel)t nerloreu, meil ber flageube Gläubiger jnr erftcn 
Jagfatmng ju fpät gefonuneu ift unb bie ^^orau^^ 
felumgen für eine ii>iebcieinfoi3ung uict)t oorliegen*^). 
Xurd) ben gerid)tlicf)eu ^Hucnileid) unb burcf) ben 
^limng^iaii'ögleid) im Moufur^i mirb ber 3ff)ulbner oon 
bcr 'iserpfliditung befreit, feinen (sUäubigern ben iHn§* 
faU, ben fie erlcibcn, nad)träg(id) ju erfe^cn*^). 
l'iegen, menn ber 3d}nlbner bem red)t'3fräfti3 
abgemiefeneu ober bem mit bcr %b3gleid)öiiuote be^ 
fri'ebiglen OUäubigcr 5al)(t, 3cl)enfungen oor? Xiefe 
^•rage nnif; uerneint mcrben, ob.vimr e» gan,^ uutuu=» 
lid) ift, berartige ;Vd}luiinen, benen feiuerlei 
•iNerbanblnngcu unb ^iscvcinbiuiiugen noram^gegangen 
fein muffen, nl^^ ^i>erglcicl)cun-füllungi5()anbluugen 
5U iiualifi.^ieren. Taö Cvccieren mit bem 'l^c^ 
griff bcr ^J(\iluralobtigation füi)rt ebenfall^i nidjt jum 
;^iele, ba e§ fid) — smninbeft im ^-allc bcS gerid)t=» 
lir()en ^Hn'5glcid)e§ — uid)t um einen uuflagbaren 
xHnfprnd), fonbern um einen ^ljicf)taufprncr)i'') I)anbelt 
unb überbieci gerabe ba^^ öftencid)ifcbe 9ied)t ^3JaturaI^ 
Obligationen im gemeinrcfl)tlicl)cu Sinne nicf)t fennt. 

i^ ^n. 192G, S. 272. 

i') ^ics 5unnitbrft md] bcr mntcricKrecbtttrfjcn 9icrt)t§« 
fraftttjcimc, ^l ^^löcuftcdjcr, 3itr Scijrc von ber mate- 
riellen ^){ed)t6tvaft, 190.J. 

4^) § 15G SIC, § 53 '^hi?4£. . 

49 'liefe Untcrid)eibuiii3 bleibt nur ju ort unbeaditct. 
9SaI 9lcid)el, lliiHaobarc 'ätniprüdjc, 3bcrinö>3 ^sa^jvb. 
«b 59, 2. 424if.; niibcr-^ a-fjrcnjrocig, Sijitcm, 11/1,6.8. 


?.lfau unrb ad'o büd) iüoI)( .yu-jcDoii niiiifcn, ha]] ha^ 
Hntcr)c()oibun(]ynicvfiiuü bariii bcftcl)t, bafj cig firf) in 
bic[ni ^-äücu um bic (i-r|üllinui )ittlicl)er i^flicdtcit 
I)aiibc(t, iiitb ha)] bieci bcr öh-imb ift, luanim bcvavticie 
i!ciftungcn uic()t Sdieiifunnen iiiib bie :^cr)'pred)cit, lolrfjc 
Sciftunncn 511 crbriiiflcii, md)t 3cf)cnfimn'oi)or)pvccf)cii 
fiiib. Wnii ijat bcmiuicf) folcicnbc ''Xrten oon i'ciftiinneii 
511 uutiTi'djciben: l'ciftiuincn auf Oh'unb flantnuTv 
9kd)t^3pflid)t, i^Mftuunen nuf üh-unb unfhiiitiarev 
9{ed)h3pflirf)t^"), i.'dftunncn auf C^h-unb fittüdjcr 
••^^flidjt •■'!), i'eiftunncii ül)nc 9{cd)typflid)t inib ül)nc fitt= 
lidjc '']?flid)t. ti'iu ^uuMfcllofcr ahiü hüu l'eiftuuii auf 
Wruub fittlid)cr ''i?fltd)t lient bann uor, uhmui bm* 
i'ciftcubc fid) bei ^1iid)tcrbriu(:ju»n ber l^ciftuiin in un^ 
gcrod)tcr SinMfc auf .stoftcii bcy Veiftunf|ycnipfäitnevy 
bcrcidjin-u luürbc. Xic ahHc bc5 nad)3al)(cubou 'i?(U'§^ 
ölndjSfdjuIbiun'i?, bco aufuicrtcnbon Mrouonfd)ulbueiö, 
be§ tro|5 red)ti3fiaftincv, aber ntatcricd unflereditfcrtiiiter 
.SUanöabiucifuuti crfüUcubcu 'in'fhiiitcu crfal)rcu eine 
Sluannlofc uwh bcfricbiiioubc ijöfuiui, lucnn mau 2ci' 
ftuiuicu, bic 5UI* '-iHn-uioibuun uui^crcditcr 'IHn-oidicruug 
orbiad)t lucrbiMi, uoui 3d)cufuuiiü'bc(iriff ci;imicrt. 

Oioncu bcn Oh-uubfai.^ boo 'iUn-cid)cruuc|oiun-botOy 
tu bicfcm üborpüfitiiuMi 3iunc inniüubiiit fid) ba':> 
*i).liictcuncfct^ auf ber nanjeu iL'inie. Xiefe '-iNcrfüubirtuucj 
ift fd)uu baburd) i^oneben, bau ber Wieter eine mirt* 
fd)aftlid) bcbeutfame, mit '•^luf'^e()ruufl mertuüller Mapi^ 
talgüter uerbuubeue l'eiftuug faft eutneltloö crl)ält. 
^k ^crcid)ernun tritt aber nod) fiuufällic^er bauii in 
CSrfdjcinuun, \wnn bcr 'ii.ltictcr bic 'ii^ü^nunn -^u^" Wäu.^c 

öo) 'yinx bicfc finb unftanbarc ?(niin-üff)i' im torfi* 
mfdjcu eiitnc, 3. ^l \Hiifpn'id}e am 2pid uiiO 'ii'cttc, 
QUg 33ürfenbiffcrcn-\cu. 

••1) ^a^3 'm(m. (öfit bicfc $?ciftiin(icn nKcrbituv? in 
bcm 53cgrirf bei 3ri)citliiiirtcn, bic oiitci- fitt(iri)cii "iiflidit 
ober atürffiditcn bC'^ xHitftnitboÄ entf«.nxdion, aufacf)on (§ 785, 

— 43 — 

^u eiuem burd) bie Warfidiiie nogcOeueu, alfo ocr()äIt= 

niSuiiifjitj I)ü()cu (i-uts^elt uuterüermietet''-). 'iföenn aud) 

nad) § 10 WxctiV). ber .*Oü()e ber Uuteruiiet^iufcOireu^cu 

gefetU finb, fo ^eiflt bod) bic C^rfaf)ruiirt, ha]] l)ol)e 

Untermictcutgeltc unberfbnid)^^(o>3 Ci^aljh merben. :il^euu 

aber bic 'liorauyfcuuurtcu bC'i Wcfel^c^ üom 30. ^uli 

1925, 'i^^y^iM. ^Jir. HO:}^') — feine Untcrücrmietung am 

81. :^n\\ 1925 — norlieneu, ift ber .s:auptmieter be== 

red)tint, fid) hcn ber lllcavftlane eutfpved)enbcu Untcr^ 

miet^iuy aui^^nbebiuneu. '2a^ iu'ietenflcfct^ f)at !iän,^ad)e 

über mud)erifd)C'^*) Untcruermietuun uou ^ri^uljunurjcn 

alö Müubiciuuiv^nruub uid)t aufncnommcu, lueil eine 

a\i^ bicfcm OU-uubc frcincu'orbcuc :i\>ol)uuun bcr aKgc* 

uieiueu iHuforbcruun uutcrlcncn Riiire, bic .siüubinung 

nlfü für beu .s^au^eineutümer iutcrcffelo'o mar; mol)l 

aber mar biefer Xatbcftaiib ein fpejicKcr ^Huforbcruutvä- 

(iruub''''\ ^3iad) lvrlöfd)cu bc§ ^^(ufiirberuuiv:<nefei^c^5 ruft 

näu,Vid)C ober mud)erifd)e Uuterucrmictuun iiberbanpt 

ifeiue rcd)tlid)e ^Icaftiou mcl)r l)crüür. Üö ift üorge* 

fommcn, baf; bcr lUieter eiuer ^-lsicr,vmmertuol)uunn, 

für bic er ciu Wefauttcutgelt mn 10 S mouatlid) 

leiftct, iu§ ^^{ucdaub übcrficbclt, feine ^ilUencr ^al^üJ)uuug 

aber um 400 S mouatlid) mcitenicrmietct unb fo auf 

Wrunb hc^i „ncfd)üntcu" aiiictrcd)tc^3 — nid)t 'XM)^ 

red)tc^5 — äum ^{eutncr mirb. ^il^cun man in anberen 

■>^) {i b CWs\ 11. 2S. WiiU 1020, ObII489 2ti; 
Iiicur ^^rücf, WänMid)C llntcviunmictuna bcr ^iHil)niiufl 
ift fein .Vliinbi.iunivöiivu.tb? Ü^K;! l^^'-^«' S. 22i.. ^_ 

.VI) ^xcicA Wcfcu l)nt bell Sirnimrr nur nevflrüHin-t. 
a.Hm jebcr^^i'öoimumv lum icbem Mabiitett luirb, wenn unier 
^iactrcd)t nid)t nn* .s:^aiU)t unb OHieberii reTornuert nnvb, 
nod) nad) 3al)rcn fci'tiieitellt merben müficn, ob am ..L ^»U 
192.-) i^crniictunn, b,yo. Unt^'viun-mununi] oor ag. ^^a . 
barübcr feinen .siataiun- (]itit unb ber ^ fc(tH>5Cttcl nber biv^ 
prioatred)t(idic ?.iaetocr()ältnio feinen ;J[nnd)(u)5 Q]i^U ^nx^ 
m\i and, Dter ber .v^anobcfoiner ultimum J^'f^ism'n cm 

■•'4) ^icfC'^' fraffc 3iHn-t lolt ()ier nnr bic 9iclation ju 
bcm oonrs>anptmietcr bc^alilten linti^ett t,eroorl)cbcn. 

— 44 — 

i.'äitbcrn, in bciicn unilKf)nftIifI)e ^^crnimft unb (Sinn 
für C^crcrf)tiflfcit nod) inrfjt ücrlorciiocnangcn finb, uoii 
bcrartiom ^iitgcii Ißvt, [o mxkn [ie Wie mHvdjcn. 
oft c§ beim nirf)t niicfj inirflirf) ein l)iäi-d)cu? ^cr 3u= 
foll, bnfi man im ^äniior 11)17 iUiictcr einer Qvo)m 
^^l?üf)niui(] tuar, fpicit bic 3to(Ic ber oiitincn ^-ce, bic 
bem &lMM)cn für bic Dauer beö \,il)cMeterfri)ut^e§" 
— unb er foll ja eiuin öefteljcn — eine tieträcOtiirf^e 
^luMite nuf «üftcu bcö Jonn-^cioentümerg — im 9Jüird)cn 
ciudj Si\\§c\ncx genannt — in btn <Bdm »oirft. 3l^o 
onf ber SBcIt gibt cg einen frafferen ^all uugcred;tcr 

mcx and) ber .V)au'3cigeutnmer loirb, fo nn^tanh^ 
lid) cö fliugt, burrf) ba>3 Ijeutine aUietrcd)t mancfjmal 
mif .Uofteu be^5 Wieter^i ungeredjt bereicfjert. Tie llJieter 
finb ncrpflidjtet, audj für bebcuteube ^licparaturen beä 
ioaufeö, in bom fic lüoljneu, nufäufommen. ÜiJcnn bie 
2)heter and) mirt|d)aftlid) für bie 3)auer ifjreä Süljn* 
rcd)teä bie .\>errcn bcö .«onufe^J finb, fo geigt fiel) bn^S 
^^(u^Scinauberfallcn ber burcf) biv$ üU^ictengefeo gefcf)affe- 
neu Oi'cdjtönerfjältniffe unb ber angemcinen ^Jriüat- 
rcd)t^ürbinmn bod) bann, lueun ber a^iieter an<i bem 
.s^nufe au^idjt V(nd) luenn er burd) fünf ,-\a[)rc ben 
(>O0üfarf)en il^orfricggjinö für eine (Generalreparatur 
beg i^anfcö bcäal;(t I)at, fo fann er für bic\cn auf 
eine juriitifd) frembc 3ad)c gemadjten ^lufioanb feinen 
Grfat^ ücrinngei;, lueber oom öauöeigeutümer nod) 
üon feinem 9i\id)für(ier im »Jictredjt. Der .s:»au^^eigen== 
tnmer \]t alfo burd) bic mit bem OJelb bc^ unintereffiert 
geuiorbenen Wieterö erfolgte ^j^icbcrinftanbietuina feino^S 
•N^mifcg bcreirOert; frci(id) faun fid) biefe ^ikreidjernng 
crft ooll au^^mirfcu, »oenn ber gninimärtige Suftanb 
ber WietäinänuHifi^vcruug aufljört unb bic SDäufer 
micber einen ongcmeffenen Jaufcfjttjert erlangen. 

3Sü ba§ (Sjcfel^ ber freien ^l^creiubarung ©d)ranfen 
|c0t, mun ee «ertrage, bic fid) über biefe Sd)ranfen 
Ijtmucgfc^cn, für unmirffam erflärcu unb ein 9?ccl)t 

~ 45 — 

ouf 3türffürbcrung ber ^ciftuiigcu geben, bie in Cir- 
füKung berartin umuirfiamer i^erträgc erbrad)t mür- 
ben. 3icr)t ba^ Oiefcu biefe ;>ofgerung uid)t, bann 
bleibt ber 'Buk be^5 Wefet.u'y uubeadjtet. ^3covmeu, 
bie geftatten, «eriprocl)ene^5 uidjt (eiften gu muffen, iSk-- 
leifteteg rücfforbcrn ju bürfcu, finb gefäljrlidjc ÄlJittel, 
bercn fiel) ber (yeicugebor nur mit iBoriid)t bebieuen 
foll. Denn ;]urüdforbern oon (yeleiftctcm miberfprid)t 
in ber ^Kegel ben Weboten ber ^Inftäubigfeit. Dae 
Ök'fet3 fann, luenu cy fid) luu ernftc unb fd)iucr= 
miegeubc red)t^-^poIitifd)C ßicle 5. iÖ. bie (y(eid)boI)anb- 
lung ber Wlciubiger im \Hu^n](eid)öocrfal)ren I)aubelt, 
auf berartige ^icomentc feine ^)iüdfid)t ucl)men. §(n= 
ber§ aber ift cy, loenn bic ^Ked)t^fo(gen ber llmoirf* 
famfeit üon «erpilid)tungeu unb ber Jlxüdforberbarfcit 
erbrad)ter i'eiftungeu an Xatbcftiinbe gefnüpft tuerben, 
bie ^wat gcfcluoibrig finb, bor dknxnljtigfeit unb 3itt= 
lid)feit aber nirl)t li)iber|prcd)en. 'iiHMui ber .\j)anptmieter 
feine äi^ül)nuug - in 'Xi>irflid)feit bivi il)m 3uftc!)enbe 
„gefd)ü|^Uc" :tlUictred)t — uerfauft nnb üon bem er* 
hielten ilanfprci^j einen f leinen Xcil bem s^auöeigcn* 
tümor abgibt, au^i beffeu 'iHn-mögeu er ben 'i^orteil 
erlangt I)at, fo faun biefe X!eiftung innerl)alb eine^^ 
3al)re§ Snrürfgeforbert lucrbcu'''^). Da« (yieid)e gilt 
oon allen über ben gefclUid)eu iWietjin^ l)inau'3gel)en* 
ben Seiftungen mit bem einen flcinen llnterfd)ieb, baf} 
bic 58erial)rungyfrift I)icr fcdi-i lUonatc beträgt. Okgen 
bie 9türfforber'barfeit länt fid) bann nicf)ty cimucnben, 
menn ber Vermieter unter "Xucütüuuug ber ^mang^lage 
be§ aifietery eine unbillig l)ol)e Üeiftung begcbrt bat, 
menn alfo ein Tatbeftaub imrüegt, ber andj unter 
§ 879, i. 4 ^^li^mi iieie. l'iegt biefe :i>ürau!3fel3ung 
nid)t Dor, bann begel)rt ber 'Mietet, ber eine Sciftung 
jucrft erbringt unb fie bann ^^urürfforbert, bie 9h'icf* 

06) e. b. CÖJ.s:. 
ms. 1927, 3. 55. 

u. lö. 


1926, Ob 138820, 



crftrtttintn einer poiitiin-cd)ilic() uiii^erLTfjtfcrttnlcn ^^x'* 
reirf)cnint^ ^cc, i^cimiotcr'^; bic '^*iivfunn bcr 9iiic[lciftuiii] 
aber \]t, bafj ftcf) ber rücffürberitbc Wieter — - in ciiicm 
iiberpoiitiueii Sinne — auf Mofteu be^o .'oan^öeinentiV 
mcriJ nnnered)t bereirfiert. Ci;ä ift eine eiuine kcc\d: 
0H'iet3e, iueic()e bie 0)ererf)tiiifeit'5nrnnbiäl>e uerlc^en, 5er- 
ftören Iren unb OHanben, löcn Wifjtrnnen ,^an|d)cn 
Wenicl) nnb ül.Uenfd) nnb oeriiiften fo biiy i^'iV'iM'eitigc 
^i>er()iiltniy ber Jliecl)t'öiienoi)"en. 

Ihu^credite WcieUe ueninlaiicii bic ^Kcrf)t'3unter^ 
movienen ,yir Umnelinnn. ^^ihmiii fid) biefe UmnelmnivJ- 
üerfurf)c 5nr ^Kediböübunn uerbid)ten unb aDieitö noni 
Oefdiriebenen ?)icd)te „(cbenbC'^ ))k(i)t" luorbcu, cricibet 
bic J)icd)t!?orbiiiinn kbuieren 3cfjaben, ,yiina( fic bcni 
.'i^robleni bey in Ir.iiidciii legis ajicrc [jilffü!? C[\^(\cn' 
überfteiit. ^i^enreiflid), aber cbenfo n^l'iOvlid) )"inb' bic 
üon ben ^KedilyainiuMibunnyornancn au'^neOenbcn ^iscr= 
nid)e, nni^credite ober ueraltete ^)c|'ei.u' bnrrf) juriftiidic 
3eiltän,^crfnnftftüdc ^11 umneljcn. Xa baö ncltenbc öfter* 
reid)ifd)e liljcredir in ben ^ik'ftinininnncn "über bie llit= 
trennbarfeit ber fatljülifdjcn tv{)c bcm ^Kcditc^cntpfinben 
lueiter M reife nid)t mcr)r cntfprirfjt, bcnütU eine l'anbeci* 
reniernnn bie nidjt nan^ bent(iff)c o-nffinifl bc^^ i< S:J 
'n'mS'iV bajn, nm ooni li[)cl)inberniy be^' bcftcbe'nben 
(ibebanbc'3 ju bi^^pcnficrcn, obiuol)! bic übenuicnenbc, 
ml)i and) rid)tine Wcinnnn ^'ibi" O^'Ot, hci]] biefci^ 
tS-f)c()inbcrniö inbi^ipcnfabel ift. Tiefe Xi^pcnfation^^- 
prayiS ift nid)t'3 anbcre^i aUi eine Wcfctu^önmncbunß 
ä»m 3»üccfe ber (irrcidjitnn eincö ber Werecfjtinfeit 
mcr)r entfprcd)cnben, bcm pufitiucn ^Ked)t aber ^^nunber- 
lanfcnben 9ied)t'^,^nftanbci?. Wcnan bic nleirOc bicfclu^-^- 
nmgcbunn ift cc^ mcnn nnnmefjr ücrfucfjt luirb, anf 
beni UmiüCfl über S 12 mim. bcu Snftanbbaltnniv^* 
c^ui§ auf ein öcrnünftinec^ Waf? ^n erljüljcn. ')la(i) ber 
Tiftion bicfcr öcfetjcöftcllc fann fein 3iücifcl baraii 
be|tcr)en, bafj bn§ i^crbältnioi ber Ijcutigeu ^^rcifc ju 
jenen mm 1. ^Joucmbcr 1922 Csirnnbfaoc für bic i&u 


i)öf)unö beö 3nftanbl)altnniiy,^infcö ift. Tiefe 33cftim* 
inung ift unfinnifl unb unncred)!, aber fic ift luic fo 
üicl Uufinuiney unb lluiiered)tey ^)efe|5. Tic (£r()öl}ung 
beg 3nftanbl)altunny,yiife!3 auf einen !öctran, ber bic 
^nftaubbaüunn ber .s:iiufer luirflid) crmöotid)t, ift 
ba()er ein 3ic(, aufö inuigftc ^u iunnfd)cn; mau 
folltc aber iiid)t uerfudien, c>^ burd) eine Ojcfei>c§um= 
Oc()uno 311 erreidjcn. ^Jinu liat bic ftcirifcr)C 2aubc§- 
ntictenfontmiffiüu bie tiri)öl)uui] be» ^nftaubijaltungö* 
äinfe^3 auf ba^ä 40{)0fad)C bc'i ^l^Ln-frienyuominalcö be= 
fdjloffcn. Tic^liid)tpubli,Meruuii bicfeä '-yefdjluffcö ftcHt, 
tücnn er orbnuniiygeuiäf} ,vtftaubeßefoutmim ift^"), 
lineberum eine WefcljCCMüibrii^feit bar. So ift e§ ber 
;s-(ud) fd)(ed)tcr (^efel3e, ha)] fic fort^cusicub ^l^öfe^^ ^C' 
biiren muffen'""^). ))ied)t«ainiUMibnn(i unb ^^solfydiaraftcr 
muffen fd)mer leiben, menu bic (^iefeu^l'l^»^HV^'■^•lla"e 
fid) ber ^iserantuiortunn, bie auf ii)uen (aftet, uid)t 
bcamfjt luerben nnb in leid)tfertiiier ^ii^cifc ^:)iürmen 
fd)affen, bic parteitaftifd)en ;]ielen ftatt ber (s5ercd)tiGfcit 
unb bcm 9xcd)ti^f rieben bieucu. 

yil. 3tl)Iupcmcrfmi(icn. 

Oicflcn bic biöberiiicn ^.Hu^fülirunneu bürfte %oU 
gcnbe^3 einiieiuenbet uierben: Ter neoeumärtiöc 3"' 

■-■') lim Ml ciiuMu Uvtoit (liovübor a» Iohuiumi, (icmisicu 

Die tu bni acitunaou mittioicilton latfadieii mc()t. oiii oiencn- 

au äur 5(uf affum bc^> i^orüluM.bcu _nm-b icbod, auflcnomm t 

Utbm muffen, U ^^^ .^^}<^^^^^^V^^'''^ ^^tJ^ ^ 
Icgium bie ^J^afmität m]A}c\hn, lofcni ba« Öefct^ ntfi)t.5 

aubcreö normicit. c^.. ,ni 

58^ Söcnn ein burrf) ben ^ilkntlaut br>3 § 12 fUm. 
„id,t gebeerter i^efd,(un über bie .v^öl,e_bea v\"1t""^tn"",ni; 
S§ nciafjt unb iiubdyert iiun-ben loütc, )o »uerben, unc 
S qcm lf u 9(nbeutuu eu e..tnouinte.t mei-bcu nmt btc 
J eiriicn - teil unb ^^ubti^ifto.., bie in ber 2iHH:n'?eI,enfi;aöC 
bi XÄ i^ be^3 ^{id)tei-. ^m maiaicü u_unc)ttge ä^r^ 
mSttmSfte Sejatjen, bie Ok>bunbe,d)eit au. geieij.utbnge «e^ 
fdjmffe ber £anbe§mictcufommiiiiou ücrncuieu. 

- 48 

ftanb nur ^i'ni (Mmc boy ^\itiotiTrf)tcö man minc^ 
ud)t fein; bic öftorreichiidic ^i^onölfcninrt iff aber bcvart 
öcrnvmt, bie ^^\>ivtfri)aft fo luciiig tranfiif)i!V baf; ^^ 
unmöglid) ift, bcn ^iiftanb bcr "iWict.^inynuUiiiyennig 
burrf) einen JKed)tc>,viftanb 5U criet^cn, nacl) melrfiem 
bic ^.ifieter mieber annemefi'ene ti-ntnolte für 'ii>o()nnngen 
nnb We|rf)äft^5räunie be,vü)len müHien. liö fornnit ja in 
ber ''^^^ülitif jcljr \)äu]\c\ uor, bau man bie 'i^erletumg 
Don ^h'cdjtiSprinjipien mit ber llaU eni)d)ulbiiit, bie an^ 
geblid) fein Webot fennt. (iin mirtlid)er Js-rennb ber 
Okn-ed)liiifeit fann freilid) bcrartigi' 'iVMuennrünbe jnr 
(5d)aiJHnti ungerediter ^^lurmcn nid)t gelten laifen. 
3mmerl)in aber mnfj man fid) and) mit biejem liin^ 
manb beidiärtigen. "iV'ftebt iinrf(id) eine mirt?d)aft(id)e 
^lOtnienbigfeit, ben geneiniuirtigen Unred)ti?,yiftanb auf= 
tedjtjuerbaltenV ".Hnd) obne \Hitl)änger bor urganifdien 
ÜiMrtfd)aityauiiajjiing ,yi fein, barf man bod) ben '-Inn-- 
gleid) nmgen, bau, luie fid) ber menfdilidie Mörper 
üeränbcrten äiifieren 'iHUiiältniffen überrafdienb fdmell 
anpafjt, aud) eine "^Inpaffung ber 'iNülföU)irifd)aft 
an l'hibcrnngen, bie fid) in ber ^Kid)tung jnm llcormalen 
bemegcn, fdjnell nnb gefaf)rlüy 5U erfolgen pflegt. xHlv 
im 'ii^nter \\)2\/2'2 bie l'ebenomittel5nfd)üffe abge 
fd)afft )unrben, fürd)teten nid)t nur Xemagugen, fon-^ 
bern ernfte ^^i>irt)d)aftypolitifer bai? i'irgfte für bie (inX' 
luirfhing ber ^^i>infd)aft. 'äU für;, nad) liintritt ber 
ili^ä{)rungciftabili)iernng ba-5 ^\iiietengefei^ erfd)ien, in 
bcm alö 3»Ü'iiibl)altnngy5ini5 ^ai^ ir)Ofad)e 'lHirfriegi^== 
nominale feftgeieiu )inirbe, bielten '"^Jeffimiften auv 
löcrnf unb 'ilieigung biefe Üaft für untragbar; fogar 
einer ber f^l)ren^en 2d)riftfteller auf bem (^K^biete Deö 
I1cictrcd)te>5 erging fid) in llnfenrnfen •'•'). ^iiMici jeigt 
bie Cl-ntiuidlung? .s^ente luirb ber l()00fad)C Sin^S, alfo 
bag faft 3iebenfiid)e uon bem, lua^ fe.iner5eit alö 
eine ftataftropl^e für bie iNOlf^iiuirtfdjaft angefeljeu 


) Stctnbenj, Xic neuen 2j3ol)nunö'ööcfci,\e, S.2G,31. 




— 50 ~ 

luirb, 5 big S monailii()C ^AUiclc. l}a bic Ä^üf)nl)aiu:^=- 
baiiicn bcr WniuMiibc '-ilMcii mir fülanflc eine 'Jiotuu'n- 
bii]fcit blcibni, al^ bor ßuftaiib ber ^\1Jtct,vii>Sininiii,^ic== 
riinn jortbiuicrt, föuittc biiö C^K'iuoinbcbubgot fc()ciii biivd) 
eine tfrl)ül)uiin bor lUict^infe an] bcvi l()()Ofad)c '}sov- 
fricg^iiüiniiialc imi jene 100 l\'i((ioneit 3d)itlin(i cnt^ 
laftct uicrben, midjc bie "^i^oljnbaiitätiiifoit jäbilicf) 
lieriri)linnt. ^n bic 'ilNül)iibauftciier nur 3') ^yciKioiicu 
Sd)illinn nbiuivjt, luüficn nod) ctiua Gö lUill. 3d)i(= 
ling aiiij alUvMiioincu Stoucrciiiivinnen für ^Ii^obubnu- 
jiucdc ücrluciibot ircrbcu. Tic liinftcUinu^ bor übcrflüiii 
gen 3iH)[)iibautätiiifcit unirbc bcii ^i>cr5id)t auf foUicnbc 
Stencrn ennörtlid)cn: ^uftbarfcit^^abnabc (13,.") ^)}H[[. 
Sd}illinn), '^i.H'ri5uii'ad)'rnibivibc (0,r> Wiii. Sditlliiig), 
Jrcmbcii^imiiicriibnnbc (1/') l\*ill. 3d)i(Iinn), Viraft^ 
lonncnabgdbc (1,1 ^JJtill. SdiiUingj iiiib bic Ijalbc ^ür 
forncabgabc (:')4 ^lUilt. Sd)illiiifl|ß'M. 'il'cnn oon bcr 
bdcbcnbcii 'iiMvfimg, uie(d)c bcr 'ii'ci^iaU bicfcr 
Steuern auf 'i^vobuftion, )oaiibel nni) ^•rcutbcnucrfcl)r 
ausüben luürbc, üorläufig ganj nbgcfeljcn lüirb, tuäre 
bic Wiet,^iucnnl)5!)ung für ben \Hrbciter — fie mürbe 
G biö 7S niouatlid) bctraiicn fd)0u beiJl)(ilb Ieid)t 
erträg(id), uu'il bcr 'Xicuftneber bic ()albc AÜrfori^e-- 
abgäbe, bic er erfpart, beni iHrbciter alö Ciiarticr- 
gelb - ctnm 4 S pro "iVconat - be,vil)len fönutc. 
S.Meburd) märe bic Tifferen,^ ,^UM)cf)en beni I)entigen 
"ilJiiclentgelt uub beni erl)öl)len '"iJJiet.^inc'i bi':^ auf eine 
3)ifferen§ Don 'J biä 3 S an3geglid)en, ul)ne ban bic 
^robuftiouöfoftcii irgenbluic erl)öl)t luerben niüfUcn 
(i-g barf aber bei biefer J)ierf)uuug nid)t anfjer \Hd)t 
gclaffcn uicrbcn, bafj bic 'iiMebcr[)crftc((unn bcy nor^ 
malen .VUpoibcfnrfrcbitcy ein mefciitlidie^^ 3iiifcn be§ 
3in§fnf}eö beunrfcn luürbe; bic Sirtfri)aft luürbc bal)cr 
an ßiiifcn juniiubeft ba^-^ erfparcn, wa^S fie nn Cuartier^ 

6") ^tcfc IJiffcrit fiiib bom Cftovr. ^InilfvUiirt, 12. Scbr. 
192G, S. 534, ontnomiiien. 

— 51 — 

getbcrn möglirficrlueife bejaljlen müfjte. "Scr 9J?e^r= 
aufmanb für bic ouf fijcc löcäüge angeluicfencu öffent= 
tid)cn '!?tnge[tel(ten luäre baburd) l)erciujubringen, bafj 
für öcfrfjäftglüfale uub lföu()nungcn mit über 3000 K 
SSorfrieg^äinS bic Ci:rl)ül)uiii] nid)t auf ba^ 4000farf)e, 
foubern auf ba§ r)000fad)e be§ 58or!ricg^uüniiuale» 
erfolgt unb bie l)iffcrcn§ al$ 3^ucrffteucr bcr ^ikftrei* 
tung bcr Onarticrgclbsulagcu für bie offeutlirljcn 33eam* 
tcn gemibmct iuirb*'i). Ta bic äöüljubauftcuer meg= 
fiele, bic bei grofjen ^iBol)unngeu uub bei 0)cfd)äftg* 
lüfalen ftarf in^ (:^kMüicf)t fällt, luäre bic 5}Zer)rbctaftung 
gröfjerer iliictobiefte, gegen bie bei ber Ökiftcäncrfaffung 
ber öfterrcid)ifff)en 'jicmüfratie (\mi)] fein ©iniuanb 
crl)oben mürbe, burd)au§ crträglid). 

^iefe furscrt 9(uöfül)rungcn uiirtfrf)aftltrf]cr 9?atur 
liegen cigcntlid) abfeitö imm Xl)euia ber Uuterfucfjung. 
3ic finb aber uotmenbig, um bar.yilun, bau ber (int* 
fd)ulbigung^niruub beö unu)iberftel)lirf)cn ßluaiigeä für 
bie 9tnfredjterl}altung beö gcgeumärtigcn 'äJiietrcdjtcg 
nirf)t Ijerangcjogcu merben fanu. 

S^anö ^)\eid)el gelangt in feinem frf)öncn SQnd) 
„QJefe^ unb :;liid)terfprnd)" ju bem Sdjlufjmürt: „^a^ 
.V>ürf)ftc in bcr Ä^clt ift ba^ cynte." ^Ber bie ^^irubleme 
nnferer 3eit mit fül)lenbem .'oeraen miterlebt, fanu 
fid) üon bem (iinbrurf nid)t frei mad)en, baf] bic an^^ 
fd)lief?lid)e unb cinfeitige öüd)fd)äunng crtueiöbarcr 
Äial)rl)eitcn einer ber Oh-ünbc für bic fcclifrfje Üecrc 
ift, unter bcr bie ^1Jtenfd)l)eit üon l)cute leibet. 3itt= 
lid)c ^mpnlfe finb ebenfo mid)tig mic bic CSrfenutniä 
beö 3l^ar}rcu. „*'}Jid)t nur bie 5a^al)rl)cit, and) bie ®e* 

61) Um mögltrf)cu 3?erimttungcn cntgcgcnsiitrden, fei 
in bicfem 3ufaiiunenl)ang bcmcvft, bafj bcr »cvfajfcr mcbcv 
§aulbefitjcr ift norl) irgciib eine .;:»au^3bcfiiu'rorgani[attou 
amüaltlid) ncrtritt unb ba\i gcrabe bic 3ScriütrfIicl)uug be^J 
Ie^toiigeiül)rtcii isorfrfjlageö il)m iu 5iüeifad)ct j){id)tung ^ady 
teil briidjte. 

— 52 — 

rccOtigfcit unb, \va^ mit ifjr untrennbar öcrbunbcn i\t, 
bog ongemcinc ^^cftc, finb ^^cnlc" ((£'()rcnäloeifl)«^). 
S)ie 9tccf)tgluiifcn[d)Qtt, bic üon bcm obol nc^'^eitbct 
mix, c§ bcn 9^nturluij'[cn[d)aften in locrtfreier (5r* 
fcnntniS glcid)äutun, Derfic( bcm Iüfli,^iftiKf)cn ^üfitidi^^^ 
mug unb murbc gur 9Jianb bcr 03e)cBfl^'^""n- ^"^ ^c"" 
[ie firf) uon bcr ^-IktrarOtiinn bcö (skfcljmäfjincn §ur 
:ikHrnd)tiing bc§ ©crcdjtcu cntpürringt, fann fic 
au§> einer WaQb ber Öc[cj3go()unn ir}rc ^'ül)rerin 
lücrbcn. ^^or einem Ijalben ^af)rf)uiibcrt pricä ^()crinn 
ben ifampf nm§ 3{ed)t n(g bcn nbefnben Sebenöinl^nll 
be§ ^ii^'ift*^"- i^^cute ftel)en mir beiii 3^ca( nnbcbtngtcr 
2)nrdj)c(3ung inbioibiicKer SicdjtiJanfprüdje ffeptifdjer 
gegenüber unb luiifcn bic jüäialc 43ebcutung hc^ ^)icd)tc^' 
fricbciiü SU [d)ntuMi. 9tid}t an bic Stelle, aber bod) an 
bic Seite bcö il'ampfcy um§ ^ied)t tritt f)cutc — in 
einer 3^'if/ i^i ^cr eine burd) Grfarjrung nod) nid)t 
gebnnbigtc '3}cmofra(ic nur altjufeljr ba^n neigt, bie 
Ijcljrc (bemalt bcr Wc)c|3gebung für ^wcdc bcr 9Jind)t* 
bcf)auptung 5U mifibraud)cn — ber ^amp] gegen ba§ 
Unrcd)t in C^cfct^cyiorm, bcr ^amp] um bie ^i^crmirf* 
(id)nng ber ®crcd)ligfcit burd) ba<i püfitiue Micdjt. 


) Sijftcm I/l, ®. 6. 

OTaniifd)e ^udjbrucherci, QUien. 



















































c*i ^ faj ho ~* a 



:;i CS 









1 t l 











-» a CD 









— a e> 

3 «o 








— * 3 o 

— ' a o 









— 8 CS 



in 8pite of mv letter nf Julv 17 

vour cont' nuoua ?»llence 

vo V contlnueoup 
I f^el rather annoyed bv the obdurate 
you malntaln In pplte of 
Pllence vhlch ^lu c^ntlnue 

my letter of Julv 17zth Aimiat one 

years has pa^f=!ed alnce I have ) on th 

186 Septemeber 19^3 ) malled to vou 



l^r. Josef FreenVel 
4^ LarWiall Rlse 
London, ^••v\4. 

and to fTt>.the-^ from It thpt, vour oreDargtlnri«? of the p^mooplun 
nbout /»u^t.-^^nn Jevrv h^ve no^'' renche'-'^ th^: ^^t-- e wVien ^^nx) cn 
t-'^Ve the neneppary st'^DP for pubT * cntlon« I c-nfTv^fu'^ ^te vou on the 
suc^ep" o*^ havino" apsecibled puch nn Irn^o'^in"' nurrber of 
contrlbutionp t nnd 1 hooe th^jt vour ef^ortv^ '^r n Poe'^dv 

bllcntion o'' the wor^r will be enUc'jTly Ptcoe'^'^fuT • 

It in not rtnl?^^yTl't^rer'ard +n m^ nv^r) contrlbutlon th^t 

1 v;oul'^ vflPh the oubllpher mav at* a^free to let the wor^ coir^lpt 
of two volu^T^ep, -^r^r nnt onl"^' ^oer- *he ^ubleot lu'-tf'^VPnahh'^nn 
enlnre^rerent but It-^ ^»nuld be al ^o a nlt"- tn reduce ths repultp 
of res 'a roh u^dei^ta^'-en bv po wgnv auth^rp in ,? dr'^^tlo wav 

and thup to onlt m ^ f^re^^t amount of Inforrr^tlon whlch otherwi^e 
would hüvc hardl*^^ b chg ^ce to bcoome Tmovrn« 

Ar %o m own contributlon # I aoor??i''te v^-^y innch ^»our 
Intention to ©ujftdll^minnBhnTJPcnlnt.lblPllttle ar poppiblei 
and to oubliph It in füll in the daee th-^t the '-f^rir woM'? 
com riee two v^Tumep, I nn al'^o pr^ nd th??^ ^'cu Pf:ree to '^orre 
ad'lltinnp ^includln."" a bib^ ioo-ranh^^ , ^hourh o-nlv on ^ ver^' limited 
sc?^le. inndfxKft J^n fact, i an confr^onte-'l wlth a iro^t dicf icuTt 
task of poueezlnpr th- content p of t^o Ptill mip^inpr chopterp 
i pee mv Te'ter of ^eot. ?3f 19*^3 l an(> o" the -^nilorue into 
e few or ever\, ap you PUP^^ept» ^ntn one or tv»o r^^tre^» 
1 will neve^thelep- try to iriaVe the alinftj^t«^ible pomehow 
poppi^-^le - not v.'lthout hone thot the nuMi^'her ^'ill m-'Tre pome 
conceppion-^ in order» to svc^id the omtitt^noe of vef"^ ^r.por+arr 
oartP of rv Ptud^. ..^v 1 dVB'< vnvv ^nd hl<^ .?t + ention to the 
fact thgt tl^e ep'^riy by^^laxJllTiii t de^lin^y vith Juriporudence in 
the ^,^or'T ".«3ijdQn i n^. deu tpche n ^ultu rbe^'^jc^" > J''dlpcher Verla fr, 
Berlin 19'^^V ( by the wav a booi^ o*^ more th^n lOOO oicrep, thup 
of 8 "^Ize '^uitsjble '^o^' a diy^^lon in + o tv/'^ "^'oTurre^ ) o^ntalnp 
84 Inrrre r>^'ffes. Tbe analn<yoTja "urvey In vn\}-p pvmoorium m^^ 

certninl''^ d'-im .•^b'^pt t^^e s^we ppace« 

I would Purrert thstyou, before nendinp- mv erpay to the 
orin<let^%qnf«>r%»rS ir^r(t*!*yi«tTyt3fe<dneftnV^fior "^trrt5e odr^'-ftti^nf. an^, ^4, 

•-mendr^-'^ntr • 




there are T^evev 1 d^te^ mlp^lnr in mv mgnupcrlnt which I wa?- 
not able to ^! d out. I «uDoope th??t Pijch prno^ will be fllled 
feith the help of v-ijr inforTn^ntp. 

1 nlpo hn'^e to ralfe a oue -^tioin the B^rvev to vfhlch rng^ 
a'-^eet mv contributlon to poitig ertent« I lnc»l ded in tti"^ 
ore?»en*atlo -^ ron- ptlH, llvlncr ^urlrts of Jewiph orir''ln --^hoo 
do not belonr to the «^ewi^h fold, bp f.l. K^rl '"Zahle wh^ beende '^ 
■Prepidiön^'öfofhs ^•^uPt^l^n ^unreine Court, I rhouTd liVe fo Tmow 
thif» nrooc'-iure ip In acoordanc- x^ith the nrlncln'^e ^-ou hßve 
flxed In thlf? rernert "^or vo^r wo>^V In renernl. The o^jeotion 1« 
of conplder^b'e Imoor^nce with l?e"T^rd to objeot'^np ''h^o-^ c^uld be 
levelled hv p^ e oer^^rnalltlep .«^Tai^st thel?r inclupfron In the 
number 6f Jewlnh jfariotH. 


•i-" concTupion, I than^^ ^ou for ^^^o'^r kjnd ^iew '''e?»rp*p orrec-tln^p 
which I corr3i9"'lv re.'^lpv- cste . M^tt k;?^^ n'^rtlon"'?r'' v wlttioep-^the 
appeopBBc©-^ your ^^uptro-JevlPh pympopluir« 

^''Ith klndept rer-^rdp, ^Ipo to J^r« ^telt:^rg,t" 


• .' 

ourp sincerely, C- fc/^-' 


Frgnz Nobler 



Editorial Board : 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
lag. Z, KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Editor : 




Dr. ?ranz Ko"'oler, 
2501 IlastG 3treet, 
Berkeley 4> California. 

3ra 3eptern"ber, I964. 

Dear Dr. IColDler, 

I am ::o sorry for the delay in confirmin^^ the 
receipt of your letter. Ty daujhter -^as ill and therefore 
I could not write to you last week. IIow clie is mich 
'oetter and T cViall reply to ^roii in the near futurc. 

In hetweon 'nay I v/ir.h you ap:ain a -lapry ITrv/ Ycar 
and a venv of henlth and ?ucce--n. 

Yours sincorely, 

Jocef Fraonkel . 



Editorial Board : 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
lag. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Editor ; 




Dr. F. Kolller, 
2501 Kante Street, 
Berkeley A, 

lOth 3eptGm"ber, I964. 

Dear Dr. ICooler, 

I was shocked to her.r alTcut rour car accident :.ii. T I Co :.öpo 
that you are v;oll and c^oinc on witi: your activitiof:; . Tay the V.evi 
Year ^e for you a year of hap: ine'::', he-ilth and cucceGo. 

I have thc inpre.-^^ion thnt T replied to yo;.i after receivir.g 
vour mont valualile contri"hution •^or t'^e "hoo-:. Althon.-'h T hi-l ir 
mind that your c^ray will of a"hout 8-10,000 wordc (20-'^5 
pa^es), in fact, your essay oonsi.'^.tn of a'to'-t 28-30,0^0 v;ordn, v/hich, -t le.^.'^t 75 printed pa^^er. I -^o not intend to ^horten your 
eGsav ercceot the p.Tsr;a£?or. n.nrlred "^v voi ir. "^^racheto an""^ ^Mr-Tentc^ 
"^y yo'-i; ^"^ "i"^ i^" ^Gally nece.^c^ary. It all depend? or. the pu'blir^her"'. . 
if tho "bool" will consint of a'bcut 5OO r^i^^es. the passajes !;iar':ed 
iDy you wi'^l "he deleted, liut if the "bool: will conni^t of t-o yol-incr. , 
the esGay will "be ;-u"blis!ied an T received lt. 

In due course, I will send^ yo'i prcof-. 3; 

^-,1 1 

ad'Utio'-s or 

alterat iono can then "be added "hy you. If pari^^-raphn 13 a;--! 1A 
means another one or two na'on then it would "he Do-nil^le to include 

All the eccayc, and there are nore thin thirty 0^ the:-, 
arc nov; retyped and I an ir. the mid'le of ne_otiation3 conccrninj 
the pri tin^' of the- puhlioation and I will lot yoi: ^.mov; in due 
coar.3C if the "book wi"'] concir.t 0:^ one volune or two 


To adrl a Tiililiography io alrijht, wliich means a-o+he 

r one 

or t-,70 pa£::eG; hut you will underntand that it wo ;ld l:r vrry diff'icult 
to e2ilar£,"C vour ecsay "bv a conr:idrra^lP aino ;nt o^ Uro-.'. I ar/ 
3ure you will ajrec. with my e^rnlanationr- , 

aiid hc sendn you hio "bect ";ir;V.on. 

"o Vn' 

p • 1 • 

1 :"' SIT >-■■••■• trAI 

..icnm- you ajam a Ilanpy ücw Year, 

lourc air.cert'ly, 


Jocef Fraor.kel. 

■•^?^ll^" , 


i-'e'^r ^- r . ■' v»-- '- 

V •? 

•'• ^ 



■ , J. 

.' 1, 

• '' . . 

( ' '■ 

, . 4 

" • I,. 

I • 

•• rirx. i.. n 

n r. t, "^ 

V ■ V 

■<-.-. r 

> '-(■, 1 }• ] ,>> 


■ ■ -v r^-^-!| !-» ^h-': '••■t.*':.- v;:i] Tov::r^r' •^3'?•^t?^^t'• 

•l |- '• ,1 - •■ ? 


öet"«!!'- *' • •'• "i- •' • '•'-*'?*) 1 "^ r'V'''; ='.Jr.'-v'' V-^! -• 

♦• ' • . i 

"\ r 

r -/iCt 

' » " 

:i - 


,, r- T , « V. ^ 

•t - A l 


I. l 

^?'l'''f^J' 1 


1 »•^;>'- ■*'. 

7 .4 

•f.. » 

■•-''l" ^ 

^<^ 1:. V 

•■. :•■: 'J 

\ X'' • ' .< :' 

y ■ . !'''■ 

. 1 

•Vi •- 

^ ■ ■ > " 1 ; 


''"■^ T ' i.V!''- ■"' 1.'"' • )■• ■ ■'*. ■ ' M •••• 

r * ' 

- f 

.V 1 


v^ vfj-ii' ;'. 

:■ 1 4- 

I I. 

r-v : 


^ . . . . , , . ^^ .• J ; , 

' > 

» V 

-rv •-- ' 

' r. - ]. '•; i; r 

■] -n-, 

■» T. 


i-vf_ c 4- ■* 

-.' -••! - 


. ; 1 • < *! , 

y>-r v^»y -^O "''*' "-T •' ' v..-- 






Editorial Board : 

Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 

Editor : 




Dr. Fran2: Kollier, 
2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley, 4j 

11 th Aue^ust, 1964. 

Dear Dr. Ko"bler, 

I v/as glarl to receive your letter, which arrived with 
conBidcratle delay iDecau-r-e of the post strike. Even now," 
after the strike, deliveries are irregulär, 

A fewdnyr:3 ago, I saw Roliert 7eltsch and Adler^Rudel, and 
they enq.uired about you. 'Jeltsch will visit Amernca in the near 

I hope this year to send the material to the printers, and I 
shall tr^,^ my hest to see that the hock will appear an early as 

How are you? We, your friend?, think of you very often. 
With kindest re^ards. 

Yours sincerely, 

Josef Fraenkel. 

2501 HfiP^te ^'treet 

*•' r . ' J^ e f Fr '^ e n ^"c "I 
45.". L '1 r Vho 1 1 Rl fs e 
li^ndor), '=^.'•^ ^^ . 

i tr>e plgpure !n i-^^orrnlr^fr von tn-?' t i'-'^' mailecl to 
V013 o'^ '^e-^t'Sirber 1^ th^ rr'^niJGcriot -^f it^' kx co'HrlNjtion 
to thc F^iDnorlum ^^bout the hi^t.ory of the wiirv« o"^ ^Vj^trlg 

pointr- i h=ivG to rr'^''-e concerninr the n'nuFcrilt l^^-^'V, It- 
slze snC ron:e pr^^ lected erldendn, 

1. The .THTiurcriot co^p'ptirt«^ of l'^ cn^ "terp ^^ui: berfl 
90 Dnrf^r. -* re^r-pre*^t9 ?? careful rei-iuctic^ of ^ mvoh \ rrrer 
^•tod"' nböattth- pnrrc pub.lect - V\^. c.r^ntrilvtirn r-^ t.'ie 
/^iirtrinn ^c p to L.^v o^r': JurinT)ri.Jd6nce . -'^^e -^^rir^u^t n^ the 
rneterlal, t.hc corrioTlc^ted n'ituro <>.f th«: entlre tien;e 5f*ü rf 
por^: r»hnoterp in perttoulor, '^*in fi'i^ll-; t 'c f1 ■rni'^lcjnc^: 
of the "u"\^Grt r^'de the co^^denftion of th< oririrol ir/.ni;pcrjüpt 
to the ^!zG ^^i" the Ti^^n^pcri; '>t ^'^u will recive otre elv 

'^. JL pni v-11 8 »^^r«?^ th«?t the rrjrnpcrl )t ve^ in Itr ore f=ent 
Fize eye edp t^e =^7,^ of* ^0 - '^c; orlrj^e:' ^- -'?•", -»/o^j h-nv^ 
RU'T'-ort'"'^l in ^'our lett-^r of I^eccrrbcr "• )-^l . .»ithnuc'- j. hone 
thq*" ^'ou '•;' b'5 ^ibT e to -n. ^^t "^o thl? O'^^tributic^ -'^ --o oe 
wh'C' w.'>ubrl be «^uf ■''iclent frr --^ r^" nro "urt b-p -^ *" thv n: rc* lot 
l'" füll, 1 ^ve -^ o'^'^^l«!'^^ for th. carc- t^vt ^uch ^n 
eytcnrlcn •;'>i-;l.i oro'^'e not "^ «irlble. 1 h'^r' i.'-.r'^e -^o^ thir 
pur'^'^p- the o"^^'^ •■^-ref" vhlci, 1^ nb^-^lutolv nc ce ■ '-^r'', '^"Ul.' ;:/6 
d^ife<feQC bv broc^^: tr .T e ^- h-^-^'c brcn .Tnut: b^' o*rncil 1 *" nrder 
to en^blf ' vcv t'^ er.9pe thnce vhlc'i r-.. ''er tc j^cßQ<»e"' vou oul''^ 
deoldf^ t^ l^e • p, 

3 . i hf* onr^.orr^-- i7-rVed b^^ cr?c''rctr. cover mco':-», 43C llneB, 
i.e. r,bcut 1^^ n-^c-ep. hy the dcleTtion ^f ^il, 1 t'ne r^r'-ecl^'ncer *■ he ^bze. r*^ t.^'^-- rF-rm^^^ri 04 v-^ulr^ bf the rc ■-r':^ r- c'uced 
to 7^ ps-e?^. JL !r^>v pv^'oir^e th-^t the fe-.- ??d -"itioT?- 1 prlnted 
pnre.r wh.lcr^ oerhnop even lv< thi? cnse v.ouV-' be] v^m riot 
present .?'n^' pe^ioup pr'oblem. in faC , i hoce gncl would li^e 
to reconrGn 'trnr.^T''* t'^ rri-^be the rrort ref^trpl>^t U9e.:;of the 
svftire^tc-^ deletionp, becsuse th': vo-ld i- T.-?^n" c ' p bririf? 
about the onds' ion of vev ep«^enti?.l <?9Cts or coTi:TMcntr. 

^ II 

c'^Ä^, ■ '^p.,;:-";^ Off., , r,;j:;.fr^^;'^/^;^^>'"a .. 

'- t 

^ fip 

ope«!*«o,t4-np öfter h '"r""' ^■''^" •■ f.'l' .;- S'"^'' Pöi^ooPera " 

■^r . 


45, La rkhs 11 Hise 
LoTiJon, S. f.4 

ir,^' innu*]oript>' v^ur l'Btt<^:r of l.>th Cctoljer 1863 
no n^w.<^ fron; "poii hfjf^ reipc^i^''? n:e , Thr.^ I hr-^'p vcrr 

IC Hionth^ aa-o. >■? letür o^ -?.-? otc n-bs r ??, 1963 

VT ritte: to -»'cu or\ f^at oo-^nplcn hpr 13^:e^' r-rTsrlre ri 

un t. "! £ w*ji re d u d t. o d ^ t^' . 

HCtugll^* hr^a hpppened to vour pr-^^^^crt of a '-^mpcflrn 
etout the hllt+.ri?v r.-^' thp Jev- of .Air^trla. I thlnk 
thr.t you o'w^e ue aacwell gp to the ot'^er cont.rlbutor«' 
a 2 3nil'J r?port tibout \M^- nt^na ::f thi -• uri^jertoVrln- . 
i^n i'ar ae üiy own ce«nitrl"butlon \^ ccncer'^n^'i ,X gir; 
psrtlc ■] c-arl V lookirr ■^rrw^^c^ t"- v.*>u" r-- o^ v t^ n -.•- ^bc^^e 
ITC n 1 1 o nc d 1 e t te r • 

■^1 th klnrl re f^n rr5 'j , 

5?liK:er:l-' vnurs • 

Fr^n:^ i^lölar 

Phone: MACaulay 1755 



252 West 92nd Street 
New York 25, N.Y. 

V. Loreto 2557 
Buenos Aires. 

P.O.B. M80 
Tel Aviv. 

Dr. Fe Kobler, I6th üctober, 1963 . 

2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley, 4, 
Calif . , 


Dear Dr. Kobler, 

Tliis is only to confira that I have just received your manuscript, 
and I am very plea^ed to have it. 

I sKall write to you again in the near future. 

With best wishes, 

Yours sincerely, 


Joaet Fraenkel» 

London, S. /. ^y 


-»."..r . r. 


L« >. I U . '-• 

■(? c 


O •' 

''A t . v..ndc?l r :<^iirJ 

7o'i}. !^ ':inc:T- 1 v 

F' .■i-iz. ""-h] '^v 

2501 Harrte Str> t 

Berkeley 4, C^aifcmia, 
30. J.nuriT 1963 

H f r rn 

Dr. F.L. Bras:?loff 
53, C^iV--ndißh 3tre t 
London, '^/.l. 

Sehr Herr Dr« ^raf^-lof ^ , 

nehmen ' 1 3 beptan D-.nV ffir ^'/iren -rirf 7. 21. -Januar 
und f"r die freundliche Üeber£?nduri(? de^j Ver^^elchnls ea 
der r;chrifter! I-iree ":-,terf!. 

Ihr- Information -^ri un: d^? Verzficrinip ^ ind mir seilte 
wlllkOi:ii;en« Ich werd«^ auQii tr-icMcn , r'iir de^i Jahrenbericht 
ile^- Univer«it'*t mit d^r-r ir':ii,..^^o0i^ L^ifoy v^^rfarten 
V/Hrdipunpr, i'rof. . rar. rlof '' ^^ au vereciäaf Jtfia.i-.^ider wird dier^e? 
r«^lchp *--terl':.l we^ cn dvr '>iapi.vhi'it d-:« A--n)r: -^ r nur In einer 
'•uscerft >Oüdenslerten Form Vv^nvertct werc?.n •'?*'nn^ln. 

iJie Abfacfung meinefc: i^titrarr/is ' Ft nberhpvjpt iafolcre 
der Tülle der Ctoffes und c^r Schvf.'.erifyk-i t d^^r K.-iteriai- 
bescht^funp- eint; sehr innh)iijSi(TL und zeit, reibende Aeb-^lt« 
Ich Hoff: jedoc:), ^i: in ^ini/ren -ochon .•;br'chlies -an z't '^'nnen« 
x:.? v^rüe i/ic'.' intcrct ^ lar^n^i^ijurch oie od:;' Uerrn Fra'^nl^el 
au *rf tvjrQi^,v ie weit di^ sor)?-:ticc Vorl.ereitun - d'.^p" Sammclwerlcs 
fetsr^its ...trdi-hen ist. 

i'iit f re^ur.dlic'ien Grde en 

Ihr err-ebener 

Frrvas iotler 

^_ . .»-^.-^ 


2501 Haste Strebt, 

January 23, 1962 



^CHfbn -ecretary 
Jacob iLhrlich Society, 
45, Larkhall Rise, 
London, S.W. 4. 

Dear Kr. Fraenkel, 

manv tlian 

'r a 

1 was, however, rather surpri 

»^> -^ 

for your letter of 17th January. 

r surprlGed to gatner frofE It that 
you conrider my answer to your letter of Deceiiber 20 as 
a definite acceptance of your klnd Invitation to write 
an essay on Austrlan Jewry. i supposed to have made It 
sufflclently clear that, for the reasons which I have explalned 
in my letter, I feel unable to engage in any addXional work, 
partlcularly for the current year. >Vhen 1 neverthelesr referred 
to the quite uncertain Chance of "squeezinp* in itterlotör moment" 
the prep-iratlcn of such an esE-ay, I dld tJtiis exoreasly wlth 
the proviso ^^wit-iout anm Obligation '.' I should like therefore to 
^^mpbasize once again that i cannot prom ire you a contributlon Xo the 
boolchÄ on AuFtrian Jewry, even in the course of slx monthp or so, 
a: you have suggested. 

Thus It would be not Justlfied if you would make your 
dispositlons in the erroneouan asrumption that you may expect ' " 
a contribution from me in due course. it is in fact ratner 
Improbsble that i mall be able to carry out the idea 1 ir.entloned 
in n:y letter. fter havin- Itearned from your letter that yu are 
intereste.; in the sugf^.ested theine, i intend now 1.0 give some 
thou2:hts to this subject ^ Tne /ichieveaents of Austrla ^ Jews 
in the Sphere of JurAsprudence J in order to see whether 1 would 
be able to pur^ue this project alt all, especiälly also with 
regard to the n.aterial which is availablc here. 

i ^-incerely thank you for your good wishes and for • our 
interest in my work. As to the Herzl letters, it will take rome 
time yet until I ehall en^apie in a revision of the Herzl ckapter. 

ilth every good wish, I remain, 

'incerely yours, 

Franz Kobler 

2 5Ca^Qfla stoß "^ pei€^ ^' t , 

8. *i*^^^:nj96fe^62 

Kr« Josef Fraenkel, 
Jacob t^hrllch^Society, 

Dear Kr . Freen'zel, 


your letter' of i)ecerrber ?6*, 49^1 whl^h ha? be .n ad.ires'^ed 
to my t'oriLer' ü'-an .^r^ancisco cioarl^^Slh? reacKed n^e iicre only nov/ , 
Ehortl.Y aflir 'ry r-etuni f rc it. \^w -(:or> where I have stsyed for 
sevsral inontLia. 

I wn'S very latererted to learn '^hov.t. t>ie pro^^'?ctecj. book 
on Auctrlan Jewry ?^iiu i sinct^r^ly t.'ienk you for th^ iiiv itation 
to c^itrlbutt- qn •^paa'ff to thi~ v;orV. Your j, -t.^r icunc (Le, 
however, i- t"ie midTFt f pri =.ln".';r.;t;f'' r.C;'U.:iulati::ri of 
iza-ioiH i.ejor ta? ks, i^.ri-ni^ tfieif.J|$e.-^eclaiIy tiie c f/ietion of 
an* enlarf^eü aao i-c-errpnrec' edJflcr? of .'.'s L/'c ..eriar lettsr t.'Ooka 
wliic:') i ara oreparinjr, for tiie Leo T-r^-C^. Irrtltjtc; obll^^.ef ne to 
?jn utrncL't cencentrrtim or. folp r l^f-Tc "'ÄfHc Ject now ana Ter yet 
a con^idi-ratlc tlae to coTe, I hj?ve for thir rt:.; er cVcn postponed 
the coiLpletion «^f other overdue zr^d f?radV8nc*id manurcrlptB. 



Jndor there clrcunrFtr-noec'- an 3 vlth r-e'^^j \:i to tli^-:. .^.-.ct tiiat 
I '.lavt? .]jpt coi;.f'l<.-te'-i 'ry 79t'i Yenv , j'fto:*" 'iu/i;i." su.. f-rcd .3)i 

lieart attack abcqA't ^ ysar af?o ), x sirr.ply aon't Icncv; .low I could ' "^ 

poacibly v^np-eg^i in -mcther a'3ct lti"n*il tsalc, purtlcu Lirly f.^r tne ■ BütKie 
currcnt year. i^^J-t x /'nulö '"^o - if It '^it3 '".-ur uieooLi lIoit^* 

prepaped to c-.nt'c?np?tt.te { ^-'l^-irAit "ii et M.'^.-.tic i ) r>h -. c,ia:ice of "^ 

cqucczln:' in tu-- orep'ir?^ tin^ of an e^my fcr yrur bco^i -it a Ifter 
.T^oaient, tiipuf^h viot on the ru .Ject" you have cu^, '.e.'ted . Vhcnif''^ like ;:' 
"Tue AchieVer'entF of f.Y\c Aurtrie.n Jp'/r, In the :.r:'r^:^^- yV J'^ri.'-pmdence 
, or of *^iLcrature > oculd be p-rhapr tT':cr X:-A.Cj c^ rölder?^ tl'*^n . 

^n tne rT:er>nt,i' e, i w-^i.'lc* ro^r»ec,t-')-+;o '.f • ou ::o ^lä i-u'^oriü nie 
acout t^c- oro jeot<~.i ülsoopitlo^ of the '.vork aad t..i.' authors vho 
h'Ave .-^Ireedy prop if?e.-j thelr coüper''jtion. 

. i th 'vir • i tr h i rt" " ft V V, fl c, Tic! ev s ry c*'^^'^-^ '■•' ^ ^ -^ i' '^ ^ \Ö*^ ^ 

: inccrely yours, 

Franz. .vobiur 



/ ' 

2501 Haste Stre-t 

Berkele.v 4, California, 
29. Januar 1963 

\ \ 

Lieber Dr. Schell, 

nehirien Sie herzlichsten Dnnk für Ihren Brief v, 2C.d.M, 
und fr die mir darin ?nl*'? lieh caeine^ nchtzir'^t'in Q-eLurtstagö 
in Ro liebens^V'^rdiger slse dar^re brachten Clüclr^-i"neche. 

Daa Bedauern, daj^ Sie *^b'?r dlt: vern^'umte Gelegenheit ^*'^"'^- 
ein-?? int-'n9ivercn frerre'-'C'Tltir^n Kcntr>tef=^ pr--"u'5' ert h^benp 
wird in frl'richem Masre auch von mir esi;fund'*n. Cmsoroehr 
bv:-gr^^? ■? ich lifii-ere durfh d-^n <2:rm'::inr"«"ien li-'rben Freudd 
Dr. £cJtrt6in herbeipeffrart^ neuerlich/* Annäherung. Dan diene 
dank Ihr-^r nioht rrenug- zu be'/7unäerr^i#"* B':i'and -rth'^-it auf dsm "*■" 
mich j'-^tzt eo intenriv b>'^scli'"fti -enr -^n Gebiete eich 
alp aur erord.^ntlicl: fruchtbar zu en.'eict:n ver?,pricht, biettit 
i\nlac-'^ zu einer beEonderen Freude, , ' 

Ich d n'^:: Ihnen, li'iber Dr. -.'che 11, "uch f^^r die 
freundlich -n ^ovt'' 'M.icr m in ^-uch "Ti Vi'^ion Wa' There'*. 
Wie ich im Vor."/ ort g^saf^t h-^b*, iPt er l-iider nur *ine 
( uiTi mindertens zv/ei Drittel ) i^eki'rzte '.'i ?drrf ab- de^^' , 
ur^r)r^^.n'^lic'rien i/?.riU!"^>:ripte9. .£lneiri uer '•.vicI^JtifPten , in dem 
Buch behr' d ilt rn Re pr'Qei'tant en d'ir i:.evrö£^ur>"" habe ich allerdings 
eine be ondcre, in dem so::^toen errchien3n>fn "H'rrzl ^ear Book IV 
enthnltono ; io^crra.jhische Studiie cewidm':.:^. ' obnld ich die 
Sep.?r?te -dr''cV? 'diecep ArtlHl^^='i»ri?i*lt3n werde, '^oll '?ln 
Exerrol'^r an --ic ab^-ehen. 

l-:.-:io- /»rceit frter die j'^dirchen J^iri^^tn ^e'^t^rreichs 
irt nun zitiTil ch writ fedich^n. Vor df^ui endgültiger) Abschlun^ 
der . -pnur riotec v/crden rieh .leci'ch ^^mIz^ noch oTiehrere offene 
Fr-<-.^n rr/'-eben. Tle inneren d'-]her, lifb-^r Dr. Tchr-ll, darauf 
refar-t e-in, von mir In dtiser Taeh-: In d . r n"chr-ton Zeit 
nochii?=le lo /:ni" pruch genornrren zu vr^-rd^nv 



I'-.deia io-': Ihre x!sxK put-:n ''nscp... 'i'*'r dnr. noch imiLer ' 

neue Ji>hr herfclic':rt erv;ldere, tin ich 

mit freundiic'irlien Gr''' :'' ' en 



NEW YORK 27, N. Y. 

TeuephonE: MO 6-O730 

New York, den 22,Jaen' 
ner 1963. 

Lieber Dr.Kob^-er, 

Vielen Dank fuer Ihren lieben Brief vom ll.Jaenner. Die Worte 
der Anerkennung, die Sie meiner Arbeit zollten, haben mich 
sehr gefreut. Denn sie haben gerade das zum Ausdruck gebracht, 
vrorum es mir ging:Die der Rechtsordnung innewohnenden Grundprir 
zipien als Massj^tab fuer die Pruefung ephemerer Gesetze aufzu- 
stellen und an einem -sehr aktuellen- Beispiel zu zeigen, dass 

eine solche Pruefung -unabhaengig von dem speziellen Gesetz 

zugrundeliegenden Interessenkonflikten- fruchtbar sein kann. 

Vielen Dank auch fuer Ihr Buch "The vision was there". 
Ich habe es zu lesen begonnen. Die wissenschaftliche Tief- 
gruendigkeit und die Klarheit der Darstellung zeigei^n eine 
schriftstellerischeirf Persoenllchkeit, in der sich -im deutsch- 
sprachigen Schrifttum recht selten- Gelehrsamkeit mit aestheti- 
schem Sinn ver eonig tfi Ich freue mich auf die Fortsetzung der XK 

Aus der Rubrik "^bout the Author" entnahm ich, dass Sie 
vor kurzem ^0 Jahre alt geworden sind. Meine herzlichsten ^CT^yyif 


Glikeckwuenschel Sie koennen wahrlich mit Freude und Genugtuung 
auf Ihr Lebenswerk zurueck blicken. Dass Sie -am Bingang des 
neunten Jahrzehnts- noch im Vollbesitz Ihrer Arbeitskraft und 
Ihres Arbeitseifers sind, ist eine besondere Gnade des Schick- 

Ich kann das Gefuehl des Bedauerns nicht unterdruecken, 
dass wir in Wien so wenig Beruehrung mit einander gehabt haben. 


NEW YORK 27, N. Y. 


Ich besass die Judenbriefe aus drei Jahrhiibderten und habe sie mit 
groesstem Interesse gelesen. Ich wusste durch unsere gemeinsame 
Freundin Frau Jenny Kreitler von Ihnen und Ihrer Gattin. Einmal 
trafen wir einander in Alt*Aussee» Ein mehr peraoenlicher Verkehr 
mit Ihnen haette mir viel gegeben. Doch das laesst sich nicht gutfiffi 
machen, Unsomehr laege mir daran, den Faden des schriftlichen Kon- 
takts nicht ganz abreissen zu lassen» 

V/enn atich verspaetet, wuensche ich Ihnen alles Gute fuer 


Mit herzlichsten Gruessen 


^^-^ P'-^ 4.. ^ c 

/^^ /t^? /nv^ /Z,.,;;/;^^ .;/ 


. 9i.«0 Oreystone Aveuue 

N>w York 63, New ^orfc 



r^ F R 



^5"^/ ///ts/^" 5;^/y<7- 

25n Ha.Pt^= ntre t 

14. AOveiU^ei- 1962 

Her-'^n JoselfFrsÄnXel 
45 Larkhlli Hiae 
London, B.v. 4. 

Lieber ierr Fraeiif-l,, 

Ic'a «' pf In^- Ihren liricf \'. 4, d. . ( set^e vorQü^', 
das?" ' b:l -inlan;Ten dieser ^cilc3r! ber It-^ v^n ^Ir.n zur-ick- 
^e\i rt «;-ln<i. icM aof^c? auch, dao^ Sie dtir ILrf o ! .t de^ rielRe 
befrlidift x^t.. 

Da 151-3 In ilir»'-]!! V')r i'orrrr Ä':^r.-:ifie ofetil-^r in ' il^ 
gef3c'irl-iberien i^rl'tf auf die In ncinc- /jclnreiben v. 3- • Oktober 
entha Iter.rin -Gn^r'run^^e ■ '^\er die ndt der Abdras^-ur^^ .i.^invis 
Beitra^ v^arbur-dencn !^c*"Wler4'^Vf^ 1 t-i"! nicht 3ii}a;cr^ans;en - Ir.i] , 
&ehf ic'"' i*dc'j vtvrr.-ile !^? t, ^uf dier^r T ei'B nochiiial^^ ^uK'c'- .:akCin:f.en. 

^.^i::^ Arbeit 1^'t l)er~ltr ziemlich «^»t It ^--üle^.cn, abir 
es Ixept iiii V.'encn dieLu-F *-'uf5~errt ItoniÄpllzlrrter» uncj r.\il 
ZcihllOHön .^liizel jroblercn vcrkn'*f ftan. ri.offc r-< , cJasp wieder 
neue: Pia^'ün und neue u"^rrMb«^n auftauchen, i-'ei ^e gt'nc^lidnd i^^t 
nocn nie zusaninenhänn-end behandlt '.irorden. elbst die ai:;>loj"dlen 
versa^^en in dicG-sr Klnel ht. Ich befinde ric'i Ir. eitiu . i^eulan^i, 
wo ica iLir Siiiber den '/e«^ bahnen ir.i;r.r', uie ßibliotricicen, uit. 
mir hl^r zu Verf'Vgun^', stehen, reicihc^"» f'-r ire in^ ^^/ec :e ni::h.'c aus, 
n.ancm i^'cher n.üssen von .Tar'VrtF: b^*50(iHfrt und vi,'ie XnJ" or Ji. j tionf-ti 
Im K.orrtiö.ouadciiaw jg,« '">d r Jurch n«^p"nll<?he .vup ^ iracn^ •cinf.r.olt 
wtrcien. o hiittc ich b^reltr i-i^iere Unte^rrt-drin en a.ii. de-ji. ,. 

{^lüciilicliGrv«eicc 3b^4afa Ir in .■^er'^eiey wohnhc^ft^'n ^ro/, rhanp .'CelF^a^, 
der - wlo r,ie ^s-aI? wIp cn - nlcli^- nur der bed e u Le .-id y te l-^bende 
otsUsrielciiifrchc Jurist, f ndorn auch, nach aer Ansicat vi' 1er, 
dei^ tT^r'sciuC Juris:! der de -'mi.nrt ist. ( -r wurde in. J. 196^' 
durcr* Verlelnunr^ des "itilienlGchinn »Njohel »r^.- if^e p" aup^eza lehnet 
unu li: Vor'shrt Mnl-'a 11- h Pclnen ö'«tPn ^eburtf-taFcs j nG"bC'£vonderc 
von ilc6 terr' ich n-lt "hren ''bt: ' h'uf t. ) chon allviin die i}arj?tellunfi; 
aeln'-jr h'ÖiiGt sciififf slnnlpen Rochtsl^ hr- i'-t ein au£-er''>rd<" ".l.lich 
schv/iei'irte? Lnte;-r)ehn.«^a9 r^inr. be?orde>»'' 1r c\(-u. vorli^/B^cnuen ^^alle '- 

wegen dör crfci^^der liehen r'<3ir>cin7er'?;t.*-nnli^'hVeib. '.-hniichey ^Ht ^ 

vo:.nd£r'-:n Ke^chtPGVFtenien. Die? ist .^eoocn nur c in<:i il' uer-^tion 
der sich ■:t:i der Abfas'un^ diaöes h^ {y^ft-fr erFsbondci 
C chw it. ri^r""':: 1 1:- n . 

Ich bin n t**rllcn bemüht, die Arbelt Innerh* Ih der in 
Aussicht gt-non.L.encn 2^it fertl/rzurtellen unu nab' zu d^^seiri Zweck 
schon seit dnlger Zelt ülle ndcrcn .l"*ne, in^bepondr-rc auch 
die die fHr das Leo ^aeck Inntlti.te vcrb^=^rcit.eLe •.•eujünpvi'oe ic-^iner 


beiden deutschen ^riefb'*nde zur'^ck.'^e*.'' tollte Ich IJiie in der 
Tat dtr iirbeit f'*r ihr SeiRi.clwerk fast urKrj!3f;cr''jt^t m-. irii Zeit 
und Kr-öf t, obwohl ic'i von .'rzt wejr^en iieinep vor sv;ei Jahren 
erlittenen .^erzattacke ern;9tllch gewarnt wu2?de , eine nolchc 
Forclcirun'- der i^.rbeit zu vern.eiden. iv.n^och i Ite ich s ff^r 
recht ;/•. 'irar-he-inl ich, da?? eine {?ewi?'e V'>;rl''n^.erunp den 
/rülieferunf^^teririine eich als notwendig e rfrc ben'w ird V 

ir.8 ipt i]i: übrifi^en nur in: Intevc^'-e d « vorixihoBn 
vorber:- iteten Wer''-ep, wen^^ d???= in meinen' Lei tr-ig beh.:'r.delte 
Then:a, das ncines Erachten p zu dün ''^i2.'''"'tl'r-?^f£n dee «anzüu 
Kom.^lexer fj;oh"rtr nr ^r'^n-iil^^ih uii'u ?n%i-vh^^f nlr ra'^rlich 
darg'iütellt ••:li'*:i. Selb^?t '-^enn pio'i infni->:e -r I n oi^ea /^rb^it 
die i(iraas>abo vjai: 'v^rk^*? etwn«? V3r.:"fTern s^^llte, ';''nb: .ilt--.;- 
iMaCAteil .Jü^c'-i 5esch3ffen>fnt der Teitr-ä^en ^.uf^^wcjen «r rd:ii.i. 

Zu-r Cohlu^^ ^c?h zwei. -; it b'rr l'^tericlb'? 3ch'^.r "unfl; 
verbundane /.itt.?n» ich Wre 'er-^n Dt, .iran^^loff f'"'r Jie . itteilunfr 
d € r V 1 c h t .1 r '^ tc- n b 1 ^ :^r r? oh i " c h - n J n t >- n b t re f -"^ nä r^:^*r »- 'i^-'n 
Bra?*^^ lof ^ ^e'fnp^rcsrt'ij'^'iey^ . '>cn depi^ei 'Wer^^cen • iüid: :i d^. r '^i.-'l^^cn 
Uriver'^t ■ V'tnbtbli-t-^ev mj^p^^^e zw-i ^.'^c\vir 'iber * Cr-'i!-- 
pcliti8Clien i-otlve !•- Jer r'^i^lschen iiechcE^Laüv'icLung'* U'-'i "ber 
ds!-- **Vclk'^r€eht Ir den r'-^ri^chen r tprcvinzcnö:" vcrbMd^^n. 
Gc-ftTTi h*"tl€; Ich 2i?riirdef?t nr-cn dar i;^ J. 1936 er£cbdinene 
i<uc.'. ''ter t-^ f^rrrn der '.'e^etzf^- bunr einr^cpt ca. ."r«:. ^ Cmt r~ 
freur?c::ip , n.c ine Litte pn i^r. Brni- IvOf f " rvciterz'jl-: ^^ tcrj2 - 
Jn der Annahne, dar-^Ülch nein Fraund i>r* Valentin borcr.foK 
noch l.n London aufholt» bitte ich .^ie eir ani\lc£^cv ■-r'jucsitn 
auch er Hin ii.z be + r»ef -^«rnd Peinen Vater j>r. Viktor Hor-eiifeld 
zu richten, r^erlel^en Slo. bitte, l^c idc;n ;trreu reiiit \.ertcn 
Gr'jp-e und die liittt. ur ' ntr.chii"lclit:iiu,r , daru Icr pus Gr^'iiden 
der ZeiterppMmif p i'-^n^-^n n^obt unmittelbar .chrdäb'^, 

Mt bcrteii b^nk "^•'r i-hre j_emf"!hun«:c:n un. rivunul; hen 


* ir erp-.e bener 
rri\nz K(. bler 

Berkeley, 7. Dezember 196P 

i-.ein lieber, guter Freund, 

ich fWhle mich völlig nberw*^*ltio^t durch aäiren:ir bei 
meiner gerenw"rtig<3n Arbelt spontan gelüstete Asrlstenz! 
ihre lieben j..riefe, die X'^rte sowie der /^ron artip-e ii^ri-f 
ur* Schells sind einfelangt und haben rr.ich veranlsat, wie 
ein **u;^,-ffekehrter" Zauberlehrling auzurufen: "Die ge ister 
- wahrhaft gute, hilfreic'ie Geister - die ich rief, werden 
nioh n icht Ioe!" Tausend Dan'^ f^r alles! 

She haben, lieber Freund, f'Tin"'ich telepathisch rr» ine 
Absicht erraten und in deren ^inne gehandelt, indem Gie sich 
in dieser Sache an Dr» Pohell gewandt haben, denner ftand auf 
der Liste der mit mir befreund ten Jurist n, mit denen ich vor^'-enomiLen li-^be mich Jedenfalls vor 3bw«=!ehlusr der Arbiet 
noch in Verbind unp zu setten. loh sch^'tie ^r. •che 11 sehr 
und wollte ihn nicht nur wehren seiner eigenen Leistungen 
und all^eininer Ausk^^nfte beffagen, sondern milf insbesonder 
seine xnf orir.ation Hber die T**tir:keit der *'sterreichisch-|>''!dlschen 
Juristen in. Susland, ifor allein in den üvB. fepBttten. Nun nlnd 
i:ie mir - im richtigen Augenblick • zuvorgekoi^men, wofHr ich 
Ihnen ganz besonders verbunden sind, de-^n es ist mir h*'chst 
erwünscht, die wahrhaft vcrbldf fende Elaborat Dr. Sche'ls 
schon Jetzt in H"nden zu haben und nit den j-rgebnis en rr.einer 
biac ;forschun(T vergleichen zu k**ttmn, ^s enth**lt neben vielen 
mir schön x^e kannten N-^men und Daten, doch auch vlAies, was rnir 
vielleicht ronst entgangen M're. ^r. i^chells Ldstuncr ist 
in der Tat bewunderungswürdig. Ich habe ihm ausführlich 
geantwortet und ihm in den L»rief m.hrere konkrete Frar^en 
gestellt. Ich lege einen - leider sehr blars ausgefallenen s, 
Durchschlag des i^riefes bei und bitte, falls ie sich über- 
haupt die i^lHhe nehmen wollen, den -rief durchzusehen, die 
schwer leserlichen Stellen zu i norieren. 

Was Ludwig Gumpolwocz betrifft, so labe ich ihn bereit? 
in meine i>arstellunfT einbezogen, rir war Jude, äht sich Jedoch 
sp'^'ter taufen lassen. Die soeben gefüllte JLntsch . idunf des 
Obersten Gerichtshof in Israelim Fall öeniel ( Rufeisen ) hat 
meine Üeberzeugung in der ßtreutf raffe, of pet-iufte Juden als 
Juden anzusehen sind nicht ersch^'^tter. Ich halte die - f1bri,q.en8 
nicht einstlmirig gefaspte - i:^ntscheidunr f '^r verfehlt und 
jedenfalls nicht f^r die Jiaspora bindend. Sie-^ÜJ^tai^'ttlsl^ö'dQht 
die "ffeiiit liehe Diskursion der Frage in Fltss bringen und 
indirekt zur Kl"rung des x>oblems beitragen. 

Nur in einer Hinsicht sind in mir, soweit meine Arbeit 
in Bet?'acht kommt - nicht Ahne Hinzutun - i;edenken, wenn auch 
nicht prinzi )45eller, so doch prir'.tischer i^T-tur, auf (gestiegen, 

u. z. bczn^lic'i J^ner getauften Juden # die r:efT nWAirr in 
Cesterreicli v^ie^rr alp iUchter oüc-r -^berha'jpt in', "taetpdli nat 
ftiff olnd. ^lep p-ilt onbe'^ondere von de: Jatzip-en -'rSfsidcnten 
des obersten erlchtnhof e , Jr. "^Carl Wähle, Ich habe in lüeinciD 
an üTf Schell (Terlcht€ten i^rief dlej^e Frtip^ß ber^'hrt und iam 
gebeten, rrlr seine I.einünr hier'*ber iiiitzuteiler} 


Dsss ^ie des Geburtstags meiner te'erj'ten Frau ""'.,: 
gedacht habe, hat mich nehr ger^hr'-. Ich h-nberer-^dc in dies-n 
Tarren wieder ein^n schweren Verlust er"ittt^n. ^iner indinrr 
inti>msten, In ^an Francicco äxä erworbenen Freunde, 
i-arlcreich, der fr'^here Vorsteher der jüdischen Gerueinde in 
i^rernen, ei^ frrftndlicher j^ldischer '^e^chicht^f or^ciert aber 
vor gllerr ein wundervoller Chnra^ter und vorbllclich hilfreicher 
*-icnsch it einip^e Tarre vor Jenem Geden^rti^-r ^f^:rtorben. i^ur unrf'hr 
1^ t,Bfr vorher hatte er unter Beteilirunr einer .c^ror-sen Oeiiicinde 
vo-^ Fröfinden die roldeneH^ehz it gefsiertJ Sin wunderbar- 
tr^Slllbhpri^t.rang - f^'r ihni ober fffr dftpcUeberlebenden vlrd 

daüürcn die durch meinen 



vw«%.- -■ ^S^ ■ .*-— .-«rfc -^ * ^ 


In Ihren lldben Briefen ha en "Pterreichinchen Jurir?ten 
letzthJaif aet alle ;.)er?"nlichen Nachrichten verdr*"ngt. LaF?en 
Sie .mich doch n'*chBtens wisE?en, wie es Ihnen beiden f^-ht und 
was sich n^:ues In dec mir sehr lebendig ger enw'-'rtl^en 
GelenrtenhelK in der Äreystone -venue zu p-etfaj^.en hat» 


'^fre i:T '^trafrecht" 

enn :''i mir gelegentlich ^)erber9 
zusenden wollt- n, w'"re ich -'•hnen sehr ve^ptatljen* Ich habe da? 
i^Hcftlein "?ialtiifkii,^4 beseai^en und rit rTori¥^^&^erer -e irelesce, 
aber mein :Lxei:ji:jr hat nnt'^rlich "der «chwoarze i und verschlungen!' 
ander??6ita !ii**chte Ich vielleicht in n oder anderen Satz daraus 
zitieren. I^eilieprend ein klei^^er Kofstenb' Itragl 

i it allen guten V'Jnschen und herzlichsten Gr^^sren 
an Sie beide 

Ihr stet^ getreuer 

- \ 


Lieber, v^er-v irtcr .^■>-i":d Pr. :'ch^l1. ♦ 

Ihr '^bt'^-^Mu- f rcu^MJT !'?he7* r-lef , den '1^ :.:.n luifcr-u <T<^i/^'lnoair'*n 
ll€>bcn .^re'.nci, -.-r» ^'nltc-i'* v-ic •''^tein *^vec%-r .t^ltc-l . Itu.i.r pn jrloh 

Fr-=uüe "Jbe- din zwlrr'-'.'-in v^^? \«'leder"t:'rrcL' teilten 'cntü'rt, r^'V^rcr^r 
tti.ier inrc .illf '^i. .-^r-it^' chaf t , bev/uRcerur^': .ihr.^ .- ' u..;.-no ::a Gr:}ü'"oatnlasen 
i;,r} d ^^ 1 ?■ ? c n ^' 1 ■•■' u c a r.^ v f d !. ^ r"^ i; ; C r- r 1 e t e j i \'i 'j - v o i-^ r? "'. 1 c w - cJ j u' - c f 11 h 1 
der L'vn'ttr^^r'iilt f'h' dr^. jrioiner '-e /vvn^> ' rti/xon .irlci: r..i vfr^ n:.-;n;;'?»L;rci«':'aue 
l*»bn---ftc intf-re pe u"?'i <^J^ ^Tlr ir>. die'--'^:: 2u;^firr:i«- -..T-nf,«? cjr^icr-en*??: 
wertToIl-.n .:i^ri'-'t. .':le 'v-rr^n 'O.IerrJl-ir'^ d-?r ''efnnri \^on mir 1,1 ■'ierar 
^.aciiß In /iti?: ^ruc!'^. r.norr -eri zv. ''tcnien, nlc-t c '^ • r'-^v^^-cn , .:1c-' --In.- an 
lile zu rlQ^it-mCo ''ifr-iTc «ur :U- ei;i.->" (?;/ n c ." -i '":;:rl':to ^ -: ^?t '• c :: hen 
die Ic 1 n3Ch. Zür Vei:'^ro\i*:t'"ndir Ti?r, mcxnev .iicllc -r^ trri«!?? ; nt.(»rn.'5^ice» 
Nc.'iman ■l^.il-'5j II. vier Frvi'nd, rr-iinan \^2"t^:r. *.•:;..;:?. f'^r ..Jir ^'Ox'irilT.on 
und ^Jr uie rrrof^r^f? i-^'nc entrrr?'rc^ri. dl'^'^ • Ic*. (:r.rpv.f vrr-?(?*"^?t "'>'^h'n> 
mir bv.hllf lic^': tv r^lri» ^ ;?^ •^r-lS'Vb' a'.'C i, 7ca Xnjfen:. iic . ..i3"*''r''i.rren 
iiaerbietci; , :rir ■^"•och v-itf-:r in cjt= .•■"-;^ /v: --t ... j i, '^^ "M-r nr-?r. 

Vor ^*Il3ii{ üu X'ir*in Vorf^a^cn: 

i: l'« ie?H *>'löt.Uebefni^ätln!ianp mit -^iv\::r y'(-\- r^^^n 
!il.- torl'-'Cm « (.11-: wu/l^rn -^Ir ein Vf^lk T.,n.i nie .1 1 •; cln^ Mu.-^« 
' ;•: 15-1 M ■ .■" r:-( i.;c in r r h-; f t b?t.:^. c ht. , ^C: b ' r»-- ; • ■*' '• v / ■, '. 1 : ' -c ^ ,;r t n vjf ■^•:^ Juden 
In den .cr^-icli .-nei^ir . ■Ab^i^n-'^lunn;. "i, die -r .- -: . .:r;/. hl "v ■;n n;-Ln 
Ol r 1 : * ü- n t .' r ' ^ be -^ r ^ ^ t r e t ^- n c r . ■• 1 1*^. ^ n , <-] 1 ^ ♦ :. n 'i : ; :'• t. •• c -' c 'i : " ' » t ^ '.^ - - 
•'sterrclc'V ^c'i^ n R^ojtf^l-l'i^n^ sine bccLtzutinde .:^11-- r :. i-/'* V]"t.c:n, 
cc'ncir)t::^lv ■ ."t f-ri urr: ::''"'^ "i-*:!! r.l:i:^ '•icnM,■''^^ d'^vch. r>:t.r>^ Abh^T^älrnis 
.u belcu!?:it'- icb- *iVp ' orlc^'ic Tr' t'^ac'.;'^ r.'i "ein. .-Ic .crla" lanr. iliz-er 
NcüiiCn u^' 'erV-. '••'*^rde nlr*ht iiiir 'J^'r: f'::*-^r*nc-.t.rr.' ' c^'^r, Tr)Ti'.'rrr» '*''^^, 
V'Tll,>r, vu-r.^er: tc- I^lTd or-f^-^bti^n» ^:i dl-" '' ^^-in.TiU'ch •■'> ;:r-x ;.;.■- IVt. . ,nr. '^lch nur 
Vü, Ha^ '?br'tfT,bl.lebc, -./enr. ,> '"l"^ u'::.'^t^'>^r-r. drv J-^w*: .>t'?r\y 
der^n vir In i;iroiTi Ivrl.rf? n:^t::''-^rl:?'\ " :\-;i:^::n, unorv;* :r}t llsrne. 
im vv.^' find vlrl-'^ -tnn "'V^r^'' in "Vli'^'.-':f»n j:nz'^':'l*--"'^**c^ 1 '^t^ unr" • nd^r^ m, 
den "^ntv^ll nvr na-n / •",/:" •il.'.;r3:.;3l::nn C^alti^ :.::';u:'ht^3nd-..n '/c:-;;.;;! 
enKCf'''\rt. .Amc . ■'li^zn^l -'er V^ In -rr-»^^:.! - :V; n '^-^ -i-^i-n •: vn"" Ir?^ 
bö>v;.n:'itcn - a\r-'"osc?.lcint:»t^^n 'ef;:^ "r^d..',:::i? ^ ^ r '•-'.•::: r c-^r ■•:'c-it:-i-l|'3n 
I ;C c\\^. r\:l r. ' c .n r ' '■'\r-^.'t ' ' «^inr ivcl^e "^^'^ ':'jf*.:-^ '-r'^r ( cb-'-^iviter»*. Olnr^.^r, 
Jnf;or7 Jeil"'^!^ ^llrlion ^ •■.^h:;"dc^ ^ t. 

- retauf ter und un.'^ot.nuf-^or - JvJ.rr^i'tvr , 5'. -^ •.♦■^•- ■ r- 1^. i'^ *'»-'* erreich 
wl.^-i^-v? '*s i .'hrcn" 'r. ^Tn--. 'n ^v*v^,i y^-^y -dort jioäo ;tc.ll-m Älnnajanmao, 
inpofem i;eden-;en ?nif --e'^tlocren ßlnd, ol? dertin .-.uifn'? ♦!''•? in ei*"«» 
GeSviliicht-r der j jö^n vl«^1 i'?ici:>t :itt eia^iir ü '.;-.> iil irr er* . rc.-ar'-nda geuen 
Sie aufv^c^n-itzt werden '<"rt*^Vv. ich den-e •iiO'^-:v an dolf ^hi^rrzv^^ig, 
.'u.unü •'"'I.vjn, In Vicin, d.^n »^rau -."e'^cv^ der n^io-ni Aüixat^c '^cr, .vrxi^n 
bhrenzv/e 1^ * ri che ^ '*3yRt.einr>4 , Heinrich Klnng ^^'n'i' In^-^ r,.^nder-^ <' ?•»! 'lahiCs 
dör als ^.'^r "^Idetit ü<. s CGH. nv-t-irllch ,^Bnaeb€t :.v\.onier 


Freund i-r, 'l^C'^-«"?t'^l"n mir P-^r^^ntlb«--^** fy.**u?'^'^r>'. .) Aad«^'''s-''i*!V Ic'rvt-en sich 
di^- ''VerPichoititDn" '>'Mr''\ jl;^ ..e^ln ■^i.iri? l'nv^r -^ i n .^; r "c . ' ' ^ < it 

n5r»>!i:. recht z^ yer'^nt/-- nrtcr' w" r* . Ar^:<- i-,-.; |:--^ ( .. r ^ \^*M;.r p , ,^</^ 


■*. ^d- 

«» n c 

- ' ' ''• h ?^- 1 r c ü 1 1 - c r ^. -^ r • 

- ■!, 

: I' >, ' 

r '..c "et. ' 

\'»^ •> r j 

. ■♦ T 


! .1 ' C. 

'"^ r .»^ ■'» 1.;. ■ •' ;■." - \,- 1 '• 



'• -: » 

* ... 

Vi i'5 ;. 


.m ••: ' 


! ...l..-.^- 

. . llJc^rt 

,T - *^ 

-• » ■ 

ft > 

1 r' 

>■ I 

j. . 

r 'i 

. ; 

hfcf f 

l ■« >■ V V 

T - 

r '. 

■■ I 


-» '* i^l 

', ; J- \ n • >- 1 • . : r 

f ■ 

' yf 

. r ■ . J 

'." r. 

1 t 

M 1 ■ < .).• k £ 

^ ,« <^ ' 


., t 

'^ - V 

.' r 

/ I 

♦ ' 

t t 

-. I 

* > 

» » , > l 

1 r: .• '- 

L t. i: 

1 V 

: /i -^^ \ -i - :"r: . l^F^en 

^ r 

' ; 

• V 

• ■'. »^ 


• * *- to 



•^ . 


\ ■> 


i '.". ; 


. 1 ' ■ 

y. l 'it 

^ 1 

V stc 

^ ■ 


:' :.:•. eine 

'• '■• 

' t 

r - 

r r V ' jp.;.-B 

1 Jii. 

» ' 

' • > 

.> (• 

• ^ 

■ .? ». 

» ^- :i f: 


=^ Y -kniete 

. 'fri- 

r >■ 

*• f V 

^ :. " ar 

j > 

f ♦ 

< i <i i :. ^ 1 * 

O (^ r H -1 r ♦ 



i ■- i. 

1. . 

•- ■■.!....{ 1 :. i..''C' ■■ 1 

> r^ ■ 

^t '':••- r ' 

> ' •! 

t- f ' * 

V v .. , 

•t.r-:'' t - 

•^U , 


. ü f ■-••/, «. 

« . tA ■>« 

P^rn'.V- Ke5:9!v't» Oh -v"-:] x -it. "/;;<. ^ aii '.'""tt 




v^^rin air cr^/°lri:::c'it beLrc.r''crijJ j oiajJ.-v^n'J! ^dle-r^i ■or^^^f ^L)•y>'^.i n-»^-r^^ 

ir»t ..? rrMn'.eat vcwl.::' d i. rv ^^Ij- üj.e '■:!> rr •••;■'■ . , -^v'-v^'-: V' '^ ^^-t- • .n-»-" ,-'-?^-i 


fori n"iC'^ ' \ ■■ \. t'V.-- •-•■■.'; :r. il- ./r. '":!, :•. v'^t'^r -iJiTJi. •* lv\ ^ 


. * 

.i ,1.-? K..-, ':-;;^ 'U .:i? :^' -.■"> .:, , .' ^ ' •' , .:-. tcu'. :.'4 r';.iädifii..Äeii 

ö»Dt. Harip K>ils^s-»n «"^teni; Vc*- "n^t/'r • !-♦ ' Ir*: 'c- i.n'..i:;'.' ,. r^ :*.":t t Ir :: ;ir 
an der üniv, vr- .rjf-'Mlo t, tl-V ''"■' '*V' "Icfy-^ .^..^^l-rr -"• :rt. •:'*r'"t.-^ »5 U'e 

f'Mfe. orr, t ^ rrr '.-^h^ch- "*i iT'-^'v-'-' " -v^'lt ••'■■:'• " .l:'*.t. ' 1 ■"*.■" '^^^inen und 
9l'^ "'ur'i oiT^ra '' er '-i-iörc'fl / It c'»-. -a ' '- n ; "• 'Hic v.^oo Miia-'n .^ä7 und 

i.1 itrf a'^ir^;« tTli^ür: .( 'n-)t'va .Vi- .-'.r '''.t "'-l •.•'e^' .'.•rc^:; ^;l':;e v.^tt.üiei,'i5j.vo 

üanä^.fPr alje? s-c'rion Ir, Is^f -tnc und' 

o«r*-!"n'! Ich f-^lit WAG :^o:rja 'l'. ■/■-■'^.n. rt^:' 'vt-.xI'''^* it is L ' t'i ^ut^n 

fnl^d^ 'TmAt^ u?i/^- ^A /p^'uUci^ 


Htl^^ ^^ft^i^ /^'hht , 


Jl^^^^ft^ ' 



Editor iai Board: 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 






Oc tober 13 th, 1962. 

'k ■<tHf' 

''itjy'),^«j-.,w. ,_ 


Dr. Franz Kobler, 
2501 Hast Street, 
Berkeley 4., 
California • 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

Many thanks for your letter dated October 
7th, and I am very pleased co hear that I shall have your essay before 
the end of 1962. 

With kindest regards, 

Yours very sincerely, 

Josef Fraenkel, 


' ■■ . ■ \ 

E: nwe^nde 
Die iilsKx . von Dr , E. E. und anderen f- hebtet bedenken peg'^^n die 

Au" fnahmeretaufter ( xJcMa]sK»E!Jid«r«xfi]?stxxScii5id3?r ins oesondere sot'^'er p^t^Tuf 

Tciel ichnicht. PiawiatxÄiÄxaislsxixnFie meisten sin auch in dne jHdishe 
( Aich rinzeheiirer hat in den ihnen gewisp bea'^kn t -• vuch 
Encycl ound andere , ..asumn -äffenden iJarsteinhp-e'-^al8 verzeichnet. 

ichpeatehe allerdings, das'^ ich in ansehung dixrx^xkÄiJKiTSsM [ j'^discher 

Juristen, die gegenw'-'ritp- im lesterrlch wieder "zu ehren gekommen sind 

und hahe stellen bekleiden in mir insofern bedenken aufgetacuh sind, 

als deren ufnachne in einer 'leschichte de Juden vielleich g.sgxs ü 

zu einer b'-^'swilligen -Propaganda ^e^^en pie aupgen"tz werdcn'-^'nnte . 

Abder^^e s ist die A^glas^-unp- iher Namen inkonseqient und - i anbetracht 
( Ja, vieleicht wfürde sie gar vo den "verschonten/ selbst bem^'ng' It werJ 
er bedeutciny . fatP grote,pk. DJ^ gilt - I n^b f?»? der von dem zum 


ir^'sidenten des CH^ ernannte Karl wähle. Jue unterdrHckunp- di-pr hist 

Tat.^ach w**»'e schwer zu ver-ntworten. Der virnn -^hnen hervor e hoben <= 

U.Jstand das 'Yahle le^gt auch die Frage nahe, von seiner Seite nicht 

ein Widerspruch zu gew"rti n w'-'re. Dies e4cbc6chi34er(fcpl?eccnFagene ber 

ten mir eineg Sorge. Es w"re mirpsehr erwflnscnt »md wertvolle j-hre 

^ieineing hierfJber zu h"*ren, xMxaixaisxTjrgsigixiiKi^t.xawehxx Ich er w?^ge , 

ob ich mir indim W7w"hnten Srcllen die Zustimmung ertöten sillte. 

2. Q aifirzi rung der Anw "'t^"; : alle von ihen errw^'hne t Unterschi 

dungpmerVmale kommenin btracht.. Aber alle nenun'^en von '-^anen «Kigai^eni 

üfiitxdaraind • wie ausdr^ickllch hevorgehoben worden^.vird . nur als 

i6«ijäsi«l«x Exmeplif izierunp- gefdacht ,die ihrem. Wesen nach die 

Woglasun anderer gleichweriteg Namen nicht ausschrosst, Drrgefalhr, 
bin ich irir bewusste 

i^iTäHXZTXxdtfltirxKe'evore ch nun aucf ihre . iK«H sachl ch Inf crnr.ation 

einegehlapen "ie mich bemerken, das ühre uas ddm m^ermel gesch'*tttel 

Ueberblick eine ricntig';6g^ Keisterst'Jck darstelt, xsxistxnjcskt nur 

auch weg^b 
als absolut erstau,ic Ged'^'chnisleisting s dern in der Pi^zsion udn 

und Mq VosllstandigeitF grenzenden Ausführlichkeit. Es war zuficyeieh ber 

Nam en und Details 
higend rnr mic ; das mir di«-r-»^i'i:" teii vlKj — ^^'» nc c ft nannten blta i int m ö .t , 

Jas das die s^ich auf ^»^^ t^^e ^.ud .^.^ ^=^ t^ ^x^>>^>^ ^fSM^i^- 


Ihr überaus freundliches Sehr iebn,daR8 Sie an unserrn 

gemeosarue Freund ^r. E. zwecks weiterleitunp an mich gerichtet haben 

Fereude ilber den E Rührung Ihre 

hat eine Fülle von Gefphlen in mir h er-vorgeruf en: freide über Hilfpberie 

stupendend ( aich auf d en ^--biete ( und i 
Schaft, iiiewunderunp: ihrer Ihres /Isens und Ged^'chtnisres , Beduern, mich 
ihneenix über das mir Kigeteilte mn;;dlich a ssprechen zu k'*nne und . 

VC allem, das ü-efüh der Dan barkeit ff)r den v^:-rtvollen Dienst, den Sie 

mir erwiesen xhaben. ich bin auch Dr. E, sejb dankbar dafür, das^ er mir 

zuvoerkomimen, sich an Sie um Ausk^'nfte gewandt, hat -.'ie w^ren allerdin.'? 

der Gefahr in dieser Saxhe in .msoruch zu werden nicht entrinne 

denn akxx«XH«Hxci«KXH*::^ß}aatffnxSsbiKia:xffj::<diex>: eine an sie zu richtenden 

rinfrage war als eine der nächsten Schritte vorgesehen, die ich zur 

Ver vollst'**'*ndigung. meines 'Quellenmaterials untenehera. Neherr, Sie als 

leibe r Freund, meine w'^'rmsteii Dank fpr Ihren Briefe und die grosse 

i-iühe entegegen die Sie darauf verwendet haben, mir behilflich zu seine. 

Ich erlainc mir, auch von Ihr Ihrem 1 ■.ebens""rdieg'^ Anerieten mir noch 

wie sie dem Fok fegend enmemem k"bbe ult-ausgle g ) 
weiter -inzu ehe, Guenrbuahc zu machen m wtsxx 

► Vor allem ;:zu lyRenxyxKfraasnderyersts'^Vorf ragen- 

1) izbiKxb?aT2Äxfe«ie "a ich die Juden als a Vo^k und nicht 

f*^r mich und fpr 
als eine reicne Heligionsgemeinsc aft b'' trachte, gehören auch getaufte *J 

Juden in den KKai?" ^eriech emien Darstellung, ly , esxasiaisnt die rgo ren 

Anzahl von getauften Juden ,die in der Geschichte der "'st Rwechtsw eine 

bed utende Ro 'e gespielt haben: schein mirpocat eine v/ichtige his ersehe 

drhc DcxiHx die ^^^bhaha dlung zu beluchte^de Tatsach zu sein, ixRbixkÄüine 

Die dieser v,amen 

Hx:k^K D«K«n '^egla^-pung würde nicht nur das Bild f ragnentarisch erschie 

dessen Lmi diese einzusehen braucht 

lasen sondern zu einer völligen Verzerruner des Sachverhaltes für'-eh Ka 

^racht nur die Unterstreichu gen in Ihrem Brief zu 'ib efliegf n MSixotie 

unm''g chckeiet einer h^i rischen 

Walter Eckstein 
390 grevstone avenue 
new york 6 3, new york 

Lieber, verehrter Freund: 

Vielen herzlichen Dank fuer Ihren lieben Brief. 
Es freut mich, dass Ihnen meine Mitteilun.Len willkommen 

Wi^ Sie aus der Beilage ersehen, habe Ich Schell 
auch um Auskunft ersucht und sein Brief ist ja wie ich sehe ^^ 
(er ist eben einf^elsngt und ich beeile mich ihn, den Brief 
naemlich,an Sie lieber Freund weiterzuleiten.) Nur hat er 
Georg Jellinek mit dem Germanisten Hermann, mit dem ich per- 
soenlich sehr gut bekannt var, verwechselt. 

Es ist mir noch eigeföllen dass Leopold oder vielmehr 
Ludwig Gumplov/icz (Prof. fuer Staatsrecht in Graz) Jude ge- 
v:esen sein soll.Ab^'^r Sie hoben natu.-?rlich vollkommen recht, 
dass Personen, von denen sie nicht sicher sind, ob sie Juden 
waren, gar nicht in Betracht kommen. 

Besonders 'anke ich Ihnen noch fuer Q^'ra Ausschnitt 
aus der Zeitung. Sonderbarerweise ist darin nicht erwaehnt, 
dass Los Angeles e/n sog. Suicide Prevention Center hat. Sie 
haben recht wenn Sie annehmen, dass mich dieses trcuriiere 
Problem weiter interessiert. 

Fas Ihre gruenrte fuer cie Rechtf ertigujg Ihrer Aus- 
wahl betrifft so sehe ich natuerlich die Wotv/endigkeit eine 
umfassenden Gesichtspunkts ein, aber ich bin noch imm^r 
nicht u.eberzeugt. 


yy)^ /^-ww^ 


^?^ Ajm ^ 


^ $(4a i^fUA^*yH4-. 

^^ /l>tUt 'f Ay(/M^H4>( '^ 

^^' y^z-r*"' "^^-2 

^/H^^ -TP^y-^^f^ ?^^ 

4^ fi^A/?,%l 0^^^^ 




s . ^ 


/>^^^ /f^ ^ /Wj»;/t^ Amt^k^ ii^i'f'^ 

dJL h''^^^^^ 

¥4^' A^V/^ "^^ 




^Ai Aß^ 


2501 Haste Stre t 

iierkele.7 4, California, 
27. Novenber 1962 

Lieb Freunde, 

beigor ich auf ihre lieben, im Oktober err.pfan^enen Briefe 
eingehet lasen Sie mich vor allen: Ihnen, lieber Freudd, 
herzlicist d.nnken f^^r die frrop^e Whe, die Öle darauf venvendet 
haben» mich mit S44hr iiteAh|E,uT:»fJnit«?^'*iif ten zu den: T'-^ema xk der 
mich gep.e'nw'*rtig, besch''ft^"^enden /Arbeit zu verdehen. Zs war ganz 
beponders freundlich von Ihnen, da^r ;^:ie sofort nachdem Sie 
durch die Idebenaw-^rdl^e Vermittltinf^ unserem? gemein^onen Freunder 
^r. Eckstein von der Sache erfahren hatten, trotz Ihrer IlHdigkeit 
die Auparbeittng der beiden Listen in Angriff nahen 'nd pie 
mir unverz*V,lic 1 ner Luftpost zukommen liespen.-^'l^Äaben auch 
bei der "Intervention in tHes r Recht: ^'ac he" - der f^eltsainrten 
und vorausf?lchtlich letzten, in der ich ?le in Anaoruch g noiiuren 
habe - diepelte iLcr.'^falt und Sachkenntnis an den lag gelegt, 
die mir noc'i au?? ^^ener Zei* in bester iiirinnerun^ sind, äli das, 
was nun zuiüe if3#f ." rmlich zu gespenptischen Schemen geworden if^t, 
allt^'r-liches, höchst reales Erlebnis oder gtar Koutin^: war. 

ich kann im .Augenblick uf die i^etails Ihrer Informationen 
nicht einp-ehen, musp dies vielmehr auf einen - p^'tercn, wenn auch 
nicht senr fer en Zeitpunkt auf sclileten. j->le Arbeit, deren 
Sciiwierigkelt •'■le richtig erkennt haben, zv/lngt mich tu ''ueserpter 
Konzentration, zuinrl dae i^anuskrlpt bis i^nde i/ezember abgeliefert 
werden soll unö c" unsicher ipt, ob mir die Frlif#tverl*'ffigert 
werden wird Die Zeit Ist i^^f olfredesren so knapiD ge-orden, dasp 
ich vorerst die Verarbeit ng des bereits gesa. iieltem 2 aterials 
( das zu einen betr"c "etlichen Teil mit deir. von Ihnen bezeichne- ten 
- wie z. ^. Gonnenfels, Unger, Glaser, hrenzwd^g, chey und 
^'hnllc le /Coryph'en - identisch ist ) zu erldäiren trachte und nur 
nebenbei die Beschaffung und Slchtunr tox der sich auf die 
T-'tlftkelt der Aichter und nnt^ftto beziehenden Daten betreiben kann. 
£8 Ist mir Jedoch sehr erwnnecht, dasr ich ihrt Inf ornintionen 
bereit^ besitze und in freien Augenblicken lo den hiesigen 
i--ibliotheken, In sbc sonder:: Jener :-^er Law School, daran anknüpfende 
Nacl:if orschungen vornehipen kann. 

Zuweilen bed:?ure ich es fast, das ich mich * er i>r'*ngen der 
Hera sgebers in di-^pes LnternhKL;en, durch da& ich gezwunpen wurzle, dl 
Vorberidtunn der '^'euausgabe nieiner beiden deutschen Briefb-'nde 
zu unterbrechen, eingelassen habe. Anderseits cTschfint mir Jedoch 
der Gereistand rec it wichtig und der I-/'he wert. -• s ist - aus^^ r^ler 
Ivciwierlgk it der 1 ateriiiibeschaf '"ung - der durch die ''deauliö*/ 
verursachte Zeltmangel, der nfiich vor allen, bedrängt und beunr higt. 
Auch "die Jahre" machen sich bemerkbar und beelntr^^chtigen das 
Arbeitstempo. Ich hatte ur^pr^^nrlich die Absicht, noch vor i^eginn 


den Winters wieder nach dem E9et 7sU «rchn und den x'endelver'^chr 
zwischen i^'ew 'ork und i^lev Jersey von n^ue" fiufzimehnen. Aber d:.^ 
Ic'i da? mit vorrcn "rnirenr i-'en^uiri r\vt zum Teil aurftljßö^iien 
verm^chtG, h-äbe Ich mic'i entschlos en,noch Jedefa"! Is rinie 
i onate h^er^ubU^iben, um - ganz abrresehen von den klin tischen 
W^TZ^^en - v^n den viel f/'^nf^tirert-n hiesigen; ii rb- i^r^bed in o-unr^en 
G'cbrauch ^.u niacien. ^ie auspieze ichnete Inlver'^it^'t^tPbibll t;ie:>^ 
( Wor!:e *le Tietzes "i>ie Juden ^Viens" ^'l'^d hier nntHrlich 
vorhanden ) ist -^''r irjici in wenigen l^lnuten zu Fur^e -r- elchbar, 
w^'hrtnd der ^eeuch der New or-.cer - ubllc Mbr.9rv Stunden in 
AnSj'.ruch n. hren v/''rde. enn mir der üiir.niel pn'ülp: ist und allec 
gut öbl"uft, hoffe ich» im Fr^^hjghr wieder hi'-'U>:rzukOiiiriLn. 

• (? tet mir sehr 1p id zu h'Ten, das r-iie rieh, lietier 
Dr» Jr'lej'eljfsr niohtwohl f^^hlen* Ihr ir Otober geschriebener 
Brief ä liv j?r RKKk jtainDßiu'tet?^ darauf schllcsVen. Dr^^al st- nden 
8ie noch leide unter den: indruck ihrer franVlnnen i^iordlandereioo. j 
die gle eo fut iJber?tanden hatten. Air ich ihrf.n po ansc/iaulich^ n 
und draraaticcheri -ericii^ t liebe i*if*»au i^o^tor, ''ber die durch c-eiiachten 
Julee Veriie-?;rti'-.n Abenteuer las, schien ep niirt das- Sie b. ide 
- anpe richte de'- elnzigartif^en Schwierigkeiten, die Sie zu Hber 
winden hat! n,««lrte8 ebo^solchen bpoe wieC^htlof i«ÄB«H^^ sein 
>ieij?ter w-'rdlf«- W'ren. ich hoffe, das die InpS^'-licikeit Ihres 
i^ruderc nur sine vorfJberpehdnoe Boaktion auf dle^e aup'^er*- 
ordentllc >e Xrr^f tlel.?tun,a^ darstellt, und pehe der AnlcHndigung 
Ihrer n^'chPten Reise pl-'ne ndt Spannunfr und - üuverricht entgej^^cn. 
Der Ünbau Xhree v/ohnhaupe? dftrfte Ja wohl guc inzvleehen ollQndet 
xaiÄ und der L**rir. der Veptend Avenue nur auf üie n'chllttaänn 
f^aturlsute reduziert wetden eein. =.:der rind diese seit der 
V/est ide tory ertr'^ori icher gewordanV 

^ch nr.'-chte noch gern mit ihnen weiter Plaudern» aber 
die Geister ( der '-^stereicirch- jndipchen Turl?ten ), die ich rief, 
lassen iiiich nicnt los und heische- m ch,zu sc lies- en und ihnen 
dieriFtbar zu P'^in. 

i^.it «llen {y;uten './ansehen und n-'ehüialiren. besten Dank 
f'Tr die freun. liehe ^ 



3f3rkf3lf:2S ^-'•» H'-ivember 1962 

Zuscndun^ deF-: ivic £ciir t;r^(^ripcnte.ri Ui'rllcn»"'-:.h\tb ic( r- ^ vor- aileio 
.U":'oc:^\ t'lr Jie; rrorre ]f<bf.-, r:c:r njr:^ tsntes acrcn h^-'l^^^n, i^r ric 
jBit den so ro3b(xf ''■'It-if' 6,r-l.€iitcn /^ui-k -/irto-M iui- Vc-r^ieru;:'. -.nabcsonO 
üle ,K:r£--nllc'i'i xnf o) . •- tlon, olc :. le von I<- tt.e^ h6 ir. Jt. ^'inr 'lol.t 

BeXpn ':XfT herrJlci-sPt,^ri'rt f'a- j^Yiv beiden i>1/c^f s , f'ir' iii' 
Zuscndun^ deF-: irii-* Sc^ir t;r^(^ripcnte.ri Ui'rllcn»"'-:.h\tb ic( r- ^ vor- aileio 

i^r rieh 

. . - - ._- - , - -t 

naücn, IrA, *.;ir '^ -Air -vertvoll, HcC vai.; iiv "u yl'.oe iü unci zrltrjhQP 
dit;fa<iu Wciii. ;:.ii i-ciien! W..e fro'.:» bin lo'<^ , ds.'-f^ irVi rium dc^ vo^^ Tr-lr 
r;0cnvv;r arten iicrrst? i^et t'iir.;:ix, Jir l' T 1::^ eriins u~dt ? terbon niUr^'te 

V.rir- nu;i i':j,rc i^fienki-n 'inbel.-inw't, '■" hr'or: lo'i •.•."•>hl nch^^i In 
cluo-*i. iL. in 61" fr'Iherc^. ^-riG'^i n.cin^n vr-p den. i^ dU^et 'ilrifc-iiclit von 

wie J.c/i, dit. ^^i.uc-ri 'a1-j VoV^ ^n^ nicat ^1^' i'tific- Seli{^ionLnj^-. iieinfcohi.ft 
bc tra'j'itetr-^r^ioh'' Int tliri rj-v,Vitr''^lic''-:e ( :u«- .-clohcn i.c;ti-».'n ii?r;«]:' ) 
ei^roii:t- iaöc;'atr":-::liC(^:;' L'-ivTe wia--:] -Clacl ü :3 j'Li:'('iitr altera lilr die 
Fr:ij;t€ der ^i;iTeh*-T'lp-k'r it zt;^ Jiid'-n'i^l-t, Irrcl/^v^^rnt . Ich hnl-yj, '.'ic Sie 
£ioli vielltiioit :£'xa:-^irvi iv^r-ica. In .r^^in.;rp ; ilnen '^oerreichtan } 
/trti'v^^l. nbei-* pT^itz MeyT.f^-.n ( auf Z, '32 ) r=Or -^r b: s^infJorn be^oit, 
dfcfi. ^ic jüv. i<='j.ic; ^e">: ;icrxt^'.^car^itunf nocU G;0'ir aX^- e^ cl: iier 
pr€scn£hen Ist, .Au. ■ ' c'^reit'*r und f i>lTcnc- xx±tx:^j;;:Tr i-n den Krv^if? 
uci *-tirctcii.uui', (iiiib ^:lf:i}eii /Dllt:. iUIorv-liri-'-B gibt ^.f: <iuc^\ .)<r?tzw 
sc'iO". -raun; ein iTiOöern^-? ]^U\].<-r er -. r-.-'-ii-: :*.-"•■€ r-'- ( von den r^r^z-v'-lo- 
p!"dic;;n ^Lnz /iu gqüli.I^ n ) Lbu "iicu^l 'ai?i torlac'i : > tf^urin wie ij'iro.^aeli 
( ^titer und :. chn ) ,^?elnt,.'"rn'^, F-Tl>: . •.:-! 'ileTr 'in, die Hrh-?! c'tc» etc. 
ula --uüf vib^haiiuwxr* v. '.'rG'. . ^■i.':£.-»3 .■'i*4i;i''.lp 'a.3b.:. i'?l: '•bi^i.^ens ?c'lbcit 
Schon in jr.tirif-n beide- r, df-üte^-'h^--^ "'-r '.«^fh-'-ndon r^'r\'<'Vfnr)dt» rotfV7..1rh 
k' 4i*ita vcix^Cocu uavd nioiit uö,' ■ no ij.evi wordei. ucli clnstiei-'^cT' "nat 
in eeinfloc o.usnrczdicnrje t^^a ^i'ch '^Jf^3 i??'.- : -l'^ter- der dcvlrc^": 
M<>c/At.^-;i. : c;Krt" j.'..^ 1^'.^ ' j^*." ta i 'f to Judeii, d.-irinter Lrj;er, G-l'aGo, 
Jü:;irllcii,tiinl^'ÄC"'-n. .)i?»??'i ij.ich l^^t. ^»m v*t> .^elnl en J«fe.rc-n r^:lt 
. iuCx ,yv' c'iiix,\ktii wii/ilc- itiinp; v^:ti Kr'inz .ITh; In :-"i?utPChl.?-nd nei» 
herai-^;ref6t..4ji: h'orden, rr^ .!n ■''^•il • -jo dnrp-'f i-i.V^d-^ tc^t. $ dn*"* r?n 
floi't ^ ziu:.i.';dte2t in be .•. ti:. .ten -rci r-n .' nlcit r-^corgt irt, 
die /ieleuchtit^r d».-p ütcil d 'v '-»öden ^»nd -^e-i >nl {:':rel]':n Lcl^tv -en 
i-'^ ui^a j.ilaou^ i<. n rbc. ■;.. »t-^ .-^nr^.M-/: A l . ,t lr^'.-r:. i.- '■ -olbe r^ilt ^or] dern 
f.rof'f.en '..J. 1959 in.' J^Jdi«'o^i'=^n Ver"'n-, -^^rllrij er'^chlc'^enr-n 'ver'^ 
'^ .^ .u*. w uo o n i:'» d C'u uJ^ c ' ifc ^ui t .»rb*. rc- ich . " 

^es- vereln^uclt J o il L.rids tc Ine-^ irt tu inr ^-^ ^M'ac^-iu'vnT grr: V7(*nli^?t'3n 
K^^i^.rictj r;-einc- - von •' o vie"'.(?r; j''ai^r'-n ..l^to^-i'-er'^ ^--'-.-t*!^ 
*»AK-cli:.uunfc X.-,. erf-^Cii'v'tterri-<U-. tein '.ro "ev-^'-nal ttn hit .^uch den 
i^emiißp-cbtr dcc. lucht;^ "The Hebr^v; Irr-*nt on 'cc-forr, Ci'^rtlAzBtXo''^^ 
j^aftobtrt V'. üune." , bezw* o'^^jri i>arb'-ite.r' den bet>' f '^^nae'^. Xapitelr, 
^v&rtin L. . öifj nicht c3i:!inc; ;:trl?, 1>.p ''n r>: Ir ^.i'c'^ mit f oLft^od^-r 
Lü i; j r kui'if :-'. uf ü un .. a^;e n : " T hi f^UF i ; r oji.c q uir ' of ra c ia 1 i'^if e r i ^r i ty , 
tnis ruptrier inilÄddridicuIoi;j-:iy too'-- l©rol ne«rvr?'" to nr^vcri* >« 
Je«iai'. bir)^.ia;)Jieai rwa erv^noe work Iro-i. listi^j-; iiiiti a.':! a lie:-/, 'wi-iich 
fact he 3tl>.j':jteä to c^ncfial ^cvf-v t^' 'nj r hoT-'. 


Crofir-6 Vorsicht i!t% :i\l^rdii;:r ^ch^-^Un, u;.- die r liibt'zif^h'-ng 
von \^r'^'^ncn, die 1l iriae Kieiner jntörscl'u^l^/.a. ■ nict ain vU'.Un 
Fn:';u£iehen'-in<i, i;^x :.lm^ ^r: ^^iv c it ' Iciv-D^rgt.: llu'> z^; vernie iden. 
i-^ ui»- ae> ;..c;il.hunf-: wi^rüe iüii itJiGii iu- ^i-weifcsl C v/i^- ut 1 rrnc^ j l>'''-n ; 
rar die lVerlasniinf?;''änt::iche.iaefi, a^^f d U^ "'^f-'^r hl.-, öa?^^ ic:i ein<-n 

Zun SchluB n-eh l>«Qf>'^n 'cja.-: ixr d^^-'r, dar .^le ?- 'ch mit. 
nr, SUiTol In VerblrauHK '-s-.t.a h^bcn. ich ex^jA^l rex:jC^ 'v^ote 
v">n ihHÄ -ir-e-, ::p ..Varcii i'ire fre^jn^li-^ne xntcr^7:: -.ticii vcr-nnL-rten 
.:ri-3f fiamt Ol sn; . it i*el-o/ier JrJndU Vi . it -nrrüferti^^tm 
Zu^^'=^T.---nnt8llun-i wlc'U.l.'t:r üai'»i:^n unO L-aten. i-cin l>.ln lhT= f *r ^icl'-i^ 
I.n.he röhr verbünd::! un^ ^.-'ürd- V i(l ri.MtnrIici (x-ddr;nvttr.t5rtjn jn:: 'i^n'^t^rr 


Chr6niclo d'^rT':.^ .^^:hl fnr den Vorwlaat! aer •; l.>.xrtl'er; V'iviv-r 
Ubnoinnae.i3tcll£ v.-^n iat^eröse^H^vln. 1.- ir^ V r>i auf '^IVi 
alte G n.e int:cricli: c- w n Tnenia .' 

.it jIIc-11 £;uteri v/"i:cciKn u'iu h^irzltLc-iPten :Jr'^--en- 

l'ir Ht' t^ re treuer 

;i •: n.e bt.U^ 

L»di^.C(;o^ '- 


V^^^^ ^ 





^A P^ 


J>. Öh/i ^Uz. 

/- .: 




>^\ .1^- A^-^nA'j^ 


^h llUi^->>u^. 4^k4^^ ^'^Wf^yde iUu^^. 



1/ // 1/ 


hlhW, 4h^ /iHf/i // 4^/ y^^^^^i^Y- 

'1^ . fpl ^ .^ K /. - ' 

9/Uw l/l4^k'i\f^ '>y^i H'^^^-i^n. lA 


'AVV}/) ^^'/^OZ ^'^ 

,)(inmi iiJiii i-^nm /u u- 


M7i [In i/^Ä/6 



u !i ^ 0'(nä//' ' AJ ■ /!ht idy^^ ^^'^ 


^Mchi^V^ IviPir^e^n ÄM'W , civil '^ 

'4i uu^ tkpiA Iffi^ff^ ^'^ ^^f' 



* d *- -^ 

lind mtt //4//^'^/^^y^^^"^^^ ^^ 



y / ..1 

4^ /hlj^cli ir6 '^^i'^u^ 

min ^m^ iid(M^t^^4 




U hm^ i/m^pfich^ ^fp ihiiu 


J^h^>l(^.'Hi , yttdefl^ MhnrrÄ^^ 


io In JfiM'i 



4 k '7].i/4^^'fun. 



^iiA ])A/[i 0;v;^/';? t'}^/^ 


im ■ 

0}ll4// UHM'^ > 

^-^^ Wlu^''^^ 

<'T^ 1 

i \h 


il/v^ ?n^ ^yil^r^^^^^) 


'p /?/ /?'^^ 

ipa^ l^^ril'i itnd ^Ä'^ Mnf7, 



^ '^' ■ '- atU 

Inui , fctif Mli^tk- /^^^^ '^^^■ 

dli Cilv^'Uv /^ /a-U A^-^^^^ 


^. /// 

yhy'U . 

^■71 I l 


f V {/ V ^ A f 

i/ü [liyUM^ ^^^ 

. .A^'?-^ 




4 < 

/v-/ /; i 

inU '^'"^'^ 

'-'//^ ' 




/^ /^ 


^<^ Uli 1^1 

d^ in U /^^/ ^^/^ /^ ^' 

/// / 

/; "^'^^ fh'A^ 

4/l'/Ä S^^y/t >v\^^ ^-U^Adi^^ , 4'^ Hl 


hl^M/ii;., '// -' 




>7-^ ^//^^ 

7l/;y^'Vvi^-/i^^,w //^ 



ulyp' , fM fM 

(Ur, //^ "7111^1^77^^ 




"^ V 

iHi hn f I >///' / ^l^^"^' "^^^^"^^ 




1 t 

HnfA '^-f 

^ If- < 



'H^ Hl / A^ /^i^/ '^7>'/^- 

nn^l '^üc^ Ha iIiyIa A/^-^^/^ ^f^ 

/n^v^n-Tfi ki'im^ 

Int c^^u^-' 


'U li''^ 

wy/itj M^)9f^ . , 


2501 Haste Stre t 

Berkeley 4, California, 
30. Juli 1962 

Kein lieber Freudd, 

obwohl loh den impf ng Ihres ao sehr lieben iJriefes 
V. 17, Juli bereits be8t*^*tigt habe, bedruckt es mlc^,das8 
Ich ihnen noch nicht ausführlich geantwortet und auch as 
Einlangen der mir von Ihnen freundlich zugesandten i^is^eer- 
t€|tion von Dr. Lehmann noch nicht angezeigt habe, xch bin 
tief gerHhrt von Ihrer .iilf sbereitschaf t, mein lieber Freund, 
und danke ihnen nochmaÄs herzlichst ftlr alles, was £ie bereits 
Jetzt zu der Arb'-'lt Ob- r Oeeterrtlchs jHdische Juristen 
befiigrtragen haben. 

uer Verzug m ines ^^ricfeü ist darauf ^iurHckzuf '*hre 'i, 
daes ich einen gr?3^?eren Teil des fHr das Leo -^aeck Institute 
vorbereiteten i-ianüskrlptes abzuliefern natt . leichzeitig h tte 
ich nach einige andere Arbeiten zu erledigen. Zu diesen gehört 
auc 1 die Hevi^ion der ersten Teile der englischen Uebersetzung 
des von mir gc-n.einsam mit Ernst ^-^Hller RZcnlFch bearbeiteten 
" ymposion" von Piaton. Ich weis- nicht, ob ich Ihnen schon 
Biitg:f?tellt habe, das^ dieses Abenteu«* im Zuge ist. Dr. Ungar 
möchte den i3and noch in diesem Jahre hera abringen, i-'ie ueber- 
setzung wird von einem seiner Kitarbeiter be"or,^t, mues Jedljc ^ 
natnrllch von mir S'fhr norgf^ltlg revidiert werden, r/elches 
Schicksal dies«» Arbeitt die mich von meiner Ju nd bl? in das 
ap'^te iMter begleitet, beschieden sein wird, kJ5mtc wohl nur 
die Pythia voraussagen. Aber da tke l^^'ngst verstummt i^t, 
bleibt mir nlchtf^ ander«'^ -Ibrig alr zu hoffen, das- mir die 
Manen ^latons und die Götter Griechenlands nicht allzusehr 
zürnen werden. 

vun V r allem zu der von Ihnen gtltigst angefertigten 
imposanten Li^te der in Ihrrr Böbllothck, die mir als eine 
der New Yorker Sehenswürdigkeiten noci in bester Erinnerung ist, 
vorhandenen einschlägigen .'erke. Franz Klo in und ^\dolf i-lenzel 
waren meines Wis'^ens keine Juden, betreffend Löfftier bin inh 
ira Zweifel. Die «/erke von üzid 'Jber Kelsen sinä mir in der hiesigen 
Univerf^mf^'tsbibliothek zug^*nglich. Ueberdies beabsichtige ich ^ 
Küla^n, wenner Kitte /iugunt auca-üropa ^urnckfec;hrt,zu "interviewen 
Er hat sich dazu berei'. erkl^'rt. In einem sp'^teren Stadium 
beabsicJJ ige ich,iüir von ihnen Bac .räch, 'ribram und i'axll 
( despen Ableben ich gleich Ihnen sehr beklage ; - vielleicht 
auch noci. anderes - zu erbitten, in Ihrvir Li te vermis e ich die 
Arbeiten einen ihoan sehr vetr&uten Autors. Eg ist der Adresaat 
dieses Briefes, ''nterla ^en -^ie qs nlcat, lieber Freur.d, mir 
diesen Nachtrag zu senden. 

L'ap Au&mass der Beteili^runp^ von Juden am "frterreichischen 
Rechtsleben^ Tij^orie^ Gesetzgebung und Praxis- inet erstaunlich. 
Es gibt kein Gebiett auf dem pie nicht 'Ibsrdurchschnlttliche 
Leistungen aufzuweisen haben» auf vielen waren si^ bahnbrechend. 


£s wird ^c.^lnc lelclite Aufgabe sein, das alles in Rahn^en eines 
Artikels von unp'cf'^'hr zwanzig Druckseiten darzustellen. •• s scheint 
mir Jedoch nicht unwichtig zu sein, diese Leistungen eÄnail ias 
richtige Licht zu rHcken. Ich will dein Wirken von Ehrlich und 
Ofner, die ich beide gekamit und verehrt kxlsK und mit denen ich 
zuBamminengearbeitet habe, so viel Raum als m'^glich widmen« 
»von sehen Cie eine baldige R'lckstellung der Lehmann' 8 qhen 
Di?rE«rrtation oder kann ich sie eine Zeitlanjr behalten? 

V/as dc=n Shylock betrifft, verkenne Ich, t4o ich schon 
in meinerr vorigen i^rief erw^fhnte, kiineswegs die gefahren einer 
antiseffiitischen Deutung und «'irkung. Aber' ich bin überzeugt, das 
sie paraly iert werden können, wenn d&r Da1rTs1ö.lxmg dem Ueb«r- 
dimensionalen <i(sr Gentalt ^or^ ht wird, "^eltsaiiierwaise sind mir 
gerade in den letzten Tagen beim Studium des Briefwechsels ' "^ 

zwischen Goethe und Zelter einige, diese An'itüht bisst^tigende 
^Hellen in die H^'ndc geraten, von denen ic'i zw i hier wiedergeben 

rn^chto: Zeltar an Gnethe e.m 24. Jan. ISIJ: "ich habe n^lr diesen 'r •" 

Juden ( S'hylock ) Immer als einen wahren Kaufmann vorgestellt, 
der vollkommen R«cht hat und nioÄlB sucht als sein ^echt, welches k 
ihm durch sogenannte Billigkeit und Tugend ,c;e8C'ini''lert wird, und 
kurz dem Rechte g schiebt unrecht. Da hat dir Dichter g2wollt;dahin 
er mag gewollt haben oder nicht. Der ganze Hass eines Juden g^ht dadxin 
eiann I^]en sehen zu vertilgen, der den Handel verdirbt. Darin hat 
der Jude, der Handelsmann, Recht und der sogenannte Kauafmann 
Antonio ist nichts melir alt? ain tugendhafter intoleranter 
£chw?tzer, der nicht wAise, wie er reich gewerden ist und im 
Uebermuto seines humanen litzlels dcci den i^cichtuin fHr cj';s Höchste 
h'^'lt. - Diesen Vencxtianischen Juden nun sl elöen knotigen 
Wasserpolac^en erniedrigt zu Btihsn, ohne irgend ein Verdienet an « ^ ' *• 
ihm erkennen zu lassen, und doch eine Schar edler >:ensGhen, Ja den 
Dogen selber und den gr. niten Staat In Bewegung zu sehEn • das kannmich 
mich zum Zorne reizen. Ja ich kann mich kaum catfiJber zufrieden 
ftfeiicn.?... /Leiter an Goethe am f. Jan« 1631: ''Air ich zum ernten ' * '" 
Kai den .:hylock spielen sah, erkannte ich diesen Venextianisohen 
Juden als den echt3n Kauf! jnn, der vom Rechte ( de Jui'e ) uru sein 
Recht *^ffentlich vor aller Vvelt betrogen wird, und erkannte 
zugleich rha^Tect ^are alc den gr^rjrten Philoscphenauc Gottes Hand.** 
in einem anderen Br'ef rH mt Zelter die Darstellung Shy locke durch 
Devrientf^czr dis Rolle wahrhaftig tragisch, 7cn vornteer ^li bis 
ans 'iinde" g^rpielt ha'. In: Falle der T.V. .uffGhrung w''re es 
Sache de? Darstellers aber auch derVerar.ilalter gewesen diee 
Deutung der Ge-^lt hersusz' arbe 1 ten i;nd in einem besonderen 
koffuT^ntierenden Vertrag zu beleuchten« 

Verzei'jen uie das Uebermass der. Juris Msehen in dieseoi 
Brief! loh hoffe, dass es rie beide bei guter Laune antroff n 
und vie nicht ■Vv.rdarben wird. \cGhnial3 ber-tan D^^nk fnr Xh"^e 
alle ihre Bemtlhungenl Alles Gute ihnen beiden und herzlicnste 

Grf^Rfe von Ihrem steh? getreuen 

2501 Haste Stre-t 

Berkeley 4, C.^llfornln, 
Cctol>er 3^ , 196P. 

i.r. Josef Vrnenkel 
45 Lar'rrllll Riae 
London, 3.V, 4, 

Dear hr. Fraenkel, 

wlth r^-^f'^renrie to vour 1 tte- of ■ ctobf^r 16t^, i Phn'lilci 
like to 00 int o'jt t'i^t the i.enninp; ci^* iiy letter of Cc tober 7th 
was not that the iranuscrlot of mx ny en-ay K.ip'it be in your 
hand'' before the r nd rf thi«^ .Y^^r, but rat'ier thst 1 hope 
^c) f in lsh the es ay up to that da":: . 

in "^act, thouTh i h^ve n^w concent" T^teri entirely on thip 
work, I f e ^ 1 that the tt^e of two ncnthn yst to my dipoosgl 
could crove even ftot qult«? sufflci-^nt for the coa^Iection of 
the still !ris~ln,fT materials ?nd fOr :rin,Ting the ccnclse 
accrunt of th-- vast subject or rsther afxtlxx v rl.etv of subjects 
to a close. I orecvsr, It is al^c the eytrsje coiLolication of 
tie ii,att8r irivolv^ri vrhlch requires un\)sual and verv tir.e 
c^^umln.? ef-^ortSf iesiJe«, notni'^'- co^j'd be nore «painst ^.'^e 
intr-r€'3t of thi^ boC' you ere pix-paring than to irnpair the work 
on a coatribution sbout one of the rrgin and nost irri^ortant 
theiiies of tbe bock ?rf"^^r! the ill-ef fectE whieh any author -v.^c 
is beln^; ru£hed Ig bound to suffer. 

Thus, thou/T,h 1 shall do irj very best in order to \jomplete 
the esray until the end of ©ecerrberi ^ connot help envis-afrlnp? 
th posr iblility that soir.e ddltional tdir.' ij^^uld be nee :ed for 
that pur.;ost . i found it -^rcoer to Inf or' you about this State 
of aflsirs an i am sure , that you, deet i r. Fr^enkel, will 
havc füll understr>ndir.c ffrit, apart fr«*^ the faot - known to 
ire fron, ry own experlences as an eoitr^r of colleotive works - 
that the arsemblare of all the contributlons to a syrposluir. 
n a k€B thL e x t€ n r Ion o f t "^.s t ipe f c r t'^e ir de 1 ive r a 1 r o s t 
unavoiciable in ir.cst cf the cases. 

Vit kindef^t ref/ards, 

Yours F. incerely, 

Frnnz Kobler 

Da Sie sich speziell fuer Ofner interessieren, 
werde ich Ihnen gelegentlich ein Verzeichnis der in 
meinem Besitz befindlichen Brochueren und Sonderah- 
drucke zusammenstellen, d.h. so weit sie nicht in 
meine Ausgabe enthalten sind. 

Es ist sehr lieb von Ihnen, dass Sie sich fuer die 
rechtsphilosophischen Beitraege des "Adressaten" bzw, 
des Unterzeichneten interessieren. Auch diese werde 
ich bei Gelegenheit zusammenstellen. Uebrigens sind 
alle aelteren Veroeffentlichungen in dem 1942 erschie- 
nenen "Who is VlTio in Philosophy" herausgegeben von 
Runes, Denonn und Winn, angegeben, der dort sicher in 
der Bibliothek ist. 

V'ir hoffen Sie wohlauf und senden Ihnen beide 
die waermsten Gruesse und besten Wuensche. 

Ihr aufrichtig ergebener 

P.S. Von Siegels erhielten wir eine Karte aus Oslo 
in der Willy ueber Regen und Kaelte klagt/ 



Editorial Board: 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 





May 28tli, 1962, 

Dr. Franz Kobler, 
2501 Kaste Streec, 
Berkeley 4, California. 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

I had great pleasure in reading your letter and i am glad 
&hat oiir bock ivill include your essay. 

The approxiraately ultima te date would be December 1962, 
which meanü 7 months. 

I sball iixform che merabörs of the Bdi-oorial Board ana I am 
surs LhaL they will be pleased uO hear of your acceptance. 

Jisliing you healx,h, 

Kindest regards, 

Yours sincerely, 

Josef Fraenkel. 



Editorial Board: 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Dr. Franz Kobler, 
2501 Hast Street, 
Berkeley 4-, Galif , 





Oct©ber Ist, 1962. 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

As we have a raeeting of our Editorial Boar(i 
in the first week of November, I should be most grateful to have your 
promised essay before the meeting, or would you kindly let me know when 
I could expect it. 

Wishittii; you a year of happiness and health. 

Yoiirs sincerely. 



Josef ^raenkel. 
Signed: Miss A. Daniels (Secretary) 



Editorial Board: 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W, KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Dr.i'ranz Nobler, 
2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley 4» 






Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Köhler« 

Ich fahre heute naoia Wien und beeile mich Ihnen 
zu antyrorten» 

Aus Ihrem Schreiben erkenne ich,dass ich Ihre 
Arbeit gegen i^nde J^ezember erhalten werde. Das wird gut sein und hoffe, dass. 
Ihr -fc-ssay in etwa zwei Monaten hier sein wird. 

Ich danke Ihnen recht herzlich fuer Ihre Co-opera- 
tion und verbleibe mit den besten Wuenschen, 


Ihr ergebener 

< ' 

Josef Fraenkel 



Editorial Board: 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. lELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 





May 15oh, 1962. 

Dr. F. Kobler, 
2501 Hast Street, 
Berkeley 4, 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

Ai ühe advice of Gecil Uoth we shall not rush 
with the publica Gion of our book. He uanted ts to give more üime to the 
Scholar s and historians who are writing essays for cur book, 

Without wanting to press yoa, iny editorial comiiJ.ttee 
would be raoBo gratsful to you,if you \-iill now accept our invitation as you 
will have more time to write your essay as sug.^ested in n^ firsb letter. 

V/e are sending you best wishes. 

Yours sincerely, 

Josef Fraenkel. 



Editorial Board : 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Dr.i'ranz Kobler, 
2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley 4>'^alif, 

Edltor : 





Lieber Dr. Kotier. 

Zurueck aus ^ien finde ich Ihren Brief vom 
14. d.M. 

Ich setzte mich gjleich mit Dr.F.L.BrassIof f 
in Verbindung und er sagte roir,dass er/volles Verzeichnis der -ar- 
beiten seines *aters habe, usw. -dieses ist mit anderen ^achen in 
einem ^offer,den er erst in einer Äoche erhalten wird,Also-in 
etwa einer «(oche werde ich «^hnen seine biographischen -^^aten ,usw 

Werde morgen i^r. Valentin iiosenf eld aufsuchen 
und hoffe, dass ich Ihnen dann die l'aten usw schicken werde. 

Ich bin ueberzeugt,dass Ihre Arbeit von 
grosser Dichtigkeit sein wird und wuensche Ihnen recht viel "^^rfolg 

Mit den besten 'Ä^uenschen, 

stets Ihr ^ ^*^*aL*4^>^i<^ 

Josef Fraenkel 



(Affiliated to World Council of Jews from Austria) 

Hon. President :'€)f .-1^ DIENCNrCb P- Hon Sacrßfarv 

Chairman ■ Dr -H-TAIÄBR WORLD CCWCIL OF JEV^fS ^POM AUSTRIA Hon. Secretary. 

«^nairman. ur. n7-iAU««t , . . ■ , ... Mr. J. FRAENKEL, 

Vice-Chairman : Dr. F. BRASSLOFF 45_ laRKHALL RISE. 

Hon. Treasurer : Mr. S. ELLENBERG LONDON. S W 4 

Executive : Mr. M. HAGER (^^ „hom all correspondence 

Mrs. R. KISSMAN 3hould be aJdressed) 

17th January,1962 

Dr. Franz Kobler, JF/LB 
2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley 4, 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

I was very glad to receive your letter and to hear that you are 
"working on a new edition of your two German letter books. As far as 
I remember I have sent you, years ago, at your request, one of iiiy 
books with Herzl letters v/hich you wanted for a second edition. I do 
hope you vfill use them, 

I am very pleased thai; you accepted the invitrtlon to write an essay 
for the book on Austrian Jewry, Your sugp;ested subjeot "The Achievements 
of the Austrian Jews in the Sphere of Jurisprudence" is a very good one 
and we are looking forward to see your inanusoript, Jle certainly understand 
that you are occupied now "with the second edition of your two books but 
hope that in about six months or so you will be able to send us your 

The book on Austrian Je\^;ry will consist f irst of a short history of 
the Jews in Austria since the first world war to the lest one and of a 
number of scholarly essays dealing with various nspects of Austrian »^ewry's 
aohievements in the last 100 years ot so. A number of scholars and 
"writens (Oskar Rabinowitz, Alfred Werner, Liptzin, 'fartakower, I-Iendel 
SingelJ^ have already agreed to contribute and I am in contact with a number 
of -writers expecting positive replies. 

I wish you good health, success in your important work, and remain 

Yours sincerely. 

Josef Fraenkel. 

Juripprud ence 3j 

Die Sarstellung ipt in de vorki i-^end-n 

auc noch 
Falle Inpb pondere ru Jhel Knapohelt des 


Ich bin natprl ch ben/Uat, die Arbf=it 

innerhelab der in Supicht srenorriiren Zeit ferti 

habe mich zu ddeiem ^weck schon 
zusteln undhabe auch aus dem G^ de das Gr'^'ete 
'^ seit einicrer Zeit 
Interesse daran blos auf^i konzentriert 

und zu diesem Zweck digcx^aKfeaRÄitiHscxater 

alle anderen Arebieten, inbes auch die Vorber« 

eder vom L I geplanten Nneubear-cc v'-^'ll 

um^estatlte ten i^e us^rabe m'^iner beiden deutah 

der Aebit an 
""rierbnche unterb ch^^n, ich ich widme deier 

^■^ utrag, dbaHx±Khx:ߧlKxsinxaasxm«bii?anrxSFxctnden 

ich^f^^^^ fast unausgestz mein Zelt, obwohl 
g warnt werdevor Ten Folgen einer 
ich vom m«n«iM Arzt wegen meineies angerrrif fenen 

HezeHflraxx Ue arceitjing zu vermeiden. 

SO forcierte n arbe';ot JJennocn ver ap-e i h 
halte ich es fflrawahrsch inlich 

nicnt vorau--uszu shen ob ch nie t g^Ä^^Kgz s 

rden eine gewisse ^erll^ngeru' des A liefer nster 

unvermeidich sein wir d./>Ich se tze^voraus, 

si rieb 

yy/Le ich schqxt^n me ine ^/cor igen ^ iefe sc 



(Affiliated to World Council of Jews from Austria) 

Hon. President : Dr. F. BIENENFELD 

Chairman : Dr. H. TAUBER 

Vice-Chairman : Dr. F. BRASSLOFF 

Hon. Treasurer : Mr. S. ELLENBERG 

Executive : Mr. M. HAGER 



Herrn Dr. Franz Kobler, 
1409 Geary Street, 
St. Franoisco« 

l Hon. Secretary: 




(to whom all correspondenco 
should be addressed) 

20. Dezember 1961 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

The World Council of Jews from Austria consisting of branohes in 
Amerioa, Israel, ^reat Britain etc., intends to publish, in 1962, a book 
"Austrian Jewry, the Assessment of Its History and Achietrenients". This 
book "Will contain essays by experts and scholars to give a balanced picture 
of the history of Austrian Jewry. 

I should like to invite you to oontribute an essay for thiä book and 
may I suggest the following titles: "Anti-Semitism in Austria" or "The 
Catholic Churoh and the Jews" or "The Austrian Parties"^ (Christlich -Soziale 
Partei, Sozialdemokraten, Liberale Partei) and the Jews". But oeirtainly 
if you prefer a different subjeot, "we shall certainly agree to your own 

We reoeived a grant from the Claims Conference for the publication of 
this book and the fee is one page - £1. I suggest 20-25 pages for your 

I should be most grateful to hear from you at your earliest con- 
venience, especially about the subject of your choice. Yfe hope you will 
accept out invitation and shall be only too glad to include your essay 
in this book vihich will appear in English and will, possibly later be 
translated into other languages. 

With kindest regards, 

Yours very sincerely, 

Josef Fraenkel 


25^-1 H?.F^tr: :itre t 

Berkeley 4, G-illfoirtiia, 
14. Noveinbe- 1962 

Lieber, hllfr^-i^her Freund, 

hh-"'v^n ^1e beoteii Dank ftlr Ihren lieben Brief und fHr 
das bo rii t G ( unve r ^ hr t ) e Inge 1 ang to i. ' ' c kc he n i 

Ks w?r •'e'ir frvMindlica von lhn(f:n, e.u?3SJ^r deu Verlandeten 
nich eini[;c juiittiPbl-.n Delikate sr^eii - liL^-bepLncIerc aue der 
eigenen K*^ch=^ - b<-: lzrle^rr-»n. /^lleroin^ta h-?.b-cn Clf. rec-it, daF^ ich 
nicht vl«^l Zeit f^^r z^;r''t7i Iche Lekt'*r''i haV-;5 aber >. inire lief-e- 
proben hibn^n mich «^ehr erquickt. Jnd Lcii bcM''ti.^,e eines solche 

AufpulTerunr'* , u«^n Je ««hr die Arbelt fort.?c ireitet, deglo n.ehr 
taue 'on n3ve Fc'nwicri^k' itf^n .nuf. ic^ bin Ihrien dauer, nein lieber 
Freund, f**r I^r lic-ben'^KMj»,-ji,,e3 Anerbietün w^tiriE^cr iiife von d.?.n :bfirtand so unbe'3c;ie:id€n, davon gleich ii . tc Gebrauch 
zu Dachen. 

Kp l*"! nic^^it n\:r di^^ Bencnaf ^unjr, iilnorO.Yinnp'j und 
Darrt^i llung Gev Litc-r-^tr? wde ri;ir tcrp-e btr^itet, s-'ndern ebenso 
d ':.e B^schrf fünft von perp**nT1chen mtornatlcnea, die hie • frar nicht 
odßr nur aut^n-^hnt^vei«^- erh''ltlich n.lnd, .jo btm'*rii>;e ich blnzel- 
heiten f^'.r die Ucberrichten der Le irtuiii-'*en der 'h- tt-ri - icaipc^hen 
Juden'iter, Änvr'lto , Univer-^it*-^' tp lehre >■» und jierar.r^oreber 
juTi.'rtlschtir ^iCitrchr '.ften. ivinti^rlich kemiO ic;: eine I-t pfietrvvnn N 
Nf;r..2n und erlnne-rc n:ic^"i nii;ch in einzelnen F' licrn an bei<tin.jr.te 
DetcilG, abei p;crRdev;Wlll ich - rchon wegen dei: b6i?chr*nktcn Knumes 
e ine re . r" l e ntg tivc Aur^wg hj.3u treffen habe, rv:ichc-n üit gu& der 
l.rinncrunt: -.ineF inüclncr) g;- schr;jrttin, vit,lx"ach f r^^grctntariD.-^hen 
Daten nicht au£. Auch i^iac.isciilarewerke und Litert'-r vftr?af*-:r» 
In diesrr iilüöi-cnt. '^a? inusr ie lair uaiier-, i".eU;r >re;jr.i; a up 
Ihrer ei^--Gnen ICrinrerun^, auf den xa';en 2.u/?," iii7;lich?^n ^'iUf^ll-'n od«lr 
auf Cr.nd von ( ohne bepcvidt. re . Uhe erh"ltlicricn ) Informationen 
von 7r_ua'-I'^m rcittcilen k''nnten, W re '^ ii> Pcur 'vertvoll unu worde 
mit Dank ent|^^e^•engcnon^en VGra-??:^. 

Al£ IjelFipiel? poloher "of "inen Fra,3;en'*fliire ich an: 

1) ■■'elcae jUdiecho Richter v/areiu in den lK:t;iten J-iiren 
bei den oi>.r«U:ri Tiv^; i.-"! .>.tab"fon ( C.G. ',7«>-n-wl titng.^rericht^ljiof , 
Verf* G.H. ) und bei berlint3'0f*fre richten als : e m t.^)r**:^id :nten 
ondr'-Denat8nit,c^lieder t'tip;? csber i den au? TnärsilEiMta^üt '.ur^^ck- 
geke v'^tin ) Heinricn 'lang bin loa zie.i/lica ßol Inf .^ri^.lürt, aber 
Hber Gr-abscheid, Huviolf ^'oll^k, oe^j^telhsiir. u, a- f^:hl-^n Hiir n^'here 
oder 'i be r ha u • t alle *>a1b<& n • ^C' i n te r ■ ^ ;3 r; iy - ... i ' ^ a u c A f ^ r ö ie 
N-^T-n unu JL latung'i.i '.«srvror "äsender oder por?i;l' rer nicHitrrnnderor 


2) iNiic^it leicht Ist ec auoi'u eine vlcxtl^e ••bif\fahi 
aus der zleirllch propren Anzahl Hbei.* uen Lmvrhnc'.iritt !iir>varragender 
/mw''ite zu treffen. Viele Nomen, Insbesondere euca die "bertlhmter 
yerteidig:er** alnd mir natfirllch bekannt, aber ich k'^nnte dennoch 
einen oder den anderen Hberrhen. Ich nenne abFlcHtllch keine 
i4ö en, um durch Ihre .'^n^aben oder die r ifraben -^hrer iiuskunf tn- 
par.soü^nc l,<. in el^reries f3d'"chtnls und Urteil zu kcntrclll':jren. 
Wenn Ihnen -ins oder hindere cau^e c^ Teure bekan^^t Irt, in welcher 

J'.^Jlrchc ^iiW itfc slCi hervorgetan nab,'-> 
KltU^ildricrt^n seiir erw'Jnscht, 

w*"r'::n iLlt 

ucn S'-'lche 

j) .'Me eF nach neinen Fret^-tellun<T<-n d^^r» In^ch'^ln aat, 
nind dl- neif'.en .1 o rüi 1 1 '=' c he n Z 1 '. : ■ ': rlt :- n c ^t^i^'Miiß'ah: -r von 
:ir*'.''iiiU''v^3 *-üiur.c ii»ii*t bip zjr öer'leatrhrii'.t - von Juden [^ejtc'-z'nndet 
unc! rc Jii; i'crt .>'or-<iexi, aber e-^. feiilt Dilr t : i<^'pltlGv/eple u-vr Vor- 
novi \on i-lfrko,vi6r pcnieinrarn wAt .Adcl.fh r'iilka vH- Cerlcütchalle 
prfc£;,r'iüdc; t hat, aue.i die W£a:en der ^'Ind^ der <rur. i^l. j';d der 
v:'e £ t*: r . ..u.vs It 3 Zc? l Lunr , i 1- zul^- tzt v -^n li r . Ivijd : l f l-rauri u d 
Dr« -lano ßpizer rt:c3ip;it:rt vairci'., oinci r^lr '-ntf illrn. 

icoj ir.u{?!= nat'^rli^ j eine Hiihe vcn Au^.UxmTl^.y^eroonen In 
;»n5?;:ruc'i nchncn tJnd b^^pbif^lo'it'ffr ,r ich tiuch ::n '^r ■ ^itprel zu :vsndGn, 
den ich L'uci-aicM rtnlA'ort ai^f ei^^-eri -i afr-irllcnca ->r.€.i" ncbuldc-. 
f'ieiiic i^ iGt leci.oco fo '<:n3 -•• ber,cs:^-e-?n, Jas - Icl"? die Korrecondd^jaz 
inr in -Oü t- nd*3n erlodloren van^^. •"-jUte^n * Ic d:5i'ti6' .mi. die sei« oder 
eli'r!] acdv-rvn Anlnns üiit ih^ s'-roch-n, b tt.r '.c.., lli.:. neb^t ineintn 

t c -^ c^ n .'rr ;.' o ' t: n a i 1 an «jid ne 1. n^r r" • h' ■ e r t.a^rf^au ' z url • tt 

' I 



Ihr:, bald :üU reareiben Iv^^^b^iC-^ti^f"- ^^nü cTa^r i'nr. ftJr eine i^r-Flptenz „ 
bei iJeautwortÄr;^ der oblr<^-n und rnclcr-r dleri:;:'ia[h Crclit bctrefffndaat^F 
r rage n t c, / a- ^' e r i^und e n v: '"re . 

i>r« Tyndf:.!! rer.e ic!i ref,elu"r i,T, er l.--t fjl'iTJ;'vilc:):n^9lse 
ri.^iarid, bti i f-uten Junior und i: -er '^^ktlv. I" er-; iJert ner2illc!i liir- 
dur:j i iiiich 1x2 n teilten Grf^f??e. 

/it aersl-ic^'^ton Orn«-en a-i ^^le b idc 

ihr ''tetr rctr<:iter 

1 r ■ 

iCij bitte-, d^c': ;^uii.inue ,?t 
d ie bc i 1 le r d r- n. '* Be r ^3 1 r 1 n r^. n ' 
in di^i^r"ßa:'chtr.-.acli^" 
e n tf^e trenzi ; •: e hü'e n i 

7/C /^-^ 


»^*'4o^/iC^,__^ / 






^^i^-.^^ /^.i^ 


/C^A u//^ 





/,-, IL) C^ ;, 

M'^^ i liUc/-^^ - 






■ 1 ' 



• P501 Ha^te trf 

'%'-Eerkeley 4, Galifornl 





Lieber :.'r. ^vn" oft acher, . ■ a-:^ h- 

neh^en Sie herzllchi-^ten I'^nk .f'^'r Ih:f|Trciindliehes 

Oeder/'.en und ihre Gltlclcwüncche zu meinem ?'c'ht2i;r3tea 
.,.■, — ^ _x _ T ... i__-u- „., r.„._,.xi „ ..^ .. ^^^^ Ihnen 




r eltsanier^ eise sl -v.; Si?? nlr durch i/i:^ »>hreiben 
InJ^ofe^n 2;uv rreko", nlj.#l%'h die bricht h2tt:',mlch 
an ßie mit einer Anfr-- e zu wenden, "le sieht ■in": ^iuc.i .'.-rienhang 
mit einer mich .?up:cnblicklich besch'Ttir'jfn/en'' Arbeit -'n 
einem ijeltr^i.o: f^r d'-r in London un'^-r '• r ''Re . "'•''tlnn von 
.ioref ra^ni^el^taetiti'Ä^^'Ä^^^^ der 

•'sterreicÜKChf- n Jude";. . m 'i •? > n ■ t'.n>'' -^ii-i.. • . •. itr';«;ss 

bilden die Lpl'tun-en deB^ 


■^TJrl'^tön Oester elc'''9. 
muß , wer-^n der 

^ie^. rb it irt, v, ie ich wohl irc-uri. ljeK"',er^:c:n 
'l^#lf^*ltirkhi-. de? toffer^ 
'11^'Lr - atcrl ''h--;f "unfr '^enr ninnsei.i?^ 
Immerhi hof"e ich, d.?s iv^nu-^^criot br:ld . Ccbr; Chiles <-en zu k'^nnen« 

ir; h**c 'Pt ico! pliziert und infolp^dschwierl 
ehr ni''hsel.F und i^itraub-'-nd . 

ti-ine:? der l'!t;5t-?n Cnpitel .-oll c\^.>y L 


en der .Jüdischen 

Juri^itsn Cont-ir- eiche iir: Aur-lsnd - vr 'rici' ir Amerika - 
früwid4W((Di; sein, icn be.' beichti-e nu' ,4^'rin mjc! auf Ihre 
hervorr-. '•e'!(ie inu sehr intere«:r ante L^i'^tun hinauweißen. 
i>c;rf ich ic bitten, n^lr zu dieser ^v/ec^e ic wicht! -'«ten 
i^ ö t e -' rr i t z u t v: i 1 e n *i' I4! Äjsstässijrr'a cht ci ? r FH 1 1 e c -•• e I«: .s t c- ri«igij#jtiri s^ 
der .\naophc-it dee verf^'-^-baren RnuTie-^' wi^'jfir : ic ■ X'nre infonration 
allerdl'^ p nur in *'U'^c'er;:^t kondenj^iertc-r^ 3''ori. verwerten k"nne^t 

aber weeentlich i-^t, das-- dit>-^e ei 
Lei st n, nich'- unerv7"hnt bleibt. 



un'..; bedeute'Td 

ihren nef"li<-'en i*-lttellun<r:n entf <^ '•■vicchencj ,bin l'^h 

mit 5?llen ^uten Wnnechn und' ••^"r 
"auch en Ihre n-attln, 

:■ t n Cr^'-sen , 
i\r errebener 


■^i' I 



'u. -■ 

i.v , 

Walter Eckstein 

3900 greystone avenue 

NEW YORK 63. N. Y. /\ 


^^''^"' ßjj^ '^^lä^ ^^^^^ ^ V'^^ 

Walter Eckstein 

NEW YORK 63. N. Y. 

/^ ^ i^i^n^ aM^ ^fiUi^^ ^^'^^''^^ 

h^ H^ ä.U^/pnii^t^^ 

c3^^^^ i^Cn^l^'^H^^ / '^^^'^1^^ 

ki lU^ ^y^ j(^i^ '" O'hi^'^i^^i^^ d^^^^>*^ 



2501 Has?te Ctreet, 

Berkeley 4, C-illfornla, 
11 • Jnu'ir 1963 

Lieber ^r. Gchell, 

die immer dringlicher {vxiü kom;>llzieTter ) werdende 
iirbeit an dem Epsay über die ''sterreicjisch- Jf^dischen 
Juristen, sowie ander:: u:. die Jahre '^v/ ende hinzu'^eVommene 
Arbeiten und Korrespondenzen hiben mich darin gehindert, 
auf ihren letzten Brief und die go frcU':u liehe Zusendunpr 
Ihrer Lchrift **Gerecl'iti^'^eitridee und 1- let' n^epet^fftbutog" 
früher zu reagieren, ^^^ehmen ^'io - zugleich mit der ßitte 
um tatschuldis^ung meiner C'*-'umni^ - ineinen herzlichsten 
Dim'^ ft5r ^-rief und Euch, ober insbesondere auch fHr Ihre 
lieben BwHrdi^e Widmung entgeg:n. I-Vite einem erlaube ich 
mir, i men eine ExeppM^ruieine? Bucher '^?:\e Virion Wa^ There** 
zu ''berrenden, das, obv/ohl au^" einea von der Sphäre Ihrer 
Fchrift U'ie^idllch ^'elt entfernten •v''in>el des geistigen 
..eltenr uros stammend, Ihnen vielliicht al:- "Abwechslung" 
nicht unwlll^omrr-;n sein v/ird, 


Ihre Abh^'iidin^ enth'-'lt in whhrhaft meipterhaftcr 
Verdichtunf' nuf den 52 "elten mehr "Über die Grund problem«iti 
de^ .^ee'atcs als manches weitl^'u^ig'- -oin.'endium. Die i>urch- 
drinffunr eine? g^nz I^onVreten ^'jrpi»ttl3ch£n Problemp miJt **"•"' 
den f andsii. nt'nlen rechtaphll'-^^ophlficho''' Gericht ounlrten aus 
verleiht I.jrcr Arbeit elnetWcit Hber din 2ieitr;3bur.denen 
nlar: hinaufreichende Ledeutunr» ^-in Hinvrwfii auf diese 
chrift und p;ar auf deren -sutor goh"rt z^^aifellon in den 
*jer3ieh der vn v orber • it.'.? ten ica;^/?. ..-a~^ die?^ mit 
^^c'•c9icht auf den berchr^'n'^iten Raum und den riepi-^en -toff 
nur in einer gecr"ngten ''elp- »Iraipn'^oliiheHilk^lnnen, *e4?dielde 
unver;;. eidlich. Ihrem Wunsche entp prech^ind werc^e ich Ihnen 
di^. b treffende Stelle re- -itzeitlrT nittcll^sn. 

va^^ den Fall Wähle betrifft, ptinui.e ich .mit Ihnen 
ttberein. Ich beab°ichti'-e, seine Genehinifun^ zur Aufnah;: e 
seinen W3rnen& in meine xVch::ndl. :nfr durci einen unmittelbar 
an ihn £?:erichteten Brief inzuholen. i.ah dan'e Ihnen auch 
noch f*'r die ^*bri;?.en in Ihreiii .rief ':rith'.jlte lene Auskünfte, 

Kit bepten Gr^Isnen und allen guten "''inschen 



25C1 HßPte Stre t 

j^^erkcley 4, California, 
31. P'-Z' Tiber 1962 

Lieber Hv^rr rr&en^el, 

Ich btsfürre d'^m>end den ;:]fipf n^, Ihr^' rriofco v. 11. d.M. 
Öa-mt dem \< ip-elegten Brief von i^r. '/. Ro.seiifv«td, dem Tie 
gef*~*lli^rt r:;einen besten Dank fH.r Ueine Zem'yiiim^ \mä meine 
her25llch';:n GrÜ^ "e froerinlt^ ein vmllcm. i>er nii von ^r. Brassloff 
In Aussicht rcnt Uten inf orinati m aehh ic'a cnt:;cr;cn» 

^ik. schon in früheren Briefen gc"usrerte ^e^^otgtii'^ 9 daar- 
eine V9rl"n;'^erunr de^^ i^bllcferun/T':teri|Jpris I-. treffend Seinen 
Beltra ' u-iVf, rmiidlicn sein d'^rft's, hri pich al'^ richtig erwiej^en. 
Jie in den r'^'llen .osfenfeld und .:'rarj:lof ' wor teh ( und bin ich 
auch Jetzt nocn ) gen"t%t »Aupkönfte \Vc(^.r ^'ercjcnen und allerhand 
Daten britflic 1 c-inzuhoien. -^ch bin iii d - r- T" t vtg'3n Fe:? '^töllun?? 
und -Cl**runr vieler Detail?' i^^ ^ine sehr :•: itr:'Ub;ndG , v/eitver- 
2wei|^t3 i^orrs': :)ondenz verwickelt ;.'oräcn. ^-e. selben ^vrec'<:e dlej;;]^.:'? 
.•'iuss pr-iChen mit der;, hier v?ohnhaften *'rof. Hrn^ ..-v-alscn und mit ^ ' 
anderen :Oorn**nlich erri eic -ibarsa uoristei. ■ el':Vdie?> ergrab sich 
die A' ;'^eit3 die f'^r iri«iner>-- Arbeitr-'^si-'f o^-de rl ichsnf in den 
hl-?!irin . iLllothe'ten nicht vorh^nds^ien ..f'ehvr von au^Wrts zu 
besch.v.f' ■r^^. . '■el?-"ä« Jjtzt erwsrte ich da:- inl. nr*cn reicher öurhh 
daß intfrllbr?iry LiOan ;£ervic€ feia.iti-'iläsitr crlyp'KurjM^ iiie mit ^ 
der Vorbereitimf^ meines i^eitrages Vt^rbunJen 'TorEcnS^Tf^ if^t i|!ÄSi^ 
nicht -^ ^erin^or, nl? '^enn ich ein umf ;-:r:;^r-:ich££- laich ^iber 
deneelben Grerenst-^nd h''tte vertippen ml[p-en* .-.Tbcre^r hen von r^ll 
diesen technischen Ko!n;)likat Ionen, bereitet äi. konzentrierte 
Juarst illun;:f cicc rieslfren» vielfltig ^-p-lifdert.en Ptoffef innerhalb 
eines be; renzten KarrmeF le^ondere ohwieri-'* iten. 5"chon .letate 
m'^cnt^- icn irr; "'bripsn bemerken, dssp Ici .Tit oe " ^■^r'limniertcn 
ca 25 belten ^verde kr-um das 'u^lj-*nren fi-iuen v-'-nv^en» 

Luv. allen diesen Orflnden wird die .uf:^^: unc- f^i'-iee Beitrsgo 
noch eini/re -oeit in nspr;c-:. n^'L.-':n* Ich f.etsc 'e-Joch vor^Uö, 
d.'^t: ihre i^irooeiti^^nen d^-durch keine .'.'r': ''!':■ erleiden v^erden, verschiedene Umat''nde, innbee'- xler- Ihie sret k^lrzlich an 
meinen i'reurid ^^r. Friedrich .H(»;t?>S rrerich'ete AtSif ' orderm ügüin r 
l^iit'.irlDeit »darauf FCJliensen lar-penj ä&vB öle aevnucf^Bhz des Werkes 
auf cirM-n beträchtlich sp-'teren Ter/rin verr "hoben wurde, ^-ieser 
P^r'eeere b:ielr:-um v.'ird zweifellos dci- ■v,Uf-.iit"t der^ verkeo nur 
zum Verteile gereichen. 

Kit bec.ten örHssen und allen guten /•'•n.^chen fHr 1963 

Ihr . rf^ebenep 

Frans Coblcp 



Edilorial Board : 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Editor : 





Lieber Dr.Koblßr, 

Eben von Dr.Rosenfeld den Brief erhalten - 

Wie ich nur die Daten von Dr.Brasaloff bekommen 
werde, so werde ich diesen gleich schicken. 

Viele Gruesse, 

stets Ihr 

Josef Fraenkel 


^-^ Haste Stre t 

Ber^^eler 4, Cslifornie, 

16. L-eztif-ber 1962 

Lieber Jr. ?ch:ll, 

x\\v i'reuniilioheri eu^f nhrllcher I'rief v. IP. D.M. 
hOT» irir wieder f-irt auf .'eder ^cil" Anlar'!' 2<ur ...ev/underun^ 
gegeben» •■~.e i^t ja nicht nur Ihrt Aueßerord€;ntliChininf0.tiieLi&#j|^itt • 
Hber di'- jnri.«'- if^ch? J.'r^ixif' un'"! Llter.'^tiir, sondern ebe-i so '.'le 
Kenntnis v . n oft i^anz intii.en -ersonaldaten , was Staunen hervorruft 
Nchiiien Sie neuerdln t rr.- inen best^^n Drink fr «lies f?o fr-^igetig 
Dargeboteri-r en^bre^eni 

xn der *'^eche ''^nhle"we^ue ich wahrscheinlich au? den von 
ihnen an^ef ^'arten Qas^-'nden davon 3l>Fehen iT/*'F?'-8n, ihn in meine 
i^arstell'jn,':'" einzubeziehen, obwohl ^Üee ein^, se;ir ein )f indllch LHcke 
bild n w'.'rdc. ^'enn perade«jL-Jji#"'Chic>"ül v:"re von pr.rogpero, 
wahrhaft historischen Interecr^. ich habe tn^iwischen von unserem 
gerne iriQsir.en rrn-uno Dr. Ec'rrteir. die bF.ohrift Ines von 'Zahle an 
ijr. Laxl c^ericiiteten ^^riefeE erhalten, vorin ;;:>'ile die phyntastiac-:' 
GefiCiU--''nt':: ^ei-'er het*"unf.T sehr drai: •■;tipch sciii dert. gin - ;vi(Ji>- 
auch h''chi:t '••roj^d-r sierte3v.>uf?2Ufr üar-jUv«* w''rde wohl in eine 
Geschichte der "eterrelch:.schen Juden pch'"r.7i , desgleieh-n 
natürliciri der fart ebcHJ^o phanta':'tl?che np'tere A'jfptiepr V/ahles« 
üeberdies nat dev Umstand t ds-^r er nicht r/ichr a'<tiv f'tlf l?t» 
iteine i^edenVen eini ermr-cpen abf;^eschw"cht. Ic:j erW^e, ob ich die ' 
iintscheidunr nlch^ ih:'- selber '^berlapTn uid jTiich die serhalb 
unnilttelbpr an ihn wenden sollte, Ipt ihnen vieMeicht sein 
i^dreppe b€''anntV 

u\x der von Ihnen erri -fohlen e>^. 'e l.«^?'unr* der ^vac^en von 
nicht mehr 4-<ebenden versary ic -. mich nicht zu er.tschliec ■ en. 
ivicht nur w'*r- die Aupnrihrr.e Kelren unverir.'^idlich und m^taste die 
Rec^i Jed^nfa 'If auch in den Fällen Lenho"^' und ishrenzwiig 
durchbr6eh:n wer.en, non-üern die ^v'A'Ci^A^*'2n und s^-'teren Leistunr^en 
der noch lebrnden erniprierten Juristen ■^■•^hnten,wie inir sciemt, 
nicht ohne vachteil f*,^r dao Geaamtbild f orti.l--ibcn. xci Ge,crensat» 
zu oeir. .;^uc:i von 'inzhelnier 9;i\\X es in ra-tiner Arbeit Ja nic^. um 
hthf\?% au,3r:eWhlte H"chctlei':tunr'3n, ^Honder-i um cinj^ zusa.T^rrien- 
h''ng6ndJPn Geocnichte, die ta «ÄQom wesentlicD^n '^eil ^eit^eschicht 
ist unv^ diiirui:; n;.-^trrlic'i in die Gejrenwsrt hincar*i|^^ 

Ind d?:ifl-fit '-^orrnie ich nun zur "Pachc "chell" *Mö§§ Gie unter 
den gl''*'c>licherw. ise Uebcrlebenden ^:u ,jen.:n " t't€rrcichis«chen 
Juristen ^i-h *ren, die Anspruch daralf hj^brn, in meiner Darstellunpr 
herlBor2",eho en zu w e rd en , ^^kan genz obje'^tivsrwtäige nicht bezweifelt 
weraen. C^eh n cic von VTin<^.r^. erw'*hnten Verui^n^t uib die Geoetz- 
^cbun.^ Werden dczu ausreichen« ?i . treiben Jedoch Ihre -^ercheiden- 
neit zu weit, wenn Tie ihre publiziPtif^c lenTiLnd a^?L.cre Leistungen 

i ■ 


unerv^"hnt lassen. Ich machte Sic dpruni «ufrichtirf und drln,crcnd 
bitten, Ihr V'jto :ir;r''Ck^unc)ii*it.n und mir ("iure"! :-;ine Krp'"nzunp Ihrer 
Inf oriiiatior» '"ber Ihre .erron auch In dieF?er liinrlcht b-vl meiner 
Arbeit behilflich eu sein. lehhifM-n^htt -n di.-^'--eF /-tiflamirennt^nfte 
bemerken, dc'^f?'^ j»ai||^^awntall.aa^P^hCi3:!fc^f:äi^^& ist, po da^s 

den Recht P3nw"lten ein be^-onder-Zr; K^-^ )itel gev/idr.ct" i^t, war nicht 
ausschulest, dar^ einzelne N:^fflen auca i-tK^^rirJe-en Kapiteln 
erW'lint werUc-n. \ 

iieutc n\xT noch f oleend^/rafen; \ 

1) j.rt Ihnsn das Todesjahr IC^angs be'-r':innt'^ 

2) V/ir,f>en l^ie, ob iir, /'CHbl , dei^ en intire«^'- snter Buch 
t^bcr dap he ciitPf? -:f ''hl ich kenne, Jude i^'t. xvh /ir'oht^er: fern 
vsrmedGQQj ,lhn o<1qv seiiVcrn,von ^hnen gen':.nnt^:n Vetter (Ibri* diesen 
i'unkt zu befra* en. 

J)\ ' ind Ihnen beF5ondern rrrrknttv c,el:^^tunfen , nach den Ü.S« 
auegewandfci'ter "eterr^LÄhß Icher, hier pra''tl£^ch f tlrer /"mvr'lts 
be^rannt. Ur. ;■'>'* f=;,^ der id^sr in prorrinenter t-^''.un<^ tieirder 
Law ^^^ubliclty Co i^ancr^ft /hitney f'tif^ irt, irt ein folch'. s 
-.eispiel . 

'■"'.ien ie Im Vcraii'a f'^r ^^lle Ihr».: .yer/'hu'if^en herzlicht 
bedankt i i-it aileo oruten T'nachen und bebten Cir'^F'^en 

^ Ihr 

2501 Haste. L trect 

i er:: 


^^ •• •• r-i j s , 

l^y 9r': 196 c 

ves.r . r» x icjoi.lvcl, 

-» ♦ 

•V,;-» Mo-^ .^-r 

f tiic 

t.ria.!. for t!ilr. ü r,u;:. ' '^n ^' t,"ä.t. ..ivu:;ciufi L'r \)Vf ir'vntiitttrintß^ 

^i.r'-'ici" p, fcretr'ttf '.J' t:■.t^c.c .'1' j^l(:\^ ' :<:.^- r . 'f--. 

••'/ 1.1 iii« 

at r..y ni.^jonal, x liop'.^ to c>v<3.r-c(>i. e thv*i... ^ a.v 1 -isV 7''u, hr/.f^var, 
t ^.c c c l.Vv c rv < f '- be m? uu cc r i f t . 

■ ith tbi- rtr.ervLticr thst th^^ prcrpc c-tlvr^ ta-.= 

J ^; 



., -.^-^ .. 

•■ r 

''■r^uTwS rl ^c'-r-^ lyt 

?rr.rii', »VcbJv^r 

6. August 196 
in Lieber Freund: 

^i l-^n herzlichen Dank f-u^r Ihren so lieben Brief. 

Ihre Bemerkiing -D zum Problem des Shylock erinnerten mich 
an die schoebe Stelle in Heines "Jessika" in seinem reizen- 
den Essay : "Shakespeares Maedchen und Frauengestalten^', die Ihnen 
lijeber Freund^ wohl auch noch im Gedaechtnis ist. Er erzaehlt^ 
wie er einer Auffuehrung des ^n\/[erchant'^ im Drury Lane Theatre 
in Lodden beiwohnte und eine Damp empoert ausrief "But that poor 
man is wronged." Es kann keine Frage sein, dass empfindlichere 
Naturen, und besonders Menschen wie Goethe und ZelTer, vor allem 
die Tragik Shylocks und die Gev/issenlosigkeit seiner iinklaeger 
herausfuehlen. Aber das kann den grauenhaften Antisemitismus 
(der zweifellos in dieser Zeit in Enp;land im Volk ganz allge - 
mein war) nicht vergessen machen, der durch die ganze Gestalt, 
die Sh, ja keineswegs erfunden hat, verkoerpert und durch den 
immer abfaelligen Gebrauch des Wortes Jew und Jewish deutlich 
genug dem weniger "sophisticated" Zuschauer ad oculos demon- 
striert wird.- Sie v,^i3sen^ lieber Freund, wie oft das Stueck 
kommentiert und v/ie oft Shakespeare (nicht nur von Kohler) vor 
das Forum der Jurisprudenz geriiifen v.urde. Es ist aber unzv;elfel- 
hafi: so, dass das "Volk" den teuflisch grausamen, aber dabei 
auch dummen Juden in Sh. sieht, wie denn Shakespeares Vorlagen 
(besonders" II Pecorone"der"Schaf skopf "in den Gesta Romanorum) 
diesem Zerrbild des jued.Tiucherers als Vorbild dienten. Dazu 
kommt, dass das Stueck eben k eine Tragoedie ist als welche wir 
(Und Zelter und Goethe in den von Ihnen zitierten hochinteres- 
santen Stellen) es manchmal empfinden. Shylock hat vieles voni 

dummen, aber am finde düpierten Teufel der alten Komoedie, 
und erweckt bei dem ungebildeten Zuschauer alles eher 
als Mitgefuehl. Die Auffuehrung im Central Park (von v/o 
die T.Y, Vorfuehrung direkt uebertragen v/ar) war sogar 
sehr gut. Eine Szene mit gestalten in KU-Kux->^Klan Gewaendern 
die spukhaft das Haus Shylocks umzingeln war offensichtlihh 
bestimmt, die antisemit. Tendenz zu verspotten - und trotzdem^ 


der Ungebildete hoerte aus allem nur das heüp-hepp. 7um 
Glueck war cer Andrang so gross, dass nur Theater-Enthusias- 
ten im Grossen Ganzen lang genug warteteten. Aber das gilt 
natuerlich nur fuer die Cent ral- Park- Auf fuehrungen, nicht 
fuer die T.V.Üebertragung gegen die sich der Protest der 
Rabbiner richtete. 

Dies bringt mich zu Ihrer dramatischen Bearbeitung 
des Symposion. Ich freue mich zu hoeren,dass Sie diese 
Arbeit auf englisch wiederveroeff entlichen wollen. Ich bin ^ 

ueberzeugt,dass sie in den Colleges in denen Plato viel ^'^ 


gelesen wird, auf grosses Interesse stossen duerfte. '^ 

Was Dr.Lehmenn»s Dissertation betrifft, so bitte ^| 

ich sie so lange zu behalten als Sie wuenschen. Eezueg- 

lich Menzel erinnere ich mich nur, dass Edmund Jerusalem 

mit Sicherheit behauptete, dass er juedischer /bkunft v 

gewesen sei. /Ich v.-ar bei ihm und es fiel mir auf X 

dass er das Bild eines bohen Geistlichen (wenn ich nicht ^ 
irre neben dem seiner Frau) dort stehen hatte. 

19.Nov^3mb-r 1965^. 

V e r eh r 1 8 r , 1 1 eb e r P'r ^^und ! 

ti'^'i'-i immer hieben wir un.s sehr gefreut von Ihnen 
einen Eriof zu bekommen und ich beeile mich ihn zu be- 

-^■iit gleicher Post sendf ich Ihnen einen Lektions- 
katalog der Wiener üniversitaet f^us dem Jahre 1930, den 
ich zufa ellig aufgehoben h^:be. Manche Ihrer Fragen 
werden df=rin ihre Be£.ntv;ortung finden. 

Auch höbe ich an den Sohn Eettelhelms geschrieben 
der hier in i^ew York lebt und der uns oefters (leider ^ 
manchmal unangesagt) heimsucht.— Er hat naemlich lei- 
der wenig von den Gaben und der Grazie seines Vaters 

Mit Dr. Siegel habe ich telephoviisch gesprochen 
und schicke ihm heute eine /bschrii"t der anfragen aus 
Ihrem Brief. 

Was aber meine Person betrifft so muss ich Sie 
leider onttaeuschen. Ich vvar io kein Drakti zierender 
Jurist und m.eine AnpFben wahren sehr unvoll sta endig. 

Dazu aber kommt noch folgendes. Je mehr ich darueber 
nachdenke, desto staerkcr werden in mir die Bedenken, 
die ich bereits in meinem ersten Brief in dieser /.n- 
gelegenheit erv/aehnte. Es dreh die ueberwiegende 
Anzahl der Prof ^s.;oren, Richter und sonstigen Beamten 
juedi scher J^erkunft in Oesterreich getauft. Viele 
waren vielleicht nur v n einer Seite juedischer /b- 
stam.r^ung, bei t^/nd?ren (wie Menzel, Franz Klein, 
Wittmayer Hetschek) bin ich ueberhcunt nicht sich'-^r 
ob sie juedischer Abstammung v/tren. Es Wcere,rlc'Ube iöh 
nich-^ Im Sinne dieser Personen, oder ihrer noch lebenden 
Angehe er igen als Juden ree"istriert zu werden. Man 
die Einstellung o.ieser Menschen billigen cder nicht, 
aber ich finde m.c-n muesste dies in Erweegung ziehen. 
(Zufsellig erzaehlte mir Vvilly Siegel sm Tele-ohon, da ss 
der i^obelnrei straeger Langsteiner eine juedische e.nzy- 
klopaedie klagte weil sie ihn eis Juden verzeichnete.) 
Es fragt sich aber meiner ^'^einung nach tuch ob es 
wirklich im Interesse deB Judenheit ist, wenn man die 
grosse Rolle cer Juden auf irgend einem kulturellen 
Gebiet so hervorhebt. Die Antise^iiten ¥^r stehen es immer 
solche Daten fuer ihre Zi/vecke euszunuetzen und daraus 
die^Ver judung"des alten Oesterreichs als einen Grund 
fuer ihre Judenverfolgungen bestaetigt zu finden. 

Verzeihen Sie,dass ich Ihnen m.eine Bedenken so 
ausfuehrlich darlege, fber sie beschaeftigen mich die 
ganze ?eit und "Amicus ?lato,sed magis am.ica veritas." 

Die Recht aanwaltachaft 
Juatizrat Dr. Julius Kaprius 

Lepzl^ 1929 

( K^p. JOesterretth po. 163- 3!83 
Von Weil Rechts'-nwalt D^. Edmind Benclijt 
[, gest. 1. Febr*^* 1929 ) neu bearbeitetevon 
Redhtsanwalt Geh J stlzrat, Reprierunp'srat D^, 
Adolf Bachrach. /len 

( Bibl. ,Ki1ble, BendÜkt, , Lohstnp- 
Graz I925>^iax Welser , ^echtsanwaltsordunsr und 
Dlflziplinarstatut, Wien 192?. /^dolf .Veia-ler, 
Geschichte der Rechtsanwaltscha Leipzig 1905 

164 ilnheotlich Advokatur unter Joseph II 

wurzelt in der allg, Geri?tord ing v. i. Kall78l 
38, Kap. "Von denAdvokaten" ,}{ 410-429 

Z,, tritt wiar R. wer "auf einer erbl*^*ndi sehen 
Un versitzt da? Doktn at erlangt hatte, PrÜfunc: un 
^eugn ienes bereits anp-enorrmene Advo taen 

Bek*'*mf'fung der unbeschr Zahl 

Hofde^ret v. 12. Ari^ 18©2 Die zula^ ung 
zur Adr-v. slataiert und kaiserliche -t^ewilliffung 
corge chriben . .Die f^eschlos en T hl einffeffihrt . . . 
i^rnennungsrecht vom Kaie4 auf doe oberste 
Jüstizste^le übertrafen ( a«h. Verfügung v 3« ^■'al 
1826 ) 

^'emu^^erus clausus blieb un angefochtern bis 
1848.. TDap Ernennungrecht b lier fort hehen 
168 i^ndlich f führten die unertr'^V'"* h gewordenen 

§berls^*nde dahi , das^ Ab pr ffiaschel am 1. I^i^*rz 
1862 den T g einbrachte die Ernennung" aufzuheben. 
Antrag des gr*^*lc5^aten 'npt - Adv. der damal ■ gn Zeit 
.."JR. Eugen Kefterle v. MJhlfeld 186? Lebhafte agitati 
[xneist isererer Jaques. Glcser und Keon gingen aup der 
iwaltscha t hervor 

183 K^^'nner der klassischen Schule : Neuda. KMarbri 
josepf Kppo. Jaques, Edmund Sin,crer 

neuzeitlich e in f^^e stellte Verteidiger: Bemedkkt 
Rosenfeld, Fj?9dr Iboge Gusrav Harpner Steger. 


\. xWlr/ 




/) c ^ C 






^l^vi- ~- 


< ^1 "7yi-^/^-"- ^ 


'i <: L<^ C^ L ■ 




^/7 /)W/^^(^mT_..^ 

/f ^/ 


7 /Z, 



H'W^ C^/l 





lUvu^u^k u/J 1^ f- '-// 

y // 

/f / / 

/^f r 



[•-^V .'^^^ 



-jA/'- ^ 

c-iM UiutJ 

^^A l^/A^^ 


^P///^ n ^yL-HC^-i^:^ 



<■- \/<^ l 








' l >- - ux. 

C^y^'Kj^,y^^y^ -\/ i/"-].^ 

^<'A /yy\y\-y. 

t'-7 lu L 





6 ny <■' 



L'i ^ 




/■ :,•- iA,A. ,J\' 

y- / 

f'l^'-/ /U^c^^ 





^^./ ^. /A>^^^ 


(////-^■'-^'- '■■^■y'"'- 


< " 

/y^-Ct/^n^ \/cA^j^ 



yt ö^:.- 



rA t^' 


l /ßA. /-^ 

■AZ-Ä^.^^^' ^^- 


"J^7x^-^^^ ^/<r 




rt^W rA ^"A/^^u- 

i^ -Vl.y^ 



Editorial Board : 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z. KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg.-Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 

Editor : 




3rd August 1963 

Dr. Franz Kobler, 
2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley ^, 
California, U.S.A, 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

Thank you for your letter. I am very x)leased to hear 
that v/e will receive your essay shortly, and I consider it 
a most faluable contribution to our book, I think my 
nagging helped you to write this article which has involved 
you in so much researchl I should like to montion that I 
am only waiting for your essay and that of Moir Grossman, 
and altogether there are 3^ essays. 

I hope to overcorne oll difficulties and ^ublish the book 
in 1963« It is clear that v/e have nothing against the 
publication of your book although it deals v/ith the same topic, 
I have read your historical essay on Charles Henry Churchill tv/ice 
v/ith great interest and I am sure it will often be quoted, 
I should like to congratulate you on your fine contribution 
to Zionist history, 

IVe have nothing to do .vith "Olamenu", 

Dr. A. Steinberg often luentions y ur name and sends his 
kind regards, 

7/ishing you all the best, 

Yours very sincerely 


Josef Fraenkel 





TäL.. 33 lO 68 


Lieber Herr Dr.Kobler ! 

Ihre lieben Worte ha^^en mich sehr berührt und ich 
dani<e Ihnen viel-^-^als daf 'r • Yor allem aber freuen wir uns darüber, 
dass Sie I'^ren 80 •Geburtstag anscheinend .cregiind,und ,1edenfalls 
aJftiv und tätig wie im-^er , •erbrach+ haben und hofffc"" ,dass dies 
auch weiterhin de-^ P'all ist und bleiben wird • 

Trotzdem die Arbeit imn-er mehr wird, beeile ich 
mich, Ihren lieben Brief zu beantv/orten^en Ihrer Frage 
nach österreichischen Juristen i-^ Ausland im Zusam»^ enha^ng mit 
Ihrer Arbeit über deren Leistun^^en auf den ^ebiet deT' Her hts- 
wissenschaft.ich v/eiss nicht, ob ich Eulen nach Athen trageja,aber 
ich wollte Ihnen den Namen von Pr^Ad^g lf Lan de .heute 57 Jahre alt, 
erwähnen »Er war Anvmlt in Wien TsoTüT ich" w"e is r: , S oz in 1 is t • 19J^8 
A i^^ kv.m er nach Buchenv/ald,wand€rte dann/^über England nach U. S.A. aus 
und ist amerikanischer Staatsbürger' • Während des Krieges war er 
im Office of V/ar Information tätig, studierte an der Columbia unter 
Jeseup und j^gin dann nach dem Krieg zur^ I^Tew Yorlr zur Abteilung 
Narcotic Drugs,in der er bis heute, seit der Transferierung der 
AbteTTung^ nacTi G-enf i-^ Jahre 1955 in diesem Stadt, tätig ist . -^r 
gilt m.V/.als der erste i'aohr^ann auf äe^ feüFsehr komplizierten 
G-ebiet des Rechts über Narkotika, die ,v7ie Sie v7issen,G-egenstand 
zahlreicher' Konventionen und inte '-nationaler Ueberwachung sind. 
Er ist überhaupt m.A.naöh ein hervorragender Jurist, hat verschiedene 
Artikel geschrieben und zusammen mit P hilip C.J es^up, Oliver J« 
Lissitzyn und Joseph P.Chamberiain das Buch "Inte'rnational 
Organisation" herausgegeben •(Carnegie Endowment of Int.-^eace, 
New York 1955) «Er ist bewusste^ Jude • 

Ihre Arbeit erinnert mich an unse e ge-^einsa-^e 
Tätigkeit im Lager «Unsere e-^einsa'^e Empörung über die Inter- 
nierung der Juden als '' enerr^y aliens" führte schliesslirh zur 
Anerkennung des Grundsatzes, dass Fl'chtlin; :e nicht lediglich 
wegen ihrer Staatsangehörigkeit Sondermassuphr^en unterworfen 
werden dürfen. die heute in der Roten Iv'-'euz-Konvention für 

f ft^if Zivilpersonen*(Art«44) und der Genfer Flüchtlingskonvention 

^^ von 1951 (Art. 8) verankert ist • 

G-erne beantowrte ich Ihre Frage nach dem f'^-r den 
Heligionsunter rieht verantvfc^rtlichen Rabbiner t es ist I^r .Alexander 
Safran, früher Oberrabbiner vojb Rumänien . Er ist A<-udist,aber soviel 
ich weiss, nicht antizionistisch eingestellt .E-^ gilt als bedeutender 
Religionsphilosoph und hält auch. Vorlesungen an^er Genfer Univer- 
sität . 

Jlon uns gibt es nicht viel -^^eues zu beric' ten-wir 
sind Gottlob im wesentlichen gesund-der Winter war recht streng 
heuer .Die Barmizvah unseres Sohnes ^aben wir für den f^ .April 
angesetzt . Ich we^de wahrscheinlich Im Oktober oder November 
wieder in Nev/ York sein und es wäre sohÖn,wenn wir uns dann wieder- 
sehen könnten • 

Ich bleibe , lieber Herr I>r.Kobler,mit unser aller 
aufrichtigen guten Wünschen und recht, recht lieben Grössen 




W t-w- 

/^v.4i /VviH ^^ 








^Irri /^^iki^ , 


)^ d ^iAt/i/t^ ^^-vi^ ..»w-z.. ^.k^ne ^.4^'^ -y ^^-^^ v^5^Ä^<-j 


^tr>i^cif 4i^ff^»z ^tU.^^^,'^, y^'eA^^ V^'c/e^ T^^h^ 





£^t»„w XCu^ivRÄcy^ ifyitl^'ii^ ^'^"^Ui-^^^t^rßcuJ^ivi^ '^^^^} 


^^^'***'^^^!?7 ^^^^~'^^'^'*^^*^^ ^^^At~' 

uu^^^^ c^j^üf^^u^ 'Xy.^t^a^ (^"^-^^'^^^^^^^ .;4c^. 

^^/ (/Uc^fjce^. 


'Mu<i^t*U^ ^ ^x>€^^^*^-^^^i ^^l. 


h^^'eU^(jl^e^t^r, ^^-j^-zÄÄ^y'S^Ä: ^:2^^2^V'^.^^^tyi— ;^^i^ 



'Z^ -iß^^d. 



.Oc^je^ :f^^iü J^U'^^ •. . .. . _____ 





f^^^Ä ^^^i^^ ^ . . 

2. /W}^» 



U^CcZx, K^-tt.^^ iC^ y^<*-^ y'yt^e^^C'.ic '^>*-^«^^ J^^^^Uyt.-^^ -o^.r^/- ^^^<^^.c^ßu a'^^'. 



1) liifii# >tnd#tt tcriptii 

l) Zur Ktnntni« (Ä#i Volitirfontt« Xn tt^. rcÄ'.tUti^srt^n (■*vprovit\t&n 










BlJ)il0thtki 1917, Vorlag Fro&Ä*, wien 

lS?^> -Belli« tv«rl A4 

~ C .» • «ft V. n B' . 

^ 1' :. Ä:«lttrt#Öt«a»; 


X»<»r r.V.:.. Ucrii© 5t*s«t imd »ein« lnt#rri**. 1: rh?-.«.n n^iiUJv 

•'.; 1S«V8, 

|»o»te«rilo In d«n *^ja.irlft**n d«r roiiiv5.^^n Jjr!**^enj ly' >, Vörl*u perl*» 

t i<sifie oho« Icraxli eilt }»epubllx.; 19'«?b. v rlk^ Jrclt«/,ÄU. 

.£o-*ch^^ Tir Alt 

Tic .ifChtÄfragt Iw prtutBlfcaen .atsat-ityrntrclt , 1^.^ , ;.rl«^; i**rlt«,'Sfltr 
p.^tDTAtn in Unt«rfwlt«recht ur.d Vcrrir ..tcÄ»ft»r««chti l^--/* V*rl*|f J^trlet 
Crtmtn tlr.«9 Rtfforji dta ilvilprotttsufclta An:;iinrftchte«^ li3^» StIlMtvtr- 

SaiiftIpolltltc> *Jotlv in A>r r':al»o.'i*« «tohtnantTrlotl'-n^; 
XS\*3f V€»rliig 4»trXt«» *ltn 

IlvlI;>roftnrtciiritet; X9)^» V^rlaig ?erl*<«», *l«o 

aiöi;.njri<*4 :;rUn:>»r^ ult J^*rt«»l t»oh«r rirtfrl«*ll«r, .alt 'iiJliOfi,rAi*nltn 

m«lndt itn 

n) fi^MziToxiB tnuitltft an«: ttsA/f In t.i<t roUovlnij; pi»rlo:;ic^l«i; 

Ztltsttarlft i*r 5avl,.n/-!:itlft'jn^ r,r f»c'.ti^:t«c tt\ f t Tir v«rgl#lon^nd« ;^«Ci^ttrif o-cn-n^^n-^f t 


iriMitr ^'tadltn für tlattUcIvt. i'ftllwlo^^le 


?»Aifcinlf ciit« i\itt%ta rur Philolo^l« 

jK^jrttaÄft d#t C««t«»rr«lotilfioh»n AraJiMlc*^l^c.ri<»r* 2n»titJl»t 

!i(\tt«lXun»i«A dtt T*utteli«n Aroh<U)10i;l«e:i*n IratltJt«i* In ..ta#a 

ItItteIXurw;»» <ltt i:«»ut»dt:tn Are^dlo^^iitor^en IrjitltJtt« In 7\<>« 

ZtltÄcnrift fUr <3l» 2«terrtlcni4cri«n r»y^n>«ltii 

fti«.ttfr fxlr dAt t^tgrrlsoht wyÄnÄ»l*l««»«n 

'»l^ner -iHttr t^r dlt rr«uni* dtr ^nUX« 

?iilXdXO|.jX3ofi« ^oonontchjrift 

Arclilv rir XaittXnXsdht i»«x.llcoi;rApmt 

I • 


O^'AliHrfiiiiliiAi^ ic«na«X»«eiialt titung 

111} i^^li^&tttl«^ i^ 

r«0t««hrirt für ]U«doImmm», l^r)} 





', ■'. 






•'ö*?'is?n mn*'n onw'pn 



Telephone: Welbeck 0335-8 

Cable Address : Worldgress, London 

London 21« Januar 1963 

\Whcn replying, qnotc Ref. .°"*f ^/ ^.. 

78, Avenue des Chanr^ps Elysees, Paris, 8e 
Telephone : Elysees 9463. 
1, Rue Varembe, Geneva 
Telephone: Gen^ve 341325 
Cable Address : Worldgress, Paris 


Herrn Dr. F. Kobler, 
2501, Haste Street, 
Berkeley 4. 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Kobler! 

Herr Fraenkel hat bereits vor geraumer Zeit Ihren v^Junsch nach Information 
ueber die wesentlichen Daten meinen V^ter betreffend, sowie ueber seine 
Publikationen an mich weiter geleitet. Ich konnte erst jetzt aus meinen Papieren 
das gewuenschte Material eruieren und uebermittle Ihnen in der /vnlage ein von 
meinem Vater im Jahre 193S angefertigtes Verzeichnis von Publikationen, das 
dazu bestimmt war, die Bemuehungen um seine -uswanderong zu unters tuet zen. 

Die folgenden Personaldaten moe^en von Belang sein: 

Stephan Brassloff, geb. am 18 • Juni 1875, Wien; Jus-Studium an der 
Wiener Universitaet, 1893 - 97. Ferner Studium von Geschichte/Epigraphik. 
1898 - 1902 Gerichtsdienst und Konzipiententaetigkeit, 1902 rechtshistorische 
Studien an der Universitaet in Leipzig. 1903 Privatdozentur an der Universitaet 
/\;ien. 1919 a.o. Professor. April 1938 zwangsweise Pensionierung; Maerz 1939 
Entzag der Pension. Mitglied der Staatspruefungskoramissionen fuer roemisches 
Recht (seit 1914) und fuer buergerliches Recht (seit 1919). 

Ausserdem Dozent fuer Nationaloekonomie, Hande^i'echt und Verfassungsrecht 
an der Wiener Handelsakademie (1906 - 22). 

Seit etwa 1907 aktiv im Volksbildungswesen-, (ifolkstuemli che Hochrchulkurse 
und Vorlesungen an Volkshoehschuleri. 

Im August 1942 nach Theresienstadt deportiert, dort gestorben am 28. 
Februar 1943. 

In einem der nach 1945 erschienenen J;ahresberichte der Universitaet Ivien 
veroeff entlichte Professor Franz Leifer eine gute Wuerdigung. Leider besitze 
ich das Exemplar nicht mehr. Das Rektorat der Universitaet duerfte Ihnen ueber 
Wunsch ein Exemplar zur Verfuegung stellen. 

Mit besten Empfehlungen / 
Anlage ^^- ^'-L« Brassloff. 



Editorial Board: 

Dr. F. L. BRASSLOFF (London) 
Dr. G. JELLINEK (New York) 
Dr. I. C. KAPRALIK (London) 
Ing. Z, KRAEMER (Tel Aviv) 
Reg. -Rat. W. KRELL (Vienna) 
Dr. N. ROBINSON (New York) 





8th Fel3ruary,1962 



Dr. Franz Kobler, 
2501 Haste Street, 
Berkeley 4, 

Dear Dr. Kobler, 

Many thanks for your letter of 23rd January. 

Without vjanting to put eny pressure on you, I very much hope 
that you will decide in favour to v;rite an essay on the ,; Achievements 
of Austrian Jews in the Sphere of Juris prudence. It is difficult to 
believe that such a book should appear -without your oontribution, 

liiy colleagues in the Editorial Board asked me to ift*ite to you 
that if it is a question of time, you could send us the article in 
^ctober or so. All of them are sending you/ best wishes and regards. 

I take note of your reraark that you are \tfithout any Obligation 
to -write this article, in case you should not be abl© to do so, but y?e 
vould all be very glad to iiiclude your contribution in our book . 

Vfith kindest regards, 

Yours sinoerely. 


Josef Fraenkel 

2501 ilaote l-tre^t 

Berkeley 4, Goli^ornla, 
?1. Juli 196 j 


Jnsef Fraenl^el, 
45 Lar''-h?ll Hii^'?, 
London, ■ . .^i. 

Lieber ilsrr Fracnk:€l, 

'ie heben l^m^e von nieh'-.p reh'rt - nlleriiiP-s bin *"•"'* 
fiUch ich rchcr. peit K.onaten hne M3chrich+ V"n Ahnen. 

;^|jj|ö,rr -der wea^ntliGhrt n Cr"nc!e iri-ine" ?chw»ln-6^i? ißt 
die fr Ihr ''^terreicht-pche a .':.!5rcfr:~lw'tr'r ''be^n'-njrrene Arbelt, 
die ;-Tan3 .i'TOP'C, unvorre ?'*here ivi nie n^- Ionen sn'^cnommen hat, 
indem es ^Ich .•?!? unvermeidlich ©rv/ier^, dar noc'-i v**!"'!^? 
unerforschte ^ebit-t durc'izuarbeit (.=»n , :^nmlt sine inenr oder 
minder voll'-t" di<^e >^chl 'hte der I-.e'lptun-"en der '-'^terrelchis'hen ■ 
Juden im ^t^rc- ch der Jurlsorudena zu vsr'^g^pen und dadroch Jl'S 
Grundl-re f*'r den Ihnen zu^e.^'p^ten /'rti^'el zu Pchaf^en. Auf dle<f^' 
//ei'^e bin ich ineelne vielf*^*ltifTe:ii "u-^p'^erpt 'komplizierte 
zeltr-naben-dt Forrchunraarbeit verrtric^^t '.'orden , 'n deren 
Inter-'-^re ic^ rindere ^/ichti-^e und drin^-e-de ^^.rbeiten zur^^c^^^ 
zu6te"'.lon '^-'nzwunren W3r.Injdf?j^rt"''3»trfee ich infol^edeB -en f?o^ar 
fr'Uier ein«^jSf>pnfr.^ne Verr>fliciiun -en hint'inj!(»tzen . "'**' 


D'^?> *.3n!.'p''ri ot ist nun zw^r scho-^ zile::lic' weit orediehen, 
aber de??en Lesndlffurl^ un i die dinnv^rzu «in^e^ae «re -'^rzte 
^uflarrmenfi'.^- unp f^'^r ihr ''er'r v,'ird a^./h rinire ^eit in .'.nspruch 

Ich vercutei dasr ep Ihnen mit der VoruereitunjT de« 
' F?atr.rf:elwer'''i^p "hnllch erp:cinren ir^t, v'ie icn InrbeFondere au? dem 
üuigtt^nde srhlle??e, da^p ie erot >'*rjilich rre.l en Freund, 
■Lt. i^rie'^rich Hertz, London, zip ^ itnrbeiter ^^ev.'onnen haben. 
Jedenf--llp. v;^*re e? f*^r mich sehr wicht Irr zu erfahren, v;ie ep 
{re^cnw*'rtic um dar '//er'' ^tehti v;ie W'?it Ue 'orbert-- itunh de« 
Ga'^ten '-edie-^en i*"! und welchen *'-u'^'^er?ten Terrn^n ei* fr die 
^amnilunr ut»r no'-h fehlenden Bei^r'^cre In /uif-icht' renomiren habern. erbitte rri* d?r*'ber Ihre gef «fllibi^e eheste Inforriatlon. 

1» 5* 

» -««*l 

• Iner nnzei^^c des Verlerß?::"Cr-iarrienii'' , Tel-i*.viv, entnahm 
ich, d?r' dieser Verla? eine l'eBchichsr der JuCien Oesterrelchs 
plant, it« diepep ^'roje^^t mit Ihrem oder 5llenf=^llP mit einer 
beabeichtirrten deutschen .Aur/7'^be ihres c^amtr^lwe^cs identij?ch? 
'Qf^ meinen eigenen i^itrao* ^nbelnnrt, olan^ ich eine pelb='t"ndi^e 
i^U9P-?ibe r]e?, recht um?*an^reichen i-'^muB-riote^ in deutscher, 
vielleicht auch enp-lischer Sprache, o'^ern eine polche Ausf^abe 

■' / 


'. noch vor i^^recheinen Ihre? V^^rkei? m^^^lich w-'re , ^oTl dler nr;t'^^lic'''i 

Im Iiinvern-'-rirneT '^^it Ihner. p:e schcrhe'i. Ich se-tae vortue f Jae — 'iiepen 
eine PöLche . usprabe ^ee gonzen ^'3uchef? ^< . i n ^i-nwnnd bept/'nde, zuiral 
, , I hn e n X d n r A 1 1 c 3. n re cht auf '-'e ^ ■ ' -^ f c- n t i c h u n ^r d e p nuf d 1 e p e ^,,,„^0^1 h 
p-ept^tiiten .'.rtlVelp n-ew?hrt bliebe, üeberüiep ir^'me vorerrf wahr- 
scheii11ic''i mit Cie deutsc'^^e .Auf?/?abe in -et- acht, v''hr:nd ihr 
^ ßam!i:e1mii?i*<cln enrllpoher Sorache- er!?^heincn ^olT. "^'r eins baldige 
'^ AfSLPrfurunß- "her ihre r'tellunrnahirjl^zu dieper Fra/r? v'-'re ich Ihnen 
verbunden • 

Ihr ^-^rti^^el t!ber da? F;^ieclir.3nn ' rc'f , ^ Idi*^^ *^'^^'^ J^.^^,\m^t^,^ 
, in unmlt^elcmrerr^ :'nochluP«^ an'incinv:- Arbelt '''bftiWÄI'i1^€'Ä?föl''!lr,? ' 
Churchill Irr. HerzT Year boo^t IV ernchlenen ipt |!Tl3t^|k •aiaJp sehr 
interer? viert . l-le ü^ntdee'Tunn- dien:r el^^-en^r-' i-^e^ , in visl/ccher 
'Einsicht hl^toripchK bedeut^smen ilpö??cdr-?, f'*r deren J^^rptellunp* 
Sie d-'S *• ' te>^ial aua so verrnhlcdenen A^'-^hivji zuf«3":."entr?3!?"en 
mus'^'ten ,' 't eine ?ehr verdie>^ • tvollü Lc^l'^-tun , .^u der ich r^e'^ '•*•- -- 
Qufr'.chtlr oe c^V^ c >w^!n sehe . 

Iht^W^?^il^ft««<f*feTi' '^aehricate 

n en t. 7e.rrr-n?^eh'-nd , bin ich 

m i t b'-} .-^ t : n G r ■ ' r- e n 

ihr er'-ejjaner 

Frnn2i Xobler 


New Ybrk, den 16, Dezember 1962» 

Lieber Dr.Kobler, 
Ich erhielt Ihr Schreiben vom 16. d. und beeile mich, es zu beant- 


(1) Es ist das ginzig Richtige, dass Sie Wähle die Entscheidung 
ueberlassen» Die Geschichte seines Unterseeboot-Daseins ist mir be- ' 
kannt. Seine Adresse ist I.Reichsratstrasse 3» Ich moechte Sie noch ^ 
darauf aufmerksam machen, dass Wähle zuersljals Hauptsprecher, ds^xtm 
als Praesident der Richtervereinigung den Kampf fuer die 

^f isj^m: 


Unabhaengigkeit der RichteBschaft von der Justizverwaltung mit 
grosser Schaerfe gefuehrt hat. Dies war mit ein Grund fuer die Tat- 
sache, dass er anlaesslich seiner Pensionierung k^ine Auszeichnung 
erhalten hat. Er war und ist ueberhaupt ein rechthaberiscbr, nicht 

leicht zu behandelnder Mensch, 

(2)Klang starb Feber 195^. 

, . j. ^4.^,,^+ T?-r war durch fast 20 Jahre Mitglied 

(3) Dr.Kuebl ist ungetauft. Er war aurca 

des ^ammerausschusses. 

(I) von besonders markanten Leistungen ehemaliger oesterr.Juristen 
juedischer Abstammung ist mir ausser den Arbeiten von Lenhoff und 
Albert Ehrenzweig nichts bekannt. Der voriges Jahr verstorbene 

Ad ministration taeti g . 

(5) nun zu mir selbst: Von meinen Arbeiten und Vortraegea 
sind hervorzuheben: Abhandlungen zum Insolvenzrecht, eine Monographie 

j n»^«!,„h+-»oV-e.ltsldee". eine Abhandlung"Das ge- 
"Mietenlestzgebyng und '^|^tt»npr«tzlnsüruch?, mein Beitrag zum 
setzliche Pfandrecht a"" Kostenersatzansprucny. m ^^ ^^^ 

^^^"^' ^°rt?iSe^forSr'^ö i^?e™S' Ju^ der Petschek 

sJherSrf vorgezogen ^!oest.Anwaltsrecht, I^hsing-Braun) . 

wenn Sie wirklich etwas ueber mich schreiben wollen, moechte 

^ ^ ^^^^Ac^r^ Passus mir vorher einzuschicken. Sie 


V ■ New York, den 28. November 1962, 

Lieber Freund, 

Ich beeile mich, Ihr Scheiben in Sachen Dr. Kobler zu beantwor- 


Ich moechte folgende Bemerkiingen voranschick ent 

(l)Ist es Dr. Kobler nur um Glaubensjuden zu tun oder auch um 
konvertierte? An den Universitaeten und unter den Richtern waren die ge- 
tauften Juden natuerlich viel zahlreicher als die ungetauften. 

(2) Was haisst "ueber den Durchschnitt hinausragender Anwaelte" ? 
Ist berj^uflicher Erfolg massgebend oder wissenschaftliche Leistungen oder 

Ansehen im Stande? 

•t . 

Mit diesen Reservationen will ich darangehen, Dr.Koblers Fragen 
zu beantworten, 

(1) Uhiversitaeten, 

Ueber Ung^r und Gla^r (beide getauft) duerfte Dr.K, genuegend i» 
formiert sein, Unger war zürn Schluss Praesident des Reich^^iftichts, des 
Vorlaeufers des VGH, Bhs 191^ warerifo Igende Juden (im weiteren Sinn) 

Ordinarien: Karl S» Gruenhut (Eerrenhausmitglied), Josph HJKBÄXS Frel- 

Adolf Menzel gie^mund Adl^j. (D,RG). 

herr von Schey (Herrenhausmf tgHed ) , Strisower (VoelkerrechtTf Wirkliche 

JoselJgupka^ (spaeter Ordinarius) 
Extraordinarien warenx Armin'^Etoenzwei^ (spaeter Ordinarius in Graz), AJLe- 

Aus def ' "" 

3cander Loeffler (Strafrecht), HXX Fülle juedlsche Dozenten nur einige Na- 
men: Brassloff (roemisches Sech t), Goldmann (DR), Qn,Adler (Immaterial- 
gueterrecht und Arbeitsrecht), Oskar Plsko (spaeter Ordinarius fuer buerg. 
Recht), ^Albert Ehrenzweig (erster Fachmann in Privatversicherungsrecht, 
spaeter Leiter des "Persicherungsauf Sichtsamtes im Innenministerium), 
Hans Kelsen (spaeter Orsinarius), Josef Redlich_(auch Parlamentarier, 
anfclO-amerikanisches Verwaltungsrecht, lehrte spaeter auch in Harvard), 

Wenn man den Begriff Oesterreich in einem weiteren Sinn auffasst, fr 
gehoeren zu oesterr,-juedi sehen Recht swissenscbftlern auch Eugen Ehrlich 
(Czernowitz, soziologische Jurisprudenz), Petschek (geb,Kolin, lehrte in 
Cz,, nach dem Krieg in Wien, wo er das ZeAralblatt fuer juristische 



Praxis herausgab), IJra^nopoJski. (Prag), Als Oesterrelcher soll?auch 

■" i'erden ^''- 

Hßrroano- iellinek angesehen, geb. als Sohn des "Predigers" Jellinek in Wier 

Dozent in Wien, dann sehr erfolgreicher Professor in HeidelbergfHaupt- 

werk« Allgemeine Staatslehre)» 


(20^esetzgeb\mg. Literatur, Zeitschriften: 

Tor allemt Dr.Julius Ofner (Lex Ofner, fuehrendes Mitglied des 
Justizausschusses), Albert Ehrenzweig (Mitschoepfer des Privatversi- 
chemngsvertrags-Gesetzes), Kelsen (zusanimen mit Sektlons^chef Fl'oefc- 
lich Schoepfer der oesterr.Bundesverfassung von 1920) ^ Schey (als Refe» 
rent des JustizkoiyifLttees des Herrenhauses: endgiltige Fassung der 
Teilnovellen zum ABGB). 

Das fuehrende System des o est. Privat rechts stammt von Armin Ehren- 
zweig, der grosse Kommentar zum ABGB wurde von Heinrich Klang herausge- • 
— fgetauf^e unterstri^eÄ) 

geben mit folgenden Jaedi sehen Mitarbeitern: Qnanuel Adler # Ernst Bettel* 

heiiri (Senatsvorsitzender des OLG), WIArtur Lenhoff (RA, Dozent), Dskar 
Pisko (O.U.P»), Achilles RappaprtiRA, Dozent), Josef Schell (RA), Jo- 
sef Schey (o.UP), Wilhelm Schlesinger (RA, Dozent), Egon Weiss (oüP^ 
Prag), Fuehrende Lehrbuechert Rudolf Po Hak (Dozent, O.Professor d, 

Handelshochschule, vorher Rat des OGH) : Zivilprozessrecht, Georg 

NHHBB3DD5X (S enatsvorsitzender des OLG): Komm.zur ZPO.Albert Ehrenzwei^ 

(s,Or): System des Privatversicherungsrechtes. jienzel(0,UP, Vizepraesi- 

dent des VGE): Oeff entliches Versicherungsrecht» Kelsen (Dozent 1913, 

oüP 1919, stendiger Referent des VGH, 1929 Ü.Koel2fn, 193^ U.Prag): 

Oest.Verfassungsrecht(Begruender der Reinen Rechtslehre), -Emanuel 

Adler (Oesterr.Markenrecht), Paul Abel (RA): Markenrecht. Monographien, 

auch wenn hervorragend, koennen hier nicht erwaehnt werden, 

Zeitschriften: Geller« Zentralblatt fuer die juristische Praxis, 

1923 fortgesetzt von Georg Petschek (s.o,). Juristische Blaetter 

Gruender?, durch Jahrzehnte redigiert von Dr, Ernst Bumm (RA), spaeter 

von Hein3?ich Klang und Otto Zimbler(RA). Gruenhuts Zeitschrift' 
Fuehrende juristische Zeitschrift Oesterreichs, auch in De'^tschland 



h6ch angesehen, l869(?) bis 191^« Gerichtshalle t Gegruendet vom Vater 

Oskar Piskos (RA), verlor spaeter an Ansehen, Oestrr.Anwaltzzeitiing: GegrS 

1922 von Hans Spitzer und Alfred Braim, r" 

JUSTIZ 'M^.^^ 

"■ W^KW^t'i<'K^^ ühger (Praes»d«ßeichsgerichts, Glaser (Generalprokurator^y 

l^ Vize 

Raete d yOGRtbBeisser » Pollak. Lelewer(^aes«d,0»Mil#Ger .Hofes, spaeter 

fenStsVorsitzender des OGH), Frenkeli Klang (bis 1938 SV OLG, nach 19^5 
OGE, Wähle ^Richter d.HG bis 1938, nach 19^5 Praes.HG, SV OGH, PRAES, OGH, 
erster »»juedischer" Praes.d.OGE, sehr fruchtbarer jur. Schriftsteiler, gla«i 
biger Katholik, ttoi 1935 waren folgende Richter^ OLG Wien Juden: Klang (SV> 
Bettelheim (SV), Loew (SV), Szepesy., Flroehlich (SV), Siegmund Gruenberg 
(SV); vielleicht nicht ale von ihnen zur gleichen Zeit, da die vom OLG to- 
lerierte Hochstzahl ? war. \ ^^^^y^ /^^/^ 
^ijvn-^r^ Die Zahl der juedi sehen Richter in Wiener erstinstaalichen Gerich*® 
war gross, besonders gross nachidem Binstroemen zahlreicheijRichter aus d. 

Bukowina (Barrasch, Arie^ u.v.a.J. Der erste ungetaufte Jude, der zum Rici^ 
ter an einem Wiener Gerichtshof ernannt wurde, war Dr. (spaeter Hofrat) Jo 
^ i^sef Loewner (HG); dies ist auf seinem Grabstein am WlKer Zentralfriedhof 
I hervorgehoben. Nach 1918 wurde nach meinen Informationen nur ein einziger 
Jude in den Richterdienst neu aufgenommen: der Sohn des Grazer Bberrabbin 
ners ?» 

Anvaelte t Bis 1920 warennur Nicht Juden Praesidenten der Wiener RAK. IflC 
1920 bis 192^ war es Dr. Gustav Harpner . Sozialist, Verteidiger des StuergBa 
Moerders Friedrich Adler, von 1932 bis 1935 (Ende der Autonomie der RAK) 
Dr. Siegfried Kantor (ehem. jued. -national er Couleurstudent, Bankenanwalt). 
Von 19jfc' bis 191^ hatten die groessten Zivilkanzleien Dr. Edmund Benedikt 
(Buecher? Die Advokatur unserer Zeit, 12 GerichtsredenO und Dr. Adolf 
Bachrach( Geh. saechsisch-Co burgischer Justizrat, Vertreter von HocharistO- 
kraten, u,a, Ferdinands von Balgarien; veranlasste aui* Grund einer von 
Franz Joseph gezeichneten Vollmachd^ Verhaftung des Rittmeister Mattacich 
wegen "Entfuehrung" der entmuendigten Louise von Coburg, was ihm viel Fei» 

. Schaft eintrug; der soz.dem, polnische Abgeordnete Das zinsky nannte ihn 
im Parlament den kleinen juedischen Advokatem mit den feudalen Manieren). 
Von Prozessen, die -damals» viel Staiv^ aufgevdrbelt haben, sibd mir viele 
in Erinnerung. Ich glaube aber nicht, dass eine hevrtige Leserschaft fuer 
diese follen Kamellen" viel Interesse .aufbringen wuerde* Vielleicht ist 
^ die von Dr.Oskar Samek juristisch instruierte Kampagn von Karl Kraus gegen 
^' den Journalisten Emmerich Bekessy noch heute von Interesse, z\imal Bekes- 

n sys Sohn Hans Habe in seinem Buch "Ich stelle mich" 3£fiXXdiesen Kampf ais- 

f| ^ ..• 

i' .fuehrlich schildert. ^^ " 

Von Anwaelten, die auf dem Getet der Recftitswissenschaf t Beachtliches 

geleistet haben, moechte ich nennen: Dr. Arthur Lenhoff , auchBCCG Mitglied 

■ d.VFG (von den Soz.Dem. nominiert, Dozent, Tit.?., Dr. Wilhelm Schlesinger, 
(Doz,), Dr. Otto Zimbler, Mitheraiageber der JBl, Unlauterer V-Zettbev/erb^ 

~ Dr. Felix Kornfeld (Doz.), Dr. Ernst Lohsing (Lehrbuch des Straf prrozessrecFi 


\Ienn Dr.Kobler weitere Informationen von mir verlangt, werde ich sieJh 
ihm gern geben. Er moege sich direkt an mich wenden. Die Geschichte der 
Juristerei und Advokatie im Oesterreich der letzten 70 Jahce ist mir ziem* 
lieh gegenwaertig. Dr.Hunna, der Praesident derlwiener RAK, mit dem ich heir 
er einen Teil meines Urlaubs verbracht habe, hat sich oft ueber mein Ge- 
daechtnis gev/imdert. Dafuer haben so viel andere Qualitaeten gelittenl 

In alter Freundschaft 

Ihr ergebener 



New York, den 12«De2ember 1962, 

Lieber Dr.Kobler, 

Vielen Dank fuer Ihre freundlichen Zeilen und die Worte der Aner- 
kennung, die Sie meiner Person und meinem -so fern in der Vergangenheit 
liegenden- Wirken widmen. 

In der Frage der konvertierten Juden bin ich im allgemeinen Ihrer 
Meinung. Ich kenne das Buch von Sinzheimer. Nur bezueglich Wähle wuerde 
ich eine Ausnahme machen. Seine Tochter ist Nonne, sein Sohn kath. Prie- 
ster. Er war staendiger Redner in der Leo-Gesellschaft, ist Mitarbeiter 
der "Salzburger Nachrichten". Eine Richtigstellung: Er ist seit zwei 
Jahren in Pension. Sein Nachfolger ist der fruehere Sektionschef Heller, 
auch -ganz oder zum Teil- Juedischer Abstammung. ^ Mit Klang ist es 
etwas anderes. Obzwar ehemaliger deutschliberaler Couleurstudent Ist 
er doch niemals konveiv^tiert oder konfessionslos ge^^orden. Er gehoerte 
dem staendigen Schiedsgericht der Wiener Kultusgemeinde an und erhielt 
ein Ehrengrab auf dem juedischen Teil des Zentralfriedhofs. 

Adolf Ehrenzweig ist nur 50jJ juedischer Abstammung» Er ist uebri- 

gens -als Ricftter und als Schriftsteller- so unbedeutend, dass seine Er- 

waehnung das Niveau der Ausgewaehlten herabdruecken wuerde «""Yielleicht 

koennten Sie in der Einleitung sagen, dass Namen von noch Lebenden nicht 

f schichte 

aufgenommen wurden. Auch Sinzheimer hatlsich aiif der ^eXXKEKXX angehoe- 

rige Juristen beschraenkt. Die einzige Ausnahme von dieser Regel soll- 
te bei Kelsen gemacht werden, der ja gewissermassen ein Teil der Rechts- 


geschichte ist» 

Zu den öetails: 
(1) Ohne falsche Bescheidenheit moechte ich Sie doch bitten, 
von der Nennung meines Namens abzusehen» Ich habe zwar durch meine Ar- 
beiten und durch meine im Namen der ^echtsanwaltskammer erstatteten Gut 
achten die Gesetzgebung in mancher Beziehung beeinflusst (z.E» Par» 19 
a RAO); aber dies ist nicht genug, um in einer kurzen Uebersicht ueber 


juedische Juristen in Oesterreich erwaehnt werden zu muessen. 

(2) f Siegmund Adler war der Bruder Viktor Adlers, Er war ausgesprochener 

t Recht shlstorlker » Eine Schrift handelt vom Privilegium Minus, jene» spae- 
> ^ ^^ in 

ter als Faelschung erkannte! Dokument Rudolfs des Vierten (des StftersO, da 

seine Erhebung zum Kurfuersten aussprach, H Upka^yar der Schwiegersohn des 
luedischen Komponisten Ignaz Bruell; er war wie fast alle Juristen slner 
Generation wissenschaftlich Mitteis-Schueler, habilitierte sich mit einer 
ausgezeichneten Schrift ueber die "Vollmacht?, arbeitete spaeter einen Sn't 
vTurf eines Privat^ersicherungsgesetzes aus. Als Dekan trat er furchtlos 2X 
den Uebergriffen der deutschnationalen Verbindung enMXgSgKKX entgegen« Mut 
zeigte er auch, als er sich in Zeitungsartikeln fner Philipp Halsmann ein- 
setzte, Br starb in Holland im Jahre 19^1»-aeorg Petschek vurde in Kolin g^ 
boren (in die "arme" Petschek-Linie), Er war Schueler Friedrich Steins XSS 
(Stein-Jonas, Komm, zur d.ZPO), habilitierte sich in Prag mit der ueberaus 
gruendlichen Schrift "Zwangsvollstreckung in Forderungen", wurde Ordinari- 
us in Czernowitz (Koessler wird Ihnen ueber seine dortige Taetigkeit mehr 

erzaehlen koennen). kam 191^ nach Wien, wo er bis l^^^ ^^s Honorarprofessor 

Lehrstuhl «-^^ '^ 

wirkte, EinehEESÖKXHX in Wien bekam er nicht, obwohl er zweifellos der l£t 



erste Meister des oest, Verfahrensrechtes war. Offizielle Begruendung: Es « 
war nur eine verfahrensrechtliche Lehrkanzel systemisiert und die hatte 
Sperl s±t 1906 inne. Als Herausgeber^ des Zentral blattes f.d. Jur, Praxis 

hat er sich grosse Verdienste erworben. Er starb in Cambridge (Harvard), v 

wo er -mehr weniger nominell- kontinentales ^rozessrecht "lehrte "fetwa Ijl 

19^6). Von Brun4 Kafka kann ich Ihnen nur sagen, dass er kurze Z*it 

deutsch-demokratisches Mitglied der csl, Nationalver^a mlung war. Er war 

ein Schwager von O^Finanzrat Petschek, dem Hauptgesellschafter des Bankffli 

hauses Petschek in Prag), Stanislaus Pineles ist m,E, alw Rechtshistoriker 

u.a. — 
ganz unbedeutend. Er schrieb eine Abhandlung ueber roemisches Wasserrecht, 

(3) Wegen Hof rat L oewne r bitte ich Sie, sich an Dr,Paul Abelffast 

89 Jahre alt, aber geistig frisch wie je; ich habe ihn im Sommer in Meran 

besucht) zu wenden. Seine zweite Frau -die Prc-f-.. ,,0 

y^rs rrctu -aie erste war eine Tochter von 

1^ Geheimrat Bachrach- ist eine Tochter von Hofrat Loewner. Seine Adresse ls% 
252 Grove En« Garden s, London N.W, jB 8). 


(h) Der nach 1919 ernannte Jüngrichter war Dr. Her zog, der Sohn des ^3t 
Grazer Oeberrabbiners. Er war Topstudent der Grazer gechtsfakultaet.Ich 
erinnere mich eben, dass noch ein zweiter Jude, ein Neffe Heinrich Klangs, 
(Dr. Klang) aum Richter ernannt wurde. Er hat ein schlechtes Ende genommen: 
Er wurde wegen festechlichkeit (oder Geschenk annähme in Amtssachen) ver- 
Ärteit und als Sichter kassiert (etwa 1956), Der Grund fuer die spaeliche 
Ernennung von Juden war, dass nach 1919 das rassische Moment in den Vordei^ 
grund trat (das Justizminilsterium war immer eine grpssdeutsche Domaene), il 
waehrend KSXbis 191^ die Konfession allein entscheidend war. Dann (offi- 
zielle Begruendung): Die Republik hatte eine grosse Anzahl juedischer RicJ» 
ter aus der Bukowina und Galizien, die fuer Oesterreich optiert hatten, 
zu uebernehmen (nach einer Schaetzung waren es ^ast SO), so dass manche 
Gerichte (z.B, HG Tond BG f HS) als "verjudet" galten. Natuerlich machten i 
die frueher ernannten jued. Richter normale ^^arriere, manche sogar ausserg* 
woehnliche (Bettelheim. Loew, Klang). Oslo war Halbjude. Es gab viele Jueti 
Sc hoeffensenatsvor sitzende im LG Str: Goldstein, Arie, Ornstein, Barrasch 
(spaeter Anwalt geworden), Hecht, u,a,mr Horten schrieb einen -sehr lederīi 
nen^ Kommentar zur JN (unbedeutend)» 

(5) Dr.Ktebl ist noch als Anwalt taetig. Als junger Mann publiziert 
te er ein wertvolles Buch "Das Rechtsgefuehl**, spaeter eine Geschichte der 
oesterr,Advokatle, Genaueres ueber ihn koennen Sie von seinem Vetter 
Theodor Lassner, 751^ Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood hSj erfahren, 

(6) Arthur Lenhoff ist "Professor Emeritus", aber literarisch 
sehr aktiv. Sein HauptarbeitsgebÄet ifct Zwischenstaatliches Verfahrens- 
recht. Er hat hierueber einige ebenso umfangreiche wie schwer lesbare 
Abhandlungen veiAeff entlicht. Er erfreut sich grossen Ansehens auf d dem 
Gebiet des Comparative Law, wie man hier Vergleichende Rechtswissenschaft 

nennt, T Arie hat sich hier niemals als Jurist betaetigt. Er ist ein 
alter,^ kranker Mann. Er war Wander redner fuer den ES UJÄ. 

Im Berkeley wirkt Albert Ehrenzweig, der Sohn des Versicherungsrechtlers 
XXSEia gleichen Namens. Er war Richter^ und PD in Wien, veroeffentlichfe' 
eine tuechtige Monographie ueber das Wesen der Rechtswidrigkeit im Zt^vüXl 
recht. Hier arbeitet er vorv/iegend auf dem Gebiet des Versicherugsrechts 
und des Comparative Law, Was ich von ihm gelesen habe, ist ausgezeichnet^ 
Ich halte ihn fuer den hervorragendsten \inter den emogrierten oesteJuri- 
sten juedischer Abstammung, Seine Frau ist die Tochter des RA Witrofsky, 
Partner von Dr.Coumont, und der Burgtheaterschauspielerin Kailina, 

Maximilian Koessler p ublAz jberte vor Jahren eine gute Abhandlung 
ueber die Zession offener Buchforde rungen, Ich weiss nicht, was er jetzt la 
macht. Er war schon als Doktorand in Czernowitz eine Art juristisch-lite- 
rarisches Wunderkund: er veroeffentlichte, noch nicht einmal Doktor, 
eine Arbeit ueber das Schmerzensgeld in Gellers Zentralblatt# 

(7) Ueber Emil Steinbach kann ich Ihnen leider nichts mitteilen. 
Als Sektionschef im FM war er der Mitverfasser und Sponsor der grossen 
Steuerreform von I895, Vorher hatte er aber eine aufsehenerregende Schrift 
ueber einige Juristisch-wirtschaftliche Grundprobleme veroeff entlicht, 
an deren Titel ich mich aber nicht erinnere, 

Franz Klein war -entgegen verschiedenen Vermietungen- nicht juedi scher 
Abstammung, Seine Vorurteilslosigkeit zeigte sich nicht nur darin, dass er 
durch Jahrzehnte mit Frau Ottilie Friedlaender ein Verhaeltnis hatte, son- 
dern auch darin, dass er einige juedische Advokaten, die nach der ZP-Re- 
form in den Richterdienst getreten waren, schnell befoerderte Jals Ju- 
stizminister) : Friedlaender, Pollak, Beisser, ich glaube auch Grabscheid, 

Gerne zu weiteren FragenbeantwortungerJbereit, bin ich mit den 
besten Gruessen und Wien sehen 



; C- 







18. November, 1962 

Herrn Dr» Franz Kobler. 
2501 Haste Street 
Berkeley Inn 
Berkeley, Galifornia 


^^0^--^^t^n^<^ . 

Sehr geehrter Herr Kollege I 

Ihr Besuch bei Jms war fuer uns alle 
ein sehr grosseä Yergnuegen \ind wir hoffen, dass Ihm bald ein 
anderer folgen wird» Und die Unterhaltung mit Ihnen hat mich 
angeregt, mein umfangreiches Material ueber Eugen Ehrlich vorzunehmen 
und in irgend^Jüfier Form zu verwerten- nicht anlaesslich des 
100« Jahrest^wi)/ seiner Geburt, was zu spaet waere* 

^^ Aus diesem ^unde waere ich ihnen sehr 

verbunden, wenn Sie mir gelegentlich fol:.ende Fragen beantworten 

1» War Ehrlich schon bei der (xeburt getauft oder erst 
spaeter, und wenn spaetar vor seiner Dozentur in Wien oder vor 
seiner Professur in CzeDowitz? 

2. Haben Sie Ehrlich sohcjn gekannt als er noch Advokat in 
Schwechat war, oder als er noch Privatdozent in Wien war^ und 
koennen Sie mir etwas ueber ihn aus Jener ^eit sagen? 

3» Wie /kat Ehrlich seine letzten *^ahre in Wi-en verbracht, 
insbesondere hat er weiterhin eine Pension als ehemaliger 
Czernowitzer Univers itae tsprof es sor bezogen, und wenn nicht, 
wovon hat^r gelebt? Wa^^r das TelJstament worin er Sie uirLunguleac als 
Vollstrec|fer etggsetzt hat zu einer Zeit errichtet wo er noch als 
Professor in Czemowltz taetig wa:,4r, und wenn nicht, war es zu 
einer Zeit errichtet wo er schon wusste dass Lunguleac sein 
Kfik-^hf olger im Lehrstuhl des roemischen Rechtes in Czemowitz 
geworden war ? Hat er in seinem Ütestaijiente ueber nennenswertes 
Vermoegen verfliegt- ausser, wahrscheinlich, seiner Teppichs ammlxing 
und seinen BueJjKern, und zu wessen Gunsten hat er darin verfuegt? 
Besass er noch lebende Verwandte? Hat er Ihres Wissens irgendeine» 
Beziehung zu einer Frau gehabt, ausser der rein akademischen 
Freundschaft wit der W6ttwe Menczel? Waren Sie bei seinem 
Begraebnisse, dem, nebenbe1)§merkt, i'ch beigewohnt habe? 
Wissen Sie Naeheres u^ber seinen erfolglosen Versuch Professor 

in Israel zi 

4« WSeff^^Q »sonst Be merk enst wert es ueber seinen Lebenslauf 
ofer wissenschaftlich Einstellung und Betaeigung wissen? 

Natuerlich hat Ihre Antwort audt jene dieser Fragen die Sie 
be ^twortifcy koeimen Zeit^ und Jedenfalls Zeit bis Sie Ihre Jetzige 
^"^^rlngende Arbeft hiner Sich haben« Auch muessen Sie mir nicht 
schriftlich -te^antworten^ sondern koennen es gelegentliclAhres 
ne^^dshsten Besuches bei uns tun» ' 

Mit freundschaftlichen gruessen 

Ihr ergebner 


Ps, Nachdem ich das Obige 

getypt hatte, kam Ihr Anruf« Vie^Zen ^ank. fuer die 

zwei sehr interessanten Novellen titely^/C^, 


P»S* Wenn Sie -^rof.Kelsen sehen, ^rüssen Sie ihn und seine 
liebe Gattin, bitte, innigst von uns .V/ir be~ ^ ''''^ du vidoi^kt 

d__ ., ,. .' III hi , 7 c GENKVK - SUIS8E 

auern ihn bei seinem letzten ^esnch in ^enf nicht töl 33100« 

gesehen zu haben und hoffen, dass dies beim nächsten 

der Fall sein v/i^d« 

Lieber Herr Dr.Kobler ! 

Weiss nicht, ob meine l^eu,iahrsvrnnsche Sie erreicht ^ 
haben, da ich sie vielleicht an eine falsche Adresse'^^^-erich-^et habe . 
Der Grund dieses Sch-eibens ist ein ^anz besonderer : al.s ich in ^*^^\- 
London und mit Dr .Steinberg beisa^nien war, erfuhr ich,^ass Sie am »0^ "^y 

18«Dezeiiiber Ihren 80. Geburtstag begehen . Zu diesen schönen Anlass^ ^^'^^'^''*" 
möchte ich Ihnen, auch im Ka'^en meiner F^^au und '^ eines Sohnes, au^ //vV. 

ganzem Herzen gratulieren • Unsere V/ilnsche,vor allem f^^ir Ihre Gesund- 
heit, sind aufrichtig und tief . V/ir sind Ihnen T^tt al' die Güte, die 
Sie uns in England ■^ezeigt haben, sehT dankbar und wir schätzen Ihre , 
von Jüdischen ujid mensr-hlichen Geist getragenen Vy'erVe sehr hoch • V/ir 
wünschen Ihnen noch viele Jahre erfolgreicher Arbeit - bis IPO sagt 
man auf jüdisch "ad multos a^-nos " auf lateinisch • 

Wir hoffen insbesonde-^e ,dasG Sie sich von Ihrer ^erz- 
attache erholt haben und Ihre literarische Tätig^-eit fortsetzen konnten. 
Dass diese so erfolgreich ist,das;:i sie nach ^e^dinest gewürdigt wird, 
freut uns sehr . Wir hoffen, Sie haben sich nun wieder in Berkeley voll 
eihgelebt .i^s ist schön, dass Ihr Sohn so e"^fol^- eich ist und Ihre 
Enkelkinder so talentiert und Ihnen soviel Freude machen-ande^s als 
der amerikanische Durchschnitt • 


In meinem Neu,1ahrsbrief ber'chtete ich auch von uns, 
doch weiss ich nicht, ob Sie ihn erhalten haben, so will ich im Telegrammstil 
berichten : ich bin weiter als Leiter der ^^echtsab+eilung des Flilchtlings- 
hochkommissariats tat ig, das eben von de-^ Generalversammlung bis -^nde 
1968 verlängert wurde . Ob ich dann noch dort sein werde, weiss ich nicht, 
denn 1967 erreiche ich die Altersgrenze von 60 Jahren • Wir sind im 
wesentlichen gesund, mifcine Frau leidet zv;ar oft an Sc^-^'^e^zen und grosser 
Müdigkeit, doch ist dies wohl nervlich un.d wohl durch das kritische Alter 
bedingt . Unser treues Fräulein l.ettal ist weiter ,nun mit 74 Jahren, 
bei uns-und diese fühlt sie vor allem in ihren ab.^e^ac^^erten ''^einen, 
ist aber trotzdem guter Dinge und arbeitet , trotz unsere^ ^roteste ,un-Er 
ermüdlich . Unser Sohn,Julian,'^acht uns viel Freude. Er beding i'- Oktober 
seinen 13. Geburtstag, die Barmizwah v/öllen wir im April feie.^n.Die hier 
sehr strenge Barraiwah -Prüfung bestand er im Juni, nach 5-Jähriger 
religiöser Erziehung, mit Note 5.44 hei eine"^ Ivlaximum von 6. In der 
International Sr hool,second form secondary scholl, kom^t er ganz gut 
vorwärts. Die Idee ihn nach England zu srhic^^en hr^^en wi"^ zvmr noch 
nicht g^nz auf gegeben, doch ist er und '-eine Frau dagc-en und so wird es 
wohl Icaum dazu ko men . 

Ich publiziere hie und da Artikel, das Buch ist vergri-^-* en, 
der Verlag will eine neue Auflage erst nach dem Inkraftt^^eten der 
Konvention über die "''^eduJction dier Staatenlosigkeit hinausbrin-^en,v7as 
noch einige Jahre dauern dürfte . Ich kam vor ein.v^en Tagen aus ^^ew ^ork 
zurlickjWo cih vor allem an der Diskussion der "Declaration nn the Right 
of Asylum" tÄttsahM im S.Committee der Generalver-sa^miimg teilnahm, die 
ich anregte . Die Debatte wurde nach Annahme der ^rääambel und des 
ersten Artikels (es sind im .9-anzen 5) au$ nächstes *^ahr vertagt . 

Dies das V/ic>^tigste . ^un noch-^als alles, alles Gute 
und seien Sie, lieber Herr Dr.Kobler herzlic^ st und in:nigst r^egr 'snt 
von meiner Frau und i_^ ^^ 

von Ihrem.j^^-'w/y/^ ^ 

P.S. Dr .Steinberg fand ich etwas gealtert, aber a-n-iljfrütig und .geistvoll / 
wie Je . Riegner sehe ich von Zeit zu ^eit,e" ist so viel ve eist. 

Es lie^t mir natu^rlich fern, Gl?, lieber Freund^ ent- 
mutigen zu v.'ollen. Ich weiss, mit welchen Schwierig- 
keiten Sie zu kaempfen haben, um einerseits dieses 
ganze Material holbwegs vollstaendig zusammen zu bringen 
und um andererseits daraus eine einigermasseh gerechte 
i^-uswahl zu treffen. Was ich betonen moechte ist nur, dass 
man eigentlich nicht Personen anfuehren duerfte,die getauft 
waren oder von denen man es nicht sicher weiss, ob sie 
ueberhaupt Juden v;aren. Meine Bedenken in dieser Sache 
sind keineswegs rechtlicher Art (weshalb das Beispiel 
Landsteiner nicht ganz zutrifft) sondern vielmehr ethischer 

Inzwischen scheinen sich die V/olken am politischen 
Horizont etw^s gelichtet zu haben, wenigstens so weit 
unsere HemiSDhaere in Frage kommt, obvv'ohl nichts von 
heute auf morgen sagen kann, i^ber die Berichte aus Indien 
ge^en uns alle Ursache um die naechste Zukunft besorgt 
zu sein., . 

Hoffentlich haben Sie von Ridi inzwischen rute Nach- 

Mit den herzlichsten Gruessen von uns beide"^i 

In alter Freundschaft 



If ^ 









/iSA^yi-^c ^^e^y 

^.^- ^^^4^ 








ll^^^^^^^l 1 US.POST*C( ^ ^ 




V n 



2774 FtmiY-SECOND AVE. 


SEabright 1-493^ 



^ix MhiAimd , 


i/ijU '^rr^idjtM lUVt^ 

'/^'/n h^ 







ir/^~^ ^ 


t/ ^ hvf^ 


I I 

h/^'^h/rht/WDi'/i' hU/Li^^ 

A-r^W^ "^ 


kyvD ^%ii 

^f ^TiA '- 2:' ^' -f'A'^^^^^ 




■//i-^ ^-a^ ^-^-4 "TtUt 

h^/4^iL(^^. 6 /f^^m^/ ttoil'^/) ^m^ ^.^f^^-Y: 


^n- i /y^/'^-^v) 

>^ Jz^ 


l^ //TA 





^/i4i /^A.'^ h^^d .^ 

'^(Myt ^Ih< ^vL 

'^. ^i ^, 



I / / ■ ' 

fe///^/^ /41^', 

Hm^ 4li ^f^.iy4 

\wi rUn 

'h-idp4i^i> hvy^^^^4(^ i ß-^'^c 

mvndt^i il^iiJ 




ih^f-^rfu Mi^^Ä4'} 


■/U //fy^ 

-<: ^/-^/^M z^^/^-'--' Ä^-4 





■'A t- 



fmtiUe^o^r^/^: t^l.^ it>^ii^A "/7u,(jLp4il^if "^'^^c^^- 

,1 (y ' 

'ffH //^ '/^^^ ^4 ^'^M^ ^'^^" ' ^^ ^^"^^ 



■^'^Hmf/ /'^ 


^^ H 



i/nii d:^- 


h fi 



^fnM- ^^'^'^'^ 'MhrM./f/^. -i^/^^C'/^A /^/: 




''^m'/ mnki /m%L p[u, 


0^1 /^^ 

"Im l~iiiA^^a i44r%-^i 

-Oi^i im A'wj' 4u A^\iO^%-n '^l^'iyh^'p^ 9~. 

ii^rp^uz, ', 


'idiA IQyyi^^ ^Yyi.ü.-u, CUio - 

4.*rf,, Vi/irw.;.. ^''^•" ^^' t?^-'t^ ^^^^>- 

/'7i /V iY^ >>i/Hi' 

'rUßWu^yf h^iPi "hvUlu^ 

\r>w^^^ i'Ui 


/? /^^Ä' /'4 ^-^ri^ 







^■'^ ulf/m^ vlv) 



i^U/ H- (In-vWliii. 






^Mji^f/vi^ . 4i ^ov. ^^)/liM,^ üy^it(/fua(. ii/^^'^"^' 


^'^^ mHi'^vij. 


'? '' 


.^M^t ^W'^yvAr^^/^^'^ .!^//^ A-v. /2.^>? /^^^ ^J^/ii^Uy^^^-i'-i 


(Jl fnji iit M <^r^^^ Ah 


idi /m/^!r!^. n'i^%cuiyfc"^'^e c^Ht^/^i 

./ '.. 


^iiAloA ^^1(m h ^'^i^.C^4/-i^iy -^ 

•^ (//'^>^:P^-^J'--> 


aJv^ /A.' />y,^(^ 


'^ ^n^'^,'-:' " 



''d' i/i>v/i 


i />r/ 

'i^-'^ii.ji 'z A //^ 


ir ^ind -^ni^i ur^J ■jyn^.i 'hf'Zh 

fi^j y^,. 

^ '»-» ^, 


Inr?? /i^y.^ M' 



^-^A' Hic^ 



i-J / 

'X A/'/y(^ 

'^/ K kj 

Washingtoni am ZZ Fdb«l963 
Liebar Dr. Koblar» 

Ich danke Ihnen herzlich für Ihren lieben Brief und 
Ihr Interesse an meinem iilrgehen. 

Ich bin im wesentlichen gesund und man merkt mir mei- 
ne 72 Jahre nichtjan« Ich bin froh, dass^4ntere8sante Arbeit 
verriihten kann, freilich kann ich die (ich\Wiirdigang,die 
Sie 80 freundlich sind, ihr zuteil werden zu lassen, - ohne 
Bescheidenheit - nicht gelten lassen. 

Es war lange Zeit eine Reihe von Versuchen, einen vier- 
eckigen ^agel in eine kreisrunde Oeffnung zu bringen - oder 
umgekehrt- denn unsere Vorbildung und Erfahrung war doch auf 
eine ganz andere Welt ab-^estellt, ^n musste nicht nur zulernen, 
sondern auch verlernen« Das meiste, was man mitgebracht hat, 
blieb unverwertet. 

So musste man ganz von vorne anfangen und war doch umso 
vieles älter als die Gleichgestellten, was sich darin äusser- 
te, dass man immer wieder auf normierte Altersgrenzen sti^ess« 
Was in die neue Mischung eingi^ng,war viellftlctet das gute/öster- 
reichische Gymnasium und vielleicht die formede Ausbildung durch 
das römische Bjübht^ Jnd die bprachen« 

Was die Aufnahme in das Sammelwerk betrifft, an dem Sie 
arbeiten, so ist meine Tätigkeit als research worker notwendi- 
gerweise anonym und ich kann auf keine tSeistungen verweisen* 

Ich gebe Ihnen gerne die Daten der* Vorvergangenheit: 
Geboren in Wien 1890, Wiener Universität ly09 -1914, Verteidiger 
des Tirolerpi^pvr forte Verle 1915, Jefangenschaft in Sibirien 
1916-itfl 1920 (dort habe ich für meine Mitgefangenen römisches 
Recht und ^Nationalökonomie vorgetragen) , Flucht in die Mongolei 
und Heimkehriiber China« Doktorat 1921, Anwalt von 1924- 1938 
( Spezialisierung au^f Speditions und Bergrecht). Seit 1940 in 
US, Degree in Library Science 1941, New York Public Library 
(Katalog für amtliche Druckschriften); 1940-1945; Chief Cataloger 
der Chemist ^lub Library; 1945-46, United Nations ( i^okumenta- 
tion der Tätigkeit der UN während der ersten Jahre ihres Bestehens, 
Treaty lBdex);i948-1951. Dort musste ich^egen Erreichung der 6Ö jäh- 
rigen Altersgrenze ausscheiden« Seither Arbeit an verschiedenen v 
wissenschaftlichen Projekten« 

Hans Kohn musste, wie ^ie wohl Wissenwegen der Altersgrenze 
seine Stellung am City College aufgeben« Kr wurde anlässlich seines 
Rücktrittes hech geehrt und gefeiert« Gegenwärtig liest er an^ 
der Universität Denver und erfreut sich des guten ^limas, was 
wir huuer von uns nicht sagen können« 

Mit den besten Wünschen und herzlichen Grüssen von uns beiden 




... /v^^Y^/^'^ 1 

(y^^-^-^ l^.j-ty^^'f / /Ic-^, 



ü^ /^g^VvxC J 

7 , 

<!- ^ c^.-^ *^\jr^ ■? C 

iTl^ty^ C^tf^^-i'^'^''^^^ 



- ^;^>^ 



ITS^ — -^ ^ 

riv *-^ ^ ^ 


'iLu ^lU!,^- ^ ^^^ .^^^ 

fnUv^ ^hy^^^rUn , ^^^^ 








f(il» a,^k^ . iV^^" ^^^^^ 

7n tr^^ 



fTh (^U^ 

^« -S.Wi. ^' ^^'' ^^^^ ' '^^' 


^^Mc^M W /^^/^ ^"^ 


Oy^.Y^ W/^. Anf2i^^ d^J^^^ 

(^d f^yl äi^ 



4t /J'h, p^<h / <^<^ ^^^ ^.^ 

/^ /^ 

InH^U^ifM^-^ ik^f^^'^^'^ 

bAikiu i(/n 


V^/v ^ 


/v<^ ''llt'^ 

f^mz Yo^i^ea doLLCcjXioti 


m* vam^f^n 


yi \^Mi\U^-i(^^ p^^'S VAO 






■ '..\ ••• • • FRANZ KOBLER ' .*. '.. 

. iii jj j »iiiiii |L i . i nim 







The hl Story of the Jev/lsh contribution to the reslm of lav; 
offers a striilng paracox. V/hile the impact of the Jecnlop-ue on 
mcnkind cannot be overeatlmated and the rcripturep in c-eneral 
served as the basla of the crnon lav/, poFt-blblicol Jev;i3h lav:, 
thouii^h Its develipffient , exegepis and application formed an incessant 
task of Jev/ish scholars for centuries »"^remained to the .oreatest 
extent an Internal feature of the life and hlatory of the Jewiah 
people. In compariaon wlth the permanent ef ^ectiver.ess of the 
Ronanl.-'v on the European le^^al Systems and practice, only a 
secondary significance can be aacribed to the sporadic links 
bet'A'een Jewish and western leg^al thoughts'during antiquity, the 
middle apres and the first centuries of modern timec?. The world 
that did not refraln from availing itself of Jewish physicians 
had no use for the masters of Jev;ish law v;ho by their ordinancec, 
decisions and responsa were able to cementthe Jewish coinmunitios and 
and to Itnit together the dispersed people of Israel. 

k apectacular change of the relation betv^een the Jews and 
the lefral aphere of their envirinment took place with the advent of 
the Emancipation era. The initiative to break through the sepsrating 
barrier came from the Jews . Their lon^ing aftor civic equality, 
their ströng aense of Justice-; ueeply rooted in Judaidii, ' their 

training in the Interpretation of law - all the sc facto rs ^ave a 

powerfii Imp^ulse to the dosire of having an active part in legialotion 


and\ln the':.adminlstration of Justice as v/ell as in all branches of 
Jurisprudence. Thls deaire was indeed part and parcel of Jewioh 
enlightenment which heralded the emancipation of the Jpws. It in 
therefore not surprising that the sector of the jj^uroper^n «^ewry v.'hlch 
gave birth to the great plonecrs of enlißfhtenirent, I'lo5?erj I-.rndel.'^ ^o-;n 


■^aM««*PMw«iim«^w"<i">>"' ' rw".'» «■•' 



.:<nc hl?, follov/er^, alcio procucc': the fir^^t r^odern Jevir.h ir.anterr? of 
j u r 1 s p r u d e n c e : Ed uard G-^r)^- and Fri edrich Jullu;^ Stoh.'-;"] . , v; 'r. o , t h o \: --• h 
both cf them embraced Chfci'-tianity , repre^ent - not lo-ptl'- ju^'t ov/in'.' 
to their converpion - the very 'type of the t^'forined nov: Jp--'!.?-! 
.o'/ineration of which the wertem Jewish Juris' was'to becoinc. ^ favo.ritc 

Xt v/aE al«o fron, the ntocV: of C<'?r:nan J'rv.-ry that the man h-::iled 
v/ho becsme epoch maklng In'the legal development of Auntria .ond by 
the na.T.e tokeu anticipated the importarit role ^e\^r- werc^ about to play 
in the ^iatory of Austrian law and jurisprudenco • 


At the beginning of the thirtlen of the ei.Thteenth Century, 
Llpman Perlin, son cf .P-^bbi. ^echLel , surnamed Hasid { the Pious ), 
emigrated' with hla wife from Berlin to JÜsenstadt, then in V^est Hungaiy, 
and later to Nlkolsburg in MoraviaT both citie^i wlth renovmed Jev^lsh 

communitiesÄ» In Nikolsburg two aonr , Joseph ^^nd Franz, were born tö hliL 


in 173'-^ Sin^ 173? respedtively .A few yearn Ister Llpman Perlin became 
converted tö Catholicism- and changed hls name Into Alois Wiener. 
The son3,^t00j^ were then baptized, v/hile their ir.other retained her 
Jev/ish . faith. In a short tine, Alois V^lener '.--uccecded in becomin^ 
appointed ' professor of öriental l^cnguages at the Univer^ity of 
Vienna and official Interpreter in Hebrev;. In 17^6, he was ennoblec 
under the narae "von Sonnenfel3_/^ 

The splendid career of the first Sonnenfäs was p-reatly 
surpassed by that' ©f his son Joseph. After h.'/Vlnp- ritudied low at 
the üniversity of Vienna and Dractised in a law of"ice, Joseph von 
Sonnenfels beca??;« sli^^^ady in 1763 Professor of "Polizei uncl Kamcral- 
wissenachaften" ' ( applied polltical science ) 3t tho 'Jr:i ■•''•! rnlty of 
Vienna. In '•1779, he was appointed Aulic Councillor and soon after- 

PWIII M '^P— ■■■IWIpWilWW 




"" > "* 

v/i.>rd3 Vicepre;-ident of the Cocsaisplon of Judicial ReTorr., to v/hish 
the codificatlorp of both, the AuFtrian civil and crlrrinol coc^p, 'A"---r'? 

Sonnenföls partlc^lpated in each of theee ^reat lc;pirl';tlon2 . 
rlia share in the codification of the the civil codc , " .All f/ene Ines 
^'.r^ee r 1 i c h e <=- Gesa t zbuch , •' o f 1611 wap considerablo .The code v/hich 
remained Austrian law up to the present time ov/es tc Sonnenfels several 
provisiona of narital settlenent and the evaluation of per55oanl 
gervices of intrinäio values. But the Chief merit of Sonnenfels 
re-ardinp the civil code consistain his successful efforts that the 
new law should be written in a clear, simple •■.nd pure lanffua.fre. In thi s 
rf«pect Sonnenfels had the advantage of havinr^ been an eminent Jurist 
as v;ell a remarkable man of letters. He was connidered ^ ?? one of the 
foremost Austrian writers and therefore 9s earlv as I76I elected 
chairman of the Literary Society of Vienna . His Journal "Der Mann ohne 
Vorurteil" ( "Th- Kan withou+ l^rejudice" ) wap reccnized as the v;ork 
of skilful and courapeous v;-riter. The most lastinp: fruit s of ^onnenfels* 
iJterary talent are , however , to be firund in the f orrr.ulation of the 
Austrian civil code. The preclsion and fornial elepance of ita languar-^e 
made the "Allgeme i nes Bijrrrerliche?; G es etzbuch" -; Gernian classic. 

Important as Sonnenfels* contribution to the civil code has be-:.n, 

it was vastly overshadowed bv hi? achieverrjent in th«. field of the 

criminal law. It is, indeed ,this -^eat that rankes far above all the 

activities of his long and productive life,. and has secured him rn place among "yDe great humanitarisns of all ages. In his firht 

for thesbolition of torture , Sonnenfels was insnired bv the neblest 

Impulse sof his character and of his heritage. I^-oreover, he risked for 

(^ the^aake of his ffosil if not personal freedom, certalnly his care r 

and perhaps even his livelil:X)od in Austria. He had in his ptru^r^l^ to 


«•••*■■■ "■• 

^^'^^^^^^^■^^■■■"^"'■^i^^w^wwpwwffwpiywwwwiiwwpwwpippgi!^^ » ■■ >■ 

- ''-;■ 


face the oo^nFition nct onl'^ of the powerful rri'n of the liro^^rlc'l 

üdnilnl ctr-3*-lon , of celebr-'tcc unlversltv profesrorp ■ hj hi,-h G:rjrcn:n'?n , 

'.iL even of the Zmpres« I-iari»T Therna herseif in ?pite of her otherv/lse 

favora>;le di'^ponitlon tow^rdr^ hlrr. . '/hc^. he aftc»r th'-^ promu"^ ^-ation of 

th't n^v; Constitutio Cricinalis ~ ' continued to attack the inrtitution of 

tortur-?, I-^aria Theresa ordered Sonnenfels to abstein fror, further 

dlacusslon of the questlona of torture and capital punishiiicnt to whlch 

he, an admlrer of Beccaria, also was oppo?cd .Sonnenfels war-, however, 

not deterred by thls move from puraulng the Issue further. He addressed 

the ^i-mpres? directly and implored herto order an inquiry into the matter 

with each party presenting its views by a special reprf^peative^ He 

closed his addresF with the movin,<y appealt 

I am not blinded as to rr.v llrite.ü abllities kno'-zinfr 
well thnt the causa of hu':.vnit^- ip. '"ntruste.': to poverles-^ 
.-^nd tremblincr handr. But i lift myself by the hope'that 

Omy zeal will rifie- me r?'' ove myself and that Providence v.'ill 
send resGue thrcu-'h a fo-ble one in order that one may 
recop-nize thst She ha^ perfcrir.ed i^...... 

^f I w-uld be so fortuncte tc expound my reasons 
before Your throne, the world woulö n^t be in doubt about 
the deci.^ion which the tendernep^ of your heart vould 
prompt' Your K.'n^^epty to take 


• } 

The appeal was not lost upon Karia Theresa. The offical 
deliberation on the question was indeed reooened. Sonnenfel'sco tributed 
to this debcite his splendid Votum Se pa rat um v;hich was published in 1775 
under the title "Ueber die A b sc ha f^unp- der Folter " and has become the 
iTost famous ^nd raost successful among his wri^in^s, For it war in the 
followin^r year that Karia Theresa issued the decree of J-nuarv 2, I776 
orderinri the abölitici of torture ( except in the lands of the 
■'Hunp-ariam crowni.The other goal Sonnenfels h:id . pursued , the restricticn 
of capital punishment and abolition of its barbarous forma, was reached 
-ly after ixKxiäxxtix of death of the Empress when Jospeh II introduced 
these reforms. 

« I i .i • t ^im9mmi^mmwmf^n'm^f9^ffiHmf,^^mmmmmmimmmmmm<mmmmmmmmmmimmm)mmi'''f'^^'Fmmmmmimmmin 




The hum-inizstion o^ ^''-■' Au^-trian criirdn^J. ls>: v/ap thr >-re'jte-t 
triumph of Joseph von Sonnenfels, iiven on the ir.onu.^ent whlch h?? 
be-n erected for him in Vienns t'ie broken in^tru:r;ent'^ of tortur- st 
hl 2 feet indicated the true reason of hl? imniort^lity . 

The appearance of Sonnenfels marks :^ rlorloup b^** c^ o "■ 
the partlclpation of the Jews in the leprislatlon and Juri Forudence 
in Austria and.even- outside the tvbsburf^ m^narchv. Jor in no other 
State a of Jewioh depc^^nt has r^layed a Eiiuilar role lit thst 
tlEc.'On the eve of emanclp-^tlon , even before the Jev.'s in any part 
of the western world had obtained civlc rif7ht?, a Jew had heloed 
to codlfy a ne--' law and to purge legifl^tlon from the most cru»?l 

inptitution.^The Juridic abillty of the Jew had proved to be ready 


for the Service 9 of manklncl at large.^. / 

Several decades had to pasr after the death of Sonnenfels 
( 1817 ) until another Jew became a£.?ociatcc ir a" promin^tit manner 
with the legal affairs of Aufitria. 3ut v/hlle in the case of 
Sonnenfels the door to the hi^üh poaitlon he wa? to att; in ha?, bsen 
thrown wide open thrhouprh early b^utism,' the solitary Jew who 
at the tinie when the revolution of 1846 pv;ept away the discriminatpry 
antl-Jewish measurea for a Fhort whlle tool: an outstandin.c position 
aiEonn- the Gentile jurif-ts of Austrla was[a profep^incr Jew, in fact 
- by a Strange contra at - a Hebrew scholar. He was V/olfcang V/essley 
C 1801 - I87O) , bom in Trebltsch, Moravia , who in his "outh 
received a traditlonal educatlon, but later studied at the Univer-^ity 
of Prague and graduated there as Ph-D (l82c) and af= LLI/ (I834) . 
After having served as tffacher of religlon on Jewi^h schools:, 
Wessely was appointed lecturer on the Hebrev; languap-e and liter.r-^ure 
at the Unoversity of Pra/^ue. V/hen 'after the promulg-^tion of the 

*»* <-•♦*■* 

Constitution of 1849 'the ministry of Justice was in the handp of 

■ H > J| | IU I ' " 1 n w^^^i . II ■ I . i . ' < iw^^^^^w^>l»»^p^wF^PPi^"^»t<WppwiWWH»i'»»W«»'WWIWW<»''P»IWW»T»*'f'''P^»»'^''T'^"*^"^*''"'^»''^»W'''"^ ■ III 

- 6 - 

'• '^hmerlinpr, a devout liberal, thc younp Sir.peror Franz Joseph, 

C\ consciously deviatlng from the practlce of I-^aria Therpc and Franz, '' 

üppolntec vresselv a lecturer of ^-üv* at the the UniverGlty of Prague. 

Thua Started a career of ' a' ^ew which wa? v/ithout precedont 

in AuFtrlan hiatory. V/er^sely hlir.self, on the aenith of hls life, 

5:u:r.r:.arlozed the n:aln events of his career in a letter to hie friend, 

Loopold Low, -f January 23» 1862: 

It aeems that Providence has chosen me as an in^trument 
in Order to secure vlctory to the liberal principle in the 
question of öf ■ eraancipatlön. I was the first Jev; v;ho aerved 
as court translator in Hecraicis, v^o v/as Eunr;.oned to the 
consultation about the organizaticnj/the courtn in Boheniia in 
1848, who was permitted to practise law at a crindnal court, 
who was admitted to and passed the examination for the 
liTdiciarv Office and who wa' inade a lecturer at an /iustrian 
üniiversitj", to becoem later an extraordinary ( aprist-int ) 
and finally an ordinary professor at a law faculty. 

V/espely ir.ade also historv in -Austrian le^^islation .In coapany 

with other juristg,he was entrusted with the task to Inve-ti.c-cito for 

the Auatrian governiEent the reforras in crimlnal procedurc in the 

Rhine Province and ßelpluir* and ss conrequence of hin report thr Jury 

System was introduced in ^ustria, t'-ou^rh onlv for a .^hort tir': . Thu.^ 

V/essely continuec/as it were the the work which Sonnenfels had inltiated f 

of liberalizing i-*ustrian Judiöial procedure. The Innovator was, however i 

this time a pious Jew among whose writings beeide s of jurir^tic 

ii.onograph:=jSuch as treatises about the means of evid-nc- in -Austrian 

civil procedure or about emergency and self-def cnce , also a prayer 

book with GetVian translation in Hebrew characters can be found. 


The annulmeni of the Constitution" of 1849 by the decree of 



V I 

^ecember 31; I85I put the Austrian Jews back into the condition 
prevailing before 1848. However the knowledcre which the firstJewish 
Austrian lawyers had acquired was ^ov; utilized in the w^itru^^rrle for 
the restaration of the lost rights .'. Similarly as Gabriel Riester h?d 






foufht in Gerinan" fcr the civlc rl-:-htP of the Jewr, Dr. r:.:lnrlch 

J'acouen, 3 rlfted l.QV/yer ar/i writer, born in Vlenna in lc^l,'who 

• la..: 3tuci(ö philosophy at Heidclcerfr cnd in I656 obtained the de^ree 

of a :^octor of Lav; at the Univcr?ity of Vienna, 'en^capred in a forceful 

cnnp:;lßn against the renev/ed di scrimination of the J ews .,'_ He subjected 

the lerral ptatu^-jof iiustrian Jev/ry to .?n acutje criticipm in hie 

j^^-^nk schrift ''ber die Stellung der «^udon in Cr r^terreich . Vienna 1859, 

v/hich went throuo^h fou27editions In the courr?rf of a fev; v/e^ks.'Cne of 

the rr.ain ideas Jacques put forth in the boolv was that Außtria by 

excludin- the Jews from the basic civic rights permitted "the «oil?itual 

wealth of the Jews to evaporate aiuiles'-ly and inef ■^ectuall'" . " It is 

true«/-in spite of this aiperion of Jewiah cultural oualities , Jacuep , 

ap Hans Tietze put It, advocated an unconditional Subordination of 

specific J'ewish values to the Auf^trian State, rle was nevertheless an' 

eloquent opokesman of the n^v; gen eratior/w hose genuine de?ire to 

— ^ 

participate in public affairs was linked v;ith the certainty of being 

able to contribute to the corr.rr.on s'ood. 

■ i^enk sch rift "^ 
Jr» Jacqueg' S--OCXXXXXX - the first of liis many .^uri.^tic works 

— -..■"' *" ■ 

( see below p. ) - influenced. undoubtedly ' public oDinlon and contri- 

buted considerably to "^he abolition of the Jev^ish disabiliries . Aftor^" 

some liberal innovatlons by the Imperial Patent of Februarv 25, I86I , 

the Constitution of December 31» IB67, by the proclamation of the 

fundamental rights of all Citizens, brought the long sought legal 

civic equality to the Jews. 

■ Unfortun. täly the application of the law v;as to be found to 

be in a sharp contrast to the spirit öf the Constitition. ^^Ithough 

the Jews from nov/ onward were entitled to pract;se law as lav;yers aa 

well as Judges and public r^rvantsof all ranks , an evident öi?.crirc:i- 

nation tookplace to the dlsadvantage of the Jewieh applicnntr/, v;he'r3ver 

appointments were left to the diacre.tlDn'^of -the. ■adninlF.traJLiv.e ..bodieo . 


- 8 - 




'..ihus tae risrnts of the Jew'^ ren:alned to a rrea^ extent n^.erely on 
the p^^jper." 

In spite oT the<^e cbrt-^cle:? , the Jev:lr'n eleir'rn" b':^c.aii.c r'^ther 
conapicuous v. It'aln the rer.lrn of lav; since the Conrtltu-ion of l£67 
both nu.Tierlcallv and bv the out^tandinr cualitle r of Por:.e Jevlsh 
JurlFt.«;. Aoart fror, the profeFrion of an "indvo'cat" ( . t-^rrlster )- 
to whlch every Citizen who iiax acquired the de.cree cf a doctor of ' Isr-v 
vrn? entitled after the prescribed practice and after pas'-in/^ a special 
exaiTiination, the Jo'/s were not deterred by the dellberate and very 
often openly anti-s<ä]:iitic' discriniination from ?.ttcmpts to serve in the 
c=*:"5acity of Judges and public öfficials.( fcc beloe pp. ). The desire 

. to attain such positionf? prompted many Juri?tically minded -liong them 
tr pave their way? to public officcs hu by en/oracinp- Chrirtianity . 
'ith a^slmilation in füll awinß-,those who feit no attachment to the 
tradit.ional creed considered b.qptis'm a merc formality. All theae 
circumstancc.==! , combinec with the prospects whlch the activitieFi at 
the Courts, in ädiLiniätration and at the univer'^ities offered to young 
Jewa,'' broun-ht about an influx of neo-Christians to the legal prefesplon 

• which percentually probably :-?xceeded the nuniber of converts in any 
other branch of social life. The painful contradiction? inherent to the 
Jewish exirtence within the European society r.anifested thernselves 
perhaps nowhere möre drastically than in the phenomena accorcpanving 
the particloätlon of the Auatrian Jewa in the sphere o:' lav; and 
Jurisprudence . 

. . ,.>\.;:: C . IV. JbXIUS GL/^SER AND JOSEPH UNC-SR, 


It happened in the first decades of the constitütional '. 

iiionarchy that two Juristic geniuaes, Julius Glaser and Joeepii Untrer, 

who almost at the same time emerged from the niidst of Austrian Jewry, 

made their apparance in Austtian public life. | The simultanecus 



c^xlr-tence of the tv;o tr.^n remindp ?:on:ewhat o"^ th^ rreat Habblnic 
o'vl>-5i of th3 flrst centur" Z;.C.£. v.'ho excelled throu^-^'n their rkill 
In the Interpretation of th-^ Torah. In a truly air.azinf' manner the two 
'•'-•u'^trlan jurlsts - Un.-rer, b^rn in Vienna in 1826, bein,r only three 
yec^rs ser^ior of Glaser, torn in i'ostelberr , Boheir.ia, in I63I - 
5'upplerr,enteü each other: if Glaser has be'n considered the father of 
^•uatrian criminal proceedin.'-^ , Unger prained the san^^e title with r--,srard 
to civil Juri sprudence . By a bitter irony even the ' h estranfferr.ent 
froir: the Jewi f h fold is a conircon feature of thr- tcro lurdnaries . 
l'-or>-over their t>aptlsm too^'' place in each case in e- rlv youth, thus 
creötin{;;,like in 'the case of ^onn^nfela , a_fai t -iccorr.pli which 
facilitated their aat-^undin,^ caree**«»- 

Glasrcr's rise proceeded with extraordinrtry soeed . Mi?! priictice 
OS a lawyer was grlresdy in IÖ34'- in hifi 2prd year - :ccmbined v/ith a 
•eachin/7 activitv as "Jozent" ( lecturer )at the Univer^ity of Vienna. 
In'l560,when he had not yet reached his thirtieth year, he wa? 
appointed ordinary professor» In the years iSoc /69 he served as 
minister in the Cabinet of the Count Carl von auersperc^. The year 
1870 saw him again st the University and also as ^'ember of the 
Reichnrat in the Jiustrian Parliament. In the next y^ar Ptarted the 
rlorious period of his actlvities as Kinipter of Justice .Gläser, vras the 
first and only Jew to hold this office in an i^ustrian Cabinet, that of 
Count /idolf von Ausersperg. After"havinp!-' served there from I87I to 
1879 , he was imiredlätely appointd^^töocney General of the Supreme 
Criminal Cpurt. '?"• ■ ••::.■'•■ :'•;:•..■.. ^ • ' :; .^' :;• • • ■:'... ••' * 

Glaser was ofte of the most aut3tandin,cr and most proliflc 
authors on law, the biblioerraphy of his works comprising 487 Item^^. 
As a young nien of 20 years, Glaser published the pionecring booV 
Das enp-Ti s eh- schot tisch e Strafve r fahren ( I85C ) which was 1nren-i-d 


■»Wli"«fW»mpP"WW^^""iPi^W^"«*^"-'*" — I i\ii^i/^m^^^^^m 

- IC - 



:iz '//'-': oon In uhe j^tru-^rle Cor IntTvOCUCins: t\v: ~-ucr\l?h ir-'-thoc of 

Grl:.-::nal procedure inte t'^e austrlan ler/i slatio:^ whlch Glaser was 

<.'*e3t.ined to accoir:pllsh. One o^ hie niain aim.i v/'-jp the rertorati 

on of 

" ':e Jury ay^teni v/hlch had been introduced in 1849 .-ifter ./oßF^ely's 

report ( ge above p. i, but' shortlv afterward? aboi:shed. 


^ ■♦• ^ 

revlval of the .'uries was, hov/ever, only one part of the gre.'it reform 

v/hich Glaser purpued. H;j rejecte'^ t^^e ir.ethodp of the socret, Inouln- 

tivft and writ'en procedure and advocatecj^the principles of public, 

imceciate and oral procecding with the partle?, the attorney of the 

ntate/and tkz the defendant, contendin^, /ibove all, he aimed st the 

abolit-ion of the rigid rules of evidence which were to be f^uperscded 

by a free evaluation of the Judicial proofs. 

Glaser won a complete vtctory. On January 1, 18?^ - almost 

exactlv one hundred years after the abolition o"^ torture thanks to the 

ef^otts of Sonnenfels - a new code ofcriiTiinal procedure was pronulgntoci, 

.♦" ■ 
in .Auntria as tbe- outcome of Julius Glaser* s untirin^T enccavors. It 

one of _ 

was/the most modern lerylslstions of this kind then in exi^^tenc^', as Karl 

Lammasch, the great expert of crlmlnal law declared: "/lustrin, the 

atatelthat hsd bo'^n a decade Garli*"^i:cnsidered one of the mo?'t bac>v, 

ones as far ns public institution.'? were concemed, by one st'Foke had 

been puahed in the first rank of thore P-^.werc whor^e le/xislations 

became an example for others ." felaaer 's Code reinained in force untll 

..J w^s 

the seizure of Austria by the Nazis »but'^re-inatalled after the 

re-e stabil shment bof the Republic. Glaser also pr-^duced a stündardv/erk 

on- crirrdnal procedure, the Handbuch des Straforozepres , alrecot^nized 

s landmark of Jurisprudence up to date . He died preraturely in the 

year 1884 in hip 53rd year and was mourned by whole Austria. 

Like Glaser, Joseph Unprer already in his youth exhibited hi p 

extraordinary prifts. As early as I85O - in an ap-e of only 22 - 


■ m I j i i ^ w»y>^w w pi 

- 11 - 

he p;raau.::ited In phllof^ophy at the Unlverclty of K'-^nii^'-ber.o-. Three yer.ra 

\^ li'ter hsvlng acqi;ired the deprree of a ---octor of Law at tne Unlvernlzy 

OG Vienna, he lectured on law at the Univen^ltv of i^ra^Tue to cecorne 

in 1855 a'^-^lstant profes'or and in I87I füll profeasir at the Univorplty 

.of Vlen--2. ^Tom the outset, his brilliant lectures and hl? "^amous v/it 

attractc.d vast':crowd8 of fetudertts. 

Inprer was o.nly 28 years old when he published the first volu2?.e 

of hls Sypten^ derj fi^terrei Chi echen Prlvatrecht.^ which was follov/ed by 

another volume in 1857- Thin work proved to be one of the f ine st and 

mo3t inp.pirln^/ Juristic v:orks of those dayr:. Ahlle civil law had besn 

treated in i^u.stria for decade? a s an object of a merely prnctical 

disci oline / but not as an object o'' theor<fetical ptüdiep , ; Un^er wag the 
first -Aur;trian 
.Jurist ^ho applied the scientific methodr of Oerinan Jurisprudence to the 

i»u?trian civil law. In his Sy s teiri/ dnp:er demon^trsted the/developn:ent of 

C^ ler-' institutions and ,at the same tinie , looked uon the law aa a coherent 

whole. The doctrine of corporate persons was pres^nted in itx aa well 

CiS that of tr'je pitotectiori of subjective rip-hts, thus even mstters which 

belon{7ed to the sphere of civil procedure.f 

Un -er w--^s a follower of the histörical school of Savip-ny whose 

p-reatest diaciple he has been called . He was the first .'uristic sc-iolsr 

who applied Savigny's method to the -Austrian law. -.o did also pioneering 

work on special fields as tht. contractsäin favor of third perpons, 

dair.afres for ouiltlesa acts and actions on one 's own riak. His work 

g:ained so great a recop-nition even in Germany that it v/as^said of him 

that he fully repaid i^ustria' s debt to German Jurisprudence . In the 

introductory letter of the special ^'oet s chrift edited by the law faculty 

of the Unlversity of Vienna on the occasion of Un,?rer*s 7Cth birthday 

r^ in 1998 ;iö was praised as the Innovator of -Austris^ Juris orudence who 

"with th . weapans of criticisir., philosophy and hi^tory obolished v/hat was 

|i« wn m^m'mmtr m^ -^^w^piPWiw^W^^^^W^»^ 


- ?2 - 


inveteraternd replaced it by a beautiful new odifico." ..e was llkewise 
eulorlzed as an academic teac'ier. "Thousands of students," r^aöthe 
l'rttcr, "for v;hom each 6f your lectures was a stiir.ulu? have be cn imbued 
with love and v/srm Interest for JuriFprudence . " 

Unserer aerved siTiiültaneously with Glaser as a niinirter wlthout 
portfolio in the Cabinet of Count Adolph von .Auer5;perp: from 1071 to 
lb79. In the year l88C , he was appol^^ttej PrsFident of thc Relchnrerlcht? a 
t je hi.c-hest -Austrian trlbunal dealing with que5?tlon3 of public lav;, 
Untrer held thls Position until his death which oc -urv-ed in 1913» i!^ 

the 85th year of his gae • 

Unger and Glaser betveenKan intimate frie^dship dovelopcd wäre 

collaboratbrson various fields. Their äiost lastin^ comiron work was 

the creation of the collection of the declsiobs of the Austrian i-upreme 

Court which were published in series of volume? since 1869. 'J^he 

v-x collection became prover"bial under the name Gla.'':er-Unp- er ( GlU ^ ) and was 

to prove an invaluable , indeed indispenrsa'bl'e tool for jurists all over 

Austria. The collection was continued, e>ven after the deaths of its 

founders until 1919- / The companioship of the t'-'o pioneers -^ound also 

.-•■ >iBplendid literar.-y ^recögnition wheh ■ th©-.. jüösV illüatrious German juristic 

scnolar, Rudolf von Jherin.'--^ > dedicated them jointly the second voluir.e 

of his famoua v/ork D er Zweck im Rcht « calling thsm "the most competent 

repreaentativos of the new trend of Jurisprudcnce in Austria," ' 

:'Jherinr-*c words contained a pro phec;^ which came true. Glaser and 

ünger becanrcW'the founders of t^e Austrian ochool of law. The methods of 

the two masters have been perpetuated in the works of later Austrian 

Jurists anu in the subsequent legislation», Only some of these effects 

can be mentuoned here. It was the spirit of Unrer who prompted Joseph 

\^ Krainz to compose a new complete System of the Austrian civil law. 

Ung-er's ideas pernieated likowis^Stübenrauch' s pppular commsntary on the 

^iW<Mlp^ilgBPiWBpw»wirM^iWlifPIWWWWW**TPPWWWWii^WiWW<lWPWW^^ ' W ' " " ■ F^ iW i *-P'W^ifWIW 1^^^^ 

- 13 - 




^-iu^'trl;ra civil code. in the soherc o*^ ic -ri siation , 2 nur-e«tlon which 
Glaser had ir.ade conceminr the proceedings on pcttv cl'^lir.'^ has been 
mciterlalized. , and un/^er's vicv/?. --^n civil procedure infl\aenced ^'Vanz Klein, 
the creatür of the ^untrian Zlvil prczes ^-Crcn ün'?« '' 

The Glaier-ün^^or' tradition was potent psrticularl" in the 
new ;7enerütion of Au^trisn Juri st s of Jewish descent who r;.ade thelr 
appearance in the second half of the nineteenth centurv, Stranp^-cly / 
enouffh, also amcn.o- them a pair of outstandincr Jurists arose who, b'^rn 
alEost .'"i'';ult'"'^ourly , pursued with utmost ener^v sirrilar froals and 
cictually becair.e the leadin/r representatives of a new trend v/ithin the 
sohere of law. ^^mil Steinbach, born in Viennain 1846, was onlv one year 
yoxxn^er than Julius Ofner, born in 184s i^ ^ snall city of northern . . 
Bohemia^ who, however, survived hin illusitriou^ cont^mporar y bv by 

j * 

seventeen years. Much as the carecrs of the two n:en were dif^^erent •- that 

"* — . 

of Steinbach elevating him , like Glaser and Ungar, to the highot^t 

offixj'rs of the Ftat^,while Ofner' s lif-.:_long public actlvity remnined 


conflned alir.ost entirely within the limits of lawver and a member of th-? 

Parliarr.en + - there exists a myateriovsly analogoue . relation bctv;ev.n tholr 


cnaracters and fundaiEent:'! Views. Both were bschclorn of an ascetic ty 
iffibued with a saintly devotion to their ta^ks vrhich, ac?ordin(x "^o thclr 
comir.on conviction, consisted in the Service for the people by creating 
a new, sociel .legialation . As apokeamen of the conterr.porary trei:d tov/ards 
such a Ic-inlation and as ü^tiringf i/xhters for It, Steinbach and Ofner 

hold a uniquc place in the hlntory o"^ ^-tjstrian Jurlsprudence . ^ 


It was Julius Glaser who,as Klnieiter of Justice, called..l£74 

"teinbach - then , ( " after havin^:, received the lav; dec-ree of the Unlv-:r- 
3ity of Vienne^^ .;'/teac'ie-r of the coIIg-p of Conu'i.erce in Vienna - to the ■• 

Dvipartiient of Justice, ^everal 'years Hat er Steinbach embr'aced' Chi-l jtianatv 



- 14 " 

•^. st-'i^. to be follov:e ■' by hir appointr.ent as head of t'v: -^.■jp:;rt::.^nt(lÖö7' ) 

-r: thir-- cap-^city, Steinbach v:a£ ablc? to beco^-iC inr-trun-'ntal for the 

re.alizatlon cf his fav^rite iCeas b^^ laun^-hlnr bills on cor.pul?:ory 

health-, accident- arr.d dlFability Insurance of v/orkcrn v;lilch heralded 

the ern of nodal lep-islatlon in ^ustria. In 1891 Steinbach v/a? ir.ade 

i'Anl?.tcr ofFinance in the Cabinet of the Count Taaffe. The introduction 

of the pold Standard in the Austrian monetary Cysten ^rd öf the crov/n 

iriJitead of thai'^lorin was hls work. Moreover, a n"w lav/ o'-^ personal taxa-" 

tion, v/ith prövisiona vrhich, in äccordance with hls viev/ on the "duties 

of poasea^i'-n/' shlfted the tax bürden from thefinancial vreaker to the 

wealthy had been drafted by Steinbach and successfully prescnted by him 

to the Pnrliaent in a splendid speech on February 19, 1892. It wa^ also 

he who presFied moat for the reform of the ob*^ol6te i^ustrian elector^l 

aystem'and who vras the maln drivin,ci: force behindi.the bill Count Taaffe 

r^ finally introduced to thia purpofci. Unfortunately ,the rejectio-^ of the 

...^ ■ 

Olli brought ■ about the downfall of Taaffe and thus also the terniination 
of 2teinb3ch*s ministerial actlvities. Soon afterwardj= Steinbach was 
appointed chaiirman of a division of the Supreme Court, and in 1899 
Vice President both of the Suprere Coutt and of 'the Reichf^gericht . 
in the year 1904, the Prima Minister Kr^rber submitted to the Smperor 
the prop^aal to make Steinbach President of the Suprerre Court, 'Ke 
motivated the sugprestion with the expectation that Steinbach s 

reoutatior^would , under hia pruidance, secure to the Judicaturc of the 

( ' - 

Suprema Court anincreased sip:nificance and a new splendort, Thüs it 
happened that, for the first and last tirr.e, a Jurist of Jewish deacent 
was invested with the hlphest Judiciary dis^nity of the .Austrian Monarchy, 
Steinbach expressed his ideas iri a series of splendid v/ritin^s, 
^ a? Die Rechtskenntnisse deg Publikums (1878 ), Erwerb und Beru f ( 1890 ) 

R echt.cregch^'fte der wirtscha'^tlichen Crp;anigationen ( 1897 ) , Treu unc^ 

'■""""' "^ 

- 1=^ - 

Illjiu]>^n_irn Verkehr 1901 ) , 1) o r S t a n t und die n: o d e rn c. n x^ r 1 v n t ri o r. -^ no 1 e 
V l^'C;: / .':.telnbuCh G '-'ritln-^r ?^re perrr.eatec! cy the iden t/ia^ the ethic^;! 
f.:.::to-^ iifj^'.to be n;ade effective in'al"^ the'.r::niif Icr^tior^ of ^.ccial llfe* 
In faöt/iie nof only considered morsls ond social ethicG as the foundr.tion 
of lerislation anu as an indispenj?able elerr.ent of Jurisdiction, but he 
ilfjc deinanded that the lnr''ivldual .?hould be limited in the use of valid 
rif^ht?= by rnoralfi, as particularly the title of one one of Steinbacli*s 
w r i t i n f-:^ s , Die Mor al als Schranke des Rechts und der Hochtsau-^übung , 
clearly indicates. 

Steinbach' s writin^^s had a definite influence on the new n-ener.ntiov. 
of Juriats and social thinkers ^ especlallyjon Anton I-^eno-er. liut perhaps 
even rcore than fror/) Steinbach the au'hor ,.-ari inspir.-jition* emanatcd firo.'T: 
Steinbach^the K^n ; "from his fipe«ches, hl2 f ascinatin;:' convcrsc-itions 
anc^UHKHiiiiKnHia from his deedsJ He excelled as statesman, as l'. gislatoi?, . 
(^ as Judge. And yet It waaii not the variety of the^e activitiep, extra- 

ordinary as they were , what conotituted the rrev^tnesn of Steinbach tne 

doer., but the deep ethical convictions and religiou' fec-lin.c' underlayin^^ 

It hap been aaid of _^teinbach that 
all his action? önd,a"feove all,hiF perronal öön^üQf"^r^^elv kxx £ states- 
man, and certoinly no AüFtrian ^tatesirrn, •■ixxxxxzxxicxxx:{cxyxx:r,^5[X3; has 
so emphatical^.y rejected the individualintic prlnciplc- as he. And v/hen, 

fafter Steinbach' s death in 11 90 7 ^v Franz I^lein in an ' admirable ir.emorial 
i— • - 
address declared that "in contra st to sorr.e inodern philosophers i^ho extpl 

the instinctB, Steinbacl^ proclaimed the harsh* ^:o^ oel of the Cu.crht," 

he has not only in a nushell chcracterized the man and his work, but 

•- perhapa unconsciously - alluded to Steihbach's iii.'iss-öluble link with 

the ethics of JudaisQi. 

The Hebr'VC^ 3ro"ota^ of Steinbach' p social philo aophy and of his 
.- ■ ' . , ■ ■ ■. ■ le 

whole perponallty will, maybe , one day/rnore cl .rif ied v/hen the life of 

this e xtraordinary man will be as thoroughly deocribed as it has becn 


»T — J l " ■ 

i I m ii»»i»— w— ipinn 


t I 

. 16 - 

done by Emil Lehni^>^ ' Oono«^nnlng Julius Ofner in «"^ remarkabl^? oompr^^hen- 
slve theaia. From thia biorrat>lit:cäl atudy, from Ofner'a ovm wrltinga 
and fipeechee of whlch a reoresentalve selectlon has been publlshed 
wlth a lucid introductlon by Walter Eckstein, and from the rf?cordn of 
Ofnei-*!!! huge legislative activitiea, Juliua Ofner ernerpres - olon^atÄide of 
Steinbach - aa the embodiaent of the forces which in the «'• ond half Öf 
thc nineteenth and the flrat decadee of the tw-ntleth .dm'sd at 
fundamental changea of legialation and Juducial practice; In ü lif<^ of 
alffiont 80 yeara Ofner took part virtually in all Juriatic problemfi of 
the Autothian Monarchy and Republlc in hia capacity aa practLsinp lawycrt 
as lawgiver and acholarTjfThere ia a fervor for law and Jurtice in Julius 

Ofner whlch renfinda of the f?reat gaoft«. In f act , though he; following; 

the trend of the liberal era V] already aa a youth became a freethinker, ': 


the Jewiah education trhich he received from an orthodox father, mani- 

featc'd itaelf in hia Juristic Viewt k 'and activitiea. He never 1-ft 

the Jewlf=ih comirunity and confe^aed himaelf that the Pirkf^ Abotr were 

the fl6urc^of his ethical convictionc vhll4 thetfourtdations of his letral 

thinklng derlved from an old Hebrew oode which he atudied up to hia 

alxteenth year- 

Ofv^er' » earlieat and prre?teat acholarly worl^^the t':orou 'h edli.5.on 

of the original draft of the ..ustrian civil code and of'thc ::?rtin<?nt 

,! ^ contomporary minutet: Der Urehtwur f und die :^e ra tun g a pro totoll ' des. 

Al lgenielen Bnrffierlichen Gesetzbuchs ■ The work appeared In zuirzr^'-lv^ 

■ '' :^ inatallments between 188? and ''809 and aoon became one of t le moat uaad 

source booka for the Interpretation of the code .[ Ofner' s prl^^^lpal 

purpoae was to demonstrate the exemplary Standard of the enl' -htend^d 

■., öiakel's of the Code, particularly the superiorlty of the ,j ho' '^ntn of 

,*'i , the natural law over the follöweri of itheiinrOfhfe»* a dayi pr'^'dominant 

hlatorlcal flchool.tThe Urentwurf waa alao intended to «erve n:? an 

'!»: \ ',!•-'- .1-.^ ;- .* u 


!■'; •■.■■■■ \ . . 

'■■:':v* V':. !•; 

i \ '■ ■ ^9^••■;^M■. 

' i; 

' i 




- 17 - 

Instruinent of thc revlslon of th^ Ocf^ft, Ofnor'fc fevorlte i^v . It w-j' 

oAe of hlg flrat actlona^ when he wae elected meitber of t':e : ?: of 

?^eprepent.atlV6B in 1901^ to propono such a revlslon or r-i?th. r '/i'^ cr'5-^tlo?i 

of ')n 'Sntlrely new civil Code, Thüa he Inaugurated a campalr.:;n vrhich, 
f''^ ' not 

■ thoup.h It dldy'legd to the reallzatlon of that ambltlous ob.j'fctive, bore 


excellent f rulti . After a thorouf*! dlacuanlon In whlch also reveral Jewlsh 

V V.- Jurlßts - especlally Karl Adler, Armin Ehrenzwelg, Horaa Krr rropol j^kl , 

■» ■ •♦»t-lF 


Rudolf Pollak and Joaeph von ^che.y ( sec abotat them lelow ^-^p* ) - Y 

i . -'' 

took a leading part, and after protracted transactlone In the Minlrtry 
of Juntice the three partlal novels to the Civil Code have bc^n promul- 

Jv:?, r gated In 1914, 1915 and 1916. i' ' 

:i:' ' ;i: The reform of the civil law was, however, only one of th? 

Innmmerable leprlslatlve goiala whlch Ofuar puraued/lti* the course of hla 
parllaraentary actlvlty durlnr tiearl.T two decadea« The story of Ofner'g 
strup;ple for the apparoval of all th^billa whlch he Introduced In the 
Auatrlan Parllarrent form*'* fasclnatlng eplc« He foup^ht for them: and 
worked on them not only In the plenary aeaslona of the Houae, but also 
In many legislative commisrlons wh68e member he waa owlng to hla älwoat 
universal expert knoweledge In Jurldlcal and social mattera. The 
8ubJectfi|of these bllla ränge from the protection of workers and chlltfren 
to matters of the theater and to the quaation of vaccinatloni from • 1 
criminal to vmarriage law, from thr rights of >^omen to the liability for 
car ac'-Cidenta.lln one Single seaplon Ofner Introduced no leaa than 

23 bllls. ■.■{\' 'i.l ■■::' \- > ■ •• i- •■- . ■''[■ •■-■ 

V--.\ '<, ThlH-inparallÄled iotlvltjr'-of whleh' Ithbaa beenaald thaflta 
hlsj^tory i« Identltjal wlth the hlatory of Auatrlan aocial polloy eamed 
Ofner the aumame "the ccmaclence of the Pal»Vlfcament" . It wa«, however, 
hla proper name that waa actually used to denote oÄe of the mopt Important 
lawa h« haa Inltlated. Thla law - of April 9, 1914 -, the Lex Ofner . 

'' '■. 


- 18 - 

concemlng the level of the amountf relevant for the clas'^iftcatlon 
of ijrlmes a'^aln'«t property adapted the outdated amounts of th(» old 
Crlmlnal Code to the real contemporary valuea of the money. After the 
model of thls law several others have been created when the Inflation 
brought about a continuoua devalailiation of the Äuatrlan currency. 

Alao aa a member of the i^epublica^ Parliaincnt, Ofner - at that 
time a aeptuagencrlan - contlnued the strupcprle for hls poclgl and 
polltlcal Ideals wlth unrelented vigor, Buti tragically, the ardent 
pursuance of one legal reform whlch was partlcularly Ofner' a concem 
brotup^ht about the abrupt end of his -l©riou8 parliairentary ooreer. 
I He had embarked upon a parliam^ntary campglcm for a" unlflcd marrlappe 
law valld for all cltlzeni wlth aft obligcntbry' civil märrlacre to be 
performed by a pübllc^öf ^IclAl. fhla attempt to abollah the old 
marriap-e law whlch dlffered accordlng to the rellgloun crecsdsof thr. 
partners and thua to break wlth a legal tradltlon of a predoni'nantly 
Cathollc Population arouaed a Ptorm of protest again^t Ofner, partl- 
cularly becauae he aa a Jew had dared to engapre in what was termed 
"ü^here form- Skandal" ( marrlage reform scand'?l ). OblrlouslyjhiG condlaacy 
for a seat in the Conatltutional National AaaeiTibly in 1919 wa? veheraently 
conteste<|by the ChriPtlan-Soclal partv. Bjr an hiptoridal Irony h& alpo 
was oppoaed by a crreat part of the Jewiah voters who reaented hls stand 
in the queation of the marriaire law ^^^auae it increaaed the anti- 
Semltic wave . Thua Ofner lo t the battle •3ry«^1n'^t Sobert Stricker, the 
Zioniat condidate, in the rnoßtly Jewiah flioönd'^diatrlct of Vienna. 

In the remainlng foor years of hlp li€e , Ofner ncvertheleap > 

contlnued to remaln on hia pöpt, though it wa? now ahifted to the 

Bunde e « FederaJL? 

Senate and to the newly createdV ^erfaB Pun gagerichtflhof (Con^titutlonal 

Court ) where he acrved aa a permanent reporter. And therc was gne 

activity whlch he contlnued up to hia laat daya: in fact, OfnerV«? literar^ 

.i ". 

;i ■; I 

- 19 - 

production forme an almoat unlnterrupted stream of artlclep« «spay^, 

coirments, '»It^^tohoSf book^. reVlews and Independent books, cia^.linfr^ with 

every aapedtof the law and aoclal lifo, from hls flrat liate(3 publica- 

tlona In the Jurlfittd weekly Gerichtaha l le In 1871 up to hlr> löst book, 

a Bummary of hls baslc Ideaa which hte publlahed lmL923 under the title 

Pas Soziale Re cht gden k<^r^* l^lle ono of hls maj<yiy worVs, the Urontwurf » 

has already be mentionsd , th« l)ilillt^Of,irO;fBei''e 'llterary work lill yet be- 

in with 

QurVÄyed'/connection the Jewish contrlbutlon to the variou5i brrinche'^ of 

Jurisprudcnce . .. 

Ofner dled on September 24, 192A. Hir? ashes wem burir'.] on the 

Jewl h cenetary in Vienna in an honorary tornb which beara tnf? inncription 

he hlir.aelf haa chosen: *!A Knn w hoffe only alfn was to b e a ^. ^n.'' A few '■:: ' 

years later a monument consistin/? of his head has been erected in Vienna. 



>' ■■' .} 

1 I- 

•11. ' 


Epochmakinp; as the works olJUnger and Glaaer were In the dorualna 
of the civil and crirainal law, the aubaequent participatiön of Jurist s 
of «J^ewiah dencent in theae fields - qbite apart from the unlque works 
anci j-'Ctlvlties of Steinbach and Ofner - resulted in remarkable productionu" 
aomc of which rank rank among the suprerrie feats of Auatrian ^nd modern 
Jurieprudence in general. Within the framev^4rk of thia atudy only aome 
of the me llQT achievementa can be singled out aa ©xamples and not more 
than a acanty bibliographical survey of other worka »ith as unevoidr^ble 
ae' r<:^ret table omiaf^iona can be presented« v 


Although the firat moat complete compe-^dium ( Griinjir3.;X-) 
of the Auatrian civil law whicli appeared after Unger'a worlc wis written 
by Joaef Kraiöz^and poatjiumoualy edtlted by Leopold Pf äff i bot'i of v^hom 
were non-Jewiah «cholara. the third edition of thi? work , pu"; inhod i:i 
1899 by the outatanding Jewiah-born JJUrist Armin Ehrenzw* ^l;r \ 1354-1935 ) 




j. jt---» — -~-. 




. - ?0 - 

profrgsor at th^Unlveralty of Graz, was älready to a Rreat extent a nov 

f • 
creatlon. Ehrenzvrelg produced also the next two edltlona whlch wcre 

easentlally hls own work. j The alith edltlon of t^'^ gru^driaa. publlshed 

in 1925/26 , aasumed i*lnally « auch an original character. that 2hrenzwelpr 

feit entltled to publlsh It aa Syatei^ den g^terreichiachen A llpgme.l-men 

Prlvatrechta under hia own name« Hls work'- conalstlng of three volunea -i 


was dlatinglphed by (an examplary dlspogltlon , )a clear and penetratlng 

Interpretation^ an almost universal reference to the per':lnent acholorly 
llterature, a aound crltlolam of the curront judlclal practice and by 
a rare lucldlty of style. Owln^ to all theae merlts, Ehren zwe 1 (7 ' a S yatem 
served aa the moat populär Pnd xtxJdcJncxxK authorltatlve work of reference 
on the divll law for Auat^iar law^ers.« The indifipenaabllty of the work 
has be -n proved by the faet; thatjlts -re-editlo»,arranged by Adolf 
Ehrenzwelß, Armla E?renzwelf^* a aon, haa been Inaugürated after the 
re-constltutlon of the Aüatrlan Republic. 

Another outatändlng thcorfttlöiai of the civil law was Hprace 

Krasnopolskl ( 1842-1908 ) who becnme the aucccsior of J'^aeC ICralnz at 

the Unlveralty of Prague where he tauc^ht frciri 1872 until hia death. '*^e 

waa thrice elected Dekan ( dean ) of the Law Faculty of Prapfue . 'Apart 

fror aeveral monographic worka,Kraan6polskl left a manupcrlpt of a 

complete textbook of the Auatrian civil law which was publlahed In three 

volumee/ Bruno Kafkat profe8f=!or at the Unlveralty of Prague , who llke 

Kraanopolakl was a Jew« 

Amoftg the Vlenneae Jewlah Juri ata, Joref Schey von Kpromla 

( 1853 - )f profeaaor at the Unlveralty of Vlenna, pained auch a 

reputation that he became a member of the Houae of Lorda. There he aerved 

aa the repotter of the Committie -of Juatlöe» .In this capacity aa well aa 

a meraber of the Commiaaion for the Revision of the Civil Code, Schey haa 

greatly contributed to the final formulation of the novela to th<^ Civil 

Code K aee above p. )/• /^a an author he halda an hfcgh rank due to hin 

f ■ 

- 21 - 

= li' 



nunierous aolld publlcatlone , nhö^'b all by vlrtue of hl» maftorl?' edjtion 
of the Civil Code, which becam«? a verltable tcol of Au'^trlan Jurlta - nd 
a model of sVmllar edltioni of other lawa. A new edition;t "':- P4th(l95r 
to be followed by the 25th ( 1955 ) -Ihaa be(n publlahed a^^ter the end of 
the Nazi rule.'Dr» Hans Kapfer, Auntrlan Nlniater of Justice, bec^me the 
edltor of the book which on its title page still beara the n'^me of 

V*,' „J ' ' ■ 

Josef V. ßchey.h 

Another Standard wörk on the Austrian civil law, .Komr(i'':'ritar zum ^ 
Allgemeinen Bürgerlichen Geaetzbuch i was edited durlng tho last yearn of 
the Aurtri?n Republie ( 1931-1935 ) by Heinrihh Klane; wlth the cooperrtio'/ 
of a group of collaborat6r«f -ptedotoinan^ly^conaisting of Jewieh born 
Juri'^ta: Smanuel Adler. Ernst Bettelheimt Artur Lenhof "" . C?crr Plr^ko» 

Achilles Rannoport . Joaef Schell, Wilhelm Schlesinger. Egon '//eiar . 

Jpaef V. Schey. Klang ( b. in Vlenna 1875 ) war an active Judp-e ?nd 

tau/7'it civil law at the Univerrity of Vlenna. At th tlrae of Austrla'a 

aeizurf? by the N?uzis, Klan# wj^j-^ a pre«tding Judge at th«- .'^u^'^rlor Court 

of Vienr^a. Ke warjin 1938 döprlv^d nf hia office and in 194'? deoorted to 

the concentration camp of Thereaienstadt . He survived the ordoal and 

returned to Vifenna in July, 194'3. In the aame year he wa? ap ointed 

jChaiJrmant of a aenate of the "i^uprenie Court. |He alro was elec',<? ! ?re<^ä.dent 

of Xhe Wiene r Jurlatiache Gepellschaft and experl nc d the n.:i visf jjctlon 

of hav'.c^ been able to atart the publication ef a newly edit'-d Kon^rrientar^ 

Heinrich Klang died in 1854 and was buried in an honorary rr v-:^ ■ f tie 

Jewlah cemetar^ In Vienna. 

Juri st s of Jewish de^cent 'have alsiD pcreatly ctdntrlbut- ■ to tlie 
niionopgraphlc f 

/liternture on the Oivil Itw. T^ieir pioneerlng worka appc .?r(.". In ouicc 

aucceBaion«! Sbome of th«itt b ^^ay be liated here. In lo9C Jor,^:' v. Schey 

publi shed hi s Die obligatorischen Verh*^ltniare der? ^ ^at e r^>o :^c -ir chon_ 

, ( 1852-192^ ) 

AI liiie me inen Prlvatrechta . \ _?uge n_j;hrlicmiTio a o o n w a a t o l: '^ r n n e t h r 

.1 i ' ■■ i 

•• j • . ! ■ 

■ ■ ! 1 

■■■. f'T '1? 

.li';: ■•iJi i 

■ ■.'•; 




- ""• •*"■■ 

■ f, ^^, ., ^ , , .,, .» , 

' 'inif'(ir7(--7rr'' 


Champion of a new Juristfcc disclpline, th^ Bot^ölofry of'Law.( aew below 

P* ), dealt wlth one of the möat" Intrlcate problema of thc civil law 

In hla study Die atillachweiire nclc Wil l»c8orkIf^run g:( 1893 ) .Jn' tho sam** ' 

year Julius Ofner enrlched the -Au strj. anlegal literature by a syateir.atic 

work on the law oijpropertyt Daa Sachenre cht. In 1895 Armin ^hrenzwcig 

publiahed a fundamental book on the law of contracts, Die fl oprena nnten 

awelprliedrjg'en Verträge« Insbegondere die Verträg e zu fr'^nflten Dritte r... 

C - 194177 

Jq ref Hupka who became one of the most epteemed teachers at the 

Ubiveraity of Vlonna produced tWo thöroucrh .atudlea about authorizationJ 
Die Vollmacht ( 1900 ) and Stellvertretung und Vollmacht ( 1902 ) . 
In the aphere of civil procedure Ge^rg Petschek ( ) who originally 

taught taught on the Unlveraitles of Prague .c^nd Czemowitz, but after 
V/orld War I became honoraryN professor of civil proceÄure at the 
Universlty of Vienna > dealt already in his Inaugural theri« Zwa ngavoll- 
fltreökun^ in Forderungen wlth a pro*^l*ff of execution accordlng the 
newly created law. 

? Prior to the above rnentioned monographs ]the moat c'oirrprehenBiye. 

wofck on the Auathan mafriage law, Da? Oeeterreichaiche Eherec ht had been 
publiahed in 1875 by Educrd Rittner ( born in Bur^ztyn, (xfillcia in 1845, 
d. )f a acholar of Jewlah descent who had embraced Catholicism and 

taught Qanon' laW tex at the Un veraity of Lwow,^ .'\8 a marginal note may 
be reorded here the paradoxical fact that /^besides Rittner two other 
baptized Jews beame experts of the Canon law: Heinrich Sinprer ( 1855- 
1934 ) who flince 1896 until 1925 taught thia discipline aa füll profespor 
at the Univeraity of Prague, and Alfred v. Halban (originally B^ehenatock. 
bM865» d« 1925, active flrat at the Univercity of Coemowitz and later 
at the Univeraity of Lwow/where he tatjidat German law and comparative 




I . 

- 23 - 

Duo to the Aufltrlan social l**^i£latlon whlch had be -n Inltlated 
by Steinbachi'^nd devoloped by later lawa, the labor law becpme a :' 
favorlte eubject of Austrlan lawyers, particularly those of Jewlsh 
deacent. Julius Ofn6r\took thie lead.jAs early as I885 ' he/publlshed 
hia lecture on Das Recht auf Arbelt . In Aconnection wlth Ideas he had 

developedjlnTtwo prevloua lecture 8| Das Recht zu leben and Ue- ber d ap 

Rechtsprinz ip des Arbeitslohnga ( both publiaheäln 1884 ) Ofner 
poatulated the duty of aoclety to aecure the rights of the Indlvlduala 
to llvG and to work. The new profrressln^ leglslatlon wan aumnied up| In 
connectlon wlth the labor law of the Blvll Code/by Slr mund Grn7nberg 
( 1863- ) In a comprehen^ive annotated edltlon of the Statutes 

concernlng labor of all categoi^lii ( 1923 )• Grf'nberg- also wrote a 
special coiiimentar:Jon the law of co^'^^rcial emploreeg. .^Emanu el Adler 
( 1873 - )» profesror at the Universitv of Vlenna, thouc-h hl? 

primary sphere of IntereA wcre trade marks, n'-iires and petentn 
( System des österreichischen Mork^nrechts^ ( 1909» .- • Die N^men im 
deutschen und österreichischen Rf*cht^ . 1921 / , a prize winnin,T v;ork, 
Das örterreichische Patent^enetz ,^ 19?6 .) bocame Involved in Studie a 
about the then created Auatrian worker's Councils.. Hl<» publicatlons 
about thls subject aroused international atientlon. It wsf also 
ii^manuel Adler who prodüced the most comprehens*« work on the law of 
err:ployees and workers: Das i^ngestellten- und Arbeiterrecht . . .erl äutert » 
( 1930 ). In the aame year Artur Lenhoff, barrister and prcfes'or ^t ' 
the University of Vlenna /( see also below p. )j)ublished likewine a 
book on labor law, |bhe original atudv^ pDje Koalition -1? Gru nd 1 apre 
de ? Arbe itsrechts. 

Ap,?rt from the Just quoted works, -Sc'xx the last ten f&teful years 
of the Austrlan Hepublic law the appearance of many remarkable publica^» 

tiona on the civil law by Jurist« of Jewish orlgin. Heinrich Klang 

•?' ■ .- . • ■ ■ ■. 




- 24 - 

• t" 



.■who t an already mentloned , edited at that tlir.e hlp comment-irv on the 

Civil Code, aaplated by a phalanx of JewlPh Jurists , ; publlnhed alone 

between 1929 and 1936 four studles two of vrhlch deolt wlth t'ne then 

burnlng queatlon of the law of leaeae. The aame problem was also the 

Bubject of i.n ejcööllent lecture , Gerechtipikeitnldee und Ml6»te rn:Tg .qetz-» 

gebung. 1927, by the Vlennes barriate r Joaef Schell and of the study 

jl^ntscheldunpien zum Kletenge8el 2.||6v B^^l^nrl Cibi Kiwe , who llkevri.-ie w^^n 

a practleing lawyer of Vlehna« Another outstandlng Vlennege lawyer, 

Rud olf Bienenfeld, publlahed in 193*^ a pioneerlnp; stud^' on the 

liabllitiea without fault, Haftungen ohne Verschulden > a ncnterpi<3ce 

which won the award of the Dlerl "eriäöVTrt^tlt* lonra'An e'xcellent" boolc^'*: 

in Vienna alao 
about liabilities appeared; in 1936 under the title Die ^chulclhaftunv 

im ^^chade ne rsatzrecht * Ita author was 4U.bert Armin Ehren zw i^^- then 

He waa the 

lecturer at the Univeraity of Viewn^» ^ son of AI ^^ ^^ t. £hr ' n zv'g i p. 

( l675-^'^55 )» the younger brother of Arrc.' n ^hrenzwel^^. the authorti- 

g>r->tlr,.6^ Qfgteg tii ^g -a^t^ri^Uichi^<j>tt^ii ^a:ili<getnelniB'n:Priva i>re'ohtP . Albert» 
/ at 1 nat 'time profearor at the unlversity of Vienna, was an authority 

in the sphere ofjbhe law of Insurance, When he in the yeortl915 w' a 

called to the MiniatrVof Interior he soon became the head of the 

Department for private inaurance. It^waa he who draftfd the bill about 

private inaurance, who introduced>/in tae Parliaroent and achi-3ved its 


approval . ?The feat er^med hliri one o*'* the highe^t decoritlon« of InnDcrial 
Auatria.j In X929 he opübll ahed * iA Vienna a aummary of hla exnert vlewß - 
on the niattftr.' Die'Re6htBordunig: der Vertfrogavealcheru ng. ' The' Juri ^ti^'O 
frarework'whiiuh-Aibiart Ehrenzweig haatereated Inthiö boolc and in the 
leg;lslatiori H« häd iAltiateci wÄn tA a gr^at ei^ttftnt 'inrtruni(?ntal för-- . 
jt-he world*-wide"expa«lqji:Of the new aoclÄl Institution of private 

' • "••■• 

.j ,..-... .i > .. .. 

•i . 

- 25 - 

When Auatrla was annexed b^ i>i»zl Germanv, Albeit Rbr*?nzw^lpr 
was forced to emlcfrate to the U.S.A, where hl» flon Albert Armin 
t^hrenzwelp had settled and bf?C8Äe profeopor of law at the Unlverplty 
of California In Berkeley. After .the war, A'^bert Ehr<»n2wel(T tot^rned 
to Auatrla and was appolnted Hob. 'Professor of civil law and civil 
procedure at the Unlver?lty of Vlenna. There follöwed " two new com- 
prehcnalvc wörks: Deutsch^ g ( Oegterre ichlscb eg ) Ver a ich er recht 
( 1958 ) arid Die Rechtalehr e des V ^r sicherunffav e rtra/yes und die 
klaagjah h e Lppclk (195^ )• In the next year Albert Ehrenzweig dled 
In Vlenna • 

As a towerinsr flgure of Austrlan Jurisprudence and Au^trlan 
Jewr v Karl S^ uiuel Grflnhut ( 1844-1929 ), profesror of l'^''^ of ' 
oomrrierce at the Unlverslty of Vl*-«^ni and member of the .-louse of Lorda^ 
linköd the claaelc ape of C^lascr-Unp^er wlth that of the n:odern 
Jurist«, iie wa'^ the creatcr of the -uetrlan tatute on blll? of 
oxchange an i compoaed the Standard work 6n thla brancb of the law 
of ^6inm#:f^ii» Lehrbuch deg Wechse l rechts , 2 voluniea 1901., A shortened 
edltlon of thls work becarae one of the Indispensable tools of 
AuPtrlan lawyers. lOip^ünhut , thourh a ßpociallied expert In ^ partl- 
cular branch of law, perfcrmed« kxxflcxxxx also the hi^torlc ta^k of 
foundin,?: in 1874 the Jurlstlc periodlcal Zeitschrift ff^r Frlvnt. und 
öf -^e nt llchea Recht der Gep-enwart^ rhlch developed Into one of the 
leadlnifi: G-erman leljal orpans ?3nÄ became the mouthpiece of the new 
Auntrian law achool . It waä edlted for more than forty ye-iirs - untll 
1916 - bv Crr'Mnhut hlmnelf who al«ra WtB a proliflc contrlhutor to lt. 

In- t'he fl'iöld of 'th*? Iftwbf: bllln of exchaVipre «Ipo •*xcel'>c'; ' 
Xrn ' t Bettelhelm ( 1873 »194? )•,' a wellknowti Judpre of thf* rup^rior 
^•;^ ■ Court of yiennajj s'ee also below' p'. )I whb püblUshed Diar Int^tv 

nationale We^cha<?lTecht' ( 1^04' Injand Artur Lenhof f Whos«* :::inführung. 

... , 

/ ',1 

; . .. . . 


i ; 


- 26 - 

I i 

, * 

I . 

n t- 

. l'. 

. ' '*■ 

' ■ 'i' 
'■ ■ 'I. 

" . ff 

<^.' . 

1, . 

, i 

■.■ .J» ■' 

•' Vij> 

.1 1 • 

JLn__(!en c^ lnK eitl lche Wechaelrecht appeare"! in 1933. 

-A plon«ar In the epher««? of the law of comiT:(»rce -ra?^ the J^wir-h 
born Qgkar PI q] tQ ( 1876-1939 ), profea^or at the Unlver='ity of Vienna. 
He adapljed the famous atandard wor k Kommentar zum deutschen Handelifi- 
ges'^itzbuGh bv the Germen-Jewlah Jurist Hermann Staub sc|perf ectly f-irr 

Aufltrla that the Austrlan verslon equaM^^cIlln thoroUftrhness and luciditv- 
the "• ^ 

l'örlglnal. Thua " Staub-f lako" became e unlveraallv roco^nied referenöe 


\-' ■ 

i ' '. . • I * ' 

boo'c,for Austrlsn Jüdpea and practlilhö lawyern alike'. i^lrko v;a? also 
the .'utiior of hl 3 own,. Lehrbuch öes H.gndelsrecht a . ( 1923 ) and of varlous 
möno/T.' phs, particulBTliT of the ort«inaT atudy. Dgg Uriter nehme n a la 
Grge nptand de^ Kechterwebea . 

Also at the unlverpltl^o of Prap:ue and Czernowitz thr law of 
comrerc;? wa? tauo-ht by Jewifh acholara. Iti Praprue, Otto Fr onkl ( 185S- 
192^ ) held the chalr of a füll profeasbr of that dl^clolin- , v;hlT</ 
Kar l lU. Lo y ( 1865 - )» author of..Qa^ öate rre lchalche La r/r i -'haur^ recht 

( 139P ) and ,l Ja f3 öaterreichi n ch e Vechqelrecht ( 1904.) becan/^ prof'?f?sor 
at the Unlverslty of Czemovrltz and was elected Rectod* of thl;! Universlt 
in 1910. 

. I 


, ' .1. 

.' 1 ; ,.' 

r> ,-' 

The Problem of le^al limitötlbns of competltion v;5 : trested 

particularly by t 'O Vlennea lawyersJ Hein ri ch Kjwe / ( soe ol '^ o-g.- ) j 

^. "' 

edlted the Auptrian law apainst unfair compef ition wit'i n toinrnentary 

apart frp-man analojarovp edition, 
in 193'^. w^lereaa Erich Saxl ( - 1962 ),ypubliahed in 195';^ "^ho monor.raph 

v/ettbew<grbs recht und G-ealnn unn:. Saxl/gained au-h an intern c'tlonnl 

reputation that hej aa an exile already in 1939 in Cooperation with 

Harry Torcziner wa^ able to publlah ( in French ) the took i 'Otion 

<3|e e us ap ^eg h6nn^te^ en matiere commerciale ( Recherche en di'olt coiiapar4/ 

in Brucaela. 

PjoneerinfT work waa also done concemln^ copyr^ghtp, patente 

and trademarka by Ernet Bettelheim ( aee pp. ) who in 1901 published 

I , k 


r.' ■ ' 

i: ' I 
,. i , 

II : 

■*♦•-'■- -•■ 

- ' ?1 - 


■ iji 

... I ! 

'1 ! 

!■ I 

1 I 

l • .i ! 

ga? _.He t. lit ' d^, g _ Srf in de t^B . V .^ fiv '>_ t cma tisch dar.Tefftellf , b v .^::r • ^ 'i \J:T.1 ... A ';?,|e r_ 

v}iö!3C ii Iready mea^loned work on trademarka ( se p. j r'i'p-' '.M^fid th'^j 

bsislo t?^t book on that matter, by the Vlenne^e lowyer giiul .AMl^ 

( '• . •' 7 and' by. Karl Wähle ( ae . p. '). 

Wlthln the llteraturo to whlch the fteW; itatutoi m <!:*izil 

procoedlngf the OeaterrelcÜGchf^' Zivljprozesp-Ordnunp: »r-iv ^ r' n^ f-f* 

'^rrks o.f JewlPh JuriPta hold the flrst r^nk. C^They gub]»^:"'^ ^h- liv 

to 3 penetratlng analysla nnö Interpretlön »whlch revealec t' • hlrklin 

quäl it.! es of the reform and frreatly helped to dcvelop th^ rnc :lorn 

method ot trooedure«] $eorp; Petfcchek .( see above p. ) lectjrf;d on 

- ?raßü«i. Cze nowltz and Vlenna - 
three Auatriart' univorsltie'-\^: ijct the nev Statute and compoped a 

aerieg of inonographs and artlölesabout the aubject. The n:ont oopular 

Koirment -^r zur Z ivilprozeapordn unjp; was composed by Oeorp' iveir ann 

( ) chalman of a senate of the Superlor Court of 'i^nns , 

whire R u(5olf Pollak ( 1864 ) who orlulnolly arrvec «a 

counclllor at the SupeMorr Court of Vlenna .ind later became profespor 

of civil proceedinc' at the Unlvernity of Vlenna, In hls classic 

System des Öaterreichiachen ^Ivllorozeaprechtg^^ not o*^ly offered rao?t 

uaeful interpretatlona of the Statute but incidentallyi illunlnated 

ita inner structure and the underlyinpr principles, 


V/hlle thanka to the efforts of Julius Glaaer -^ new modern 

crlmlnal procedure waa introduced in Austria ( ae above p. ) , ■.. .. 

/ the obsolate Aufitrlan crimnal Code renained unchanred. The reform of 

the crinlnal law became therefore one of Julius Ofncr's main concems. 

Perhaps in no aphere of hia natoyalded actlvities 0;5ner'a deep humaneness 

manifefl(tea itself ao strdngly aa in hia tlreles.? strugfrle Jor the 

^*'*»>*. «.^ 



abolition of mt offensive meaaures and '|for the Introductlon of modern 
institutions into the Auatrian criminal leglalation. The Lex Ofner 



^> J 

- 28 - 

ii See above p. )|waa only one of the vltel Innovation^ for which 

Ofner foui^ht on the Parllament and by hls ever ready pen. The creatlon 

of & J'venile O^urt and the Introductlon of probatio-i', the Inprovenent 

of prlaons, the care for releaded convicts, the admis-ion of women 

to Jurles were the ma^nialms whlcPi he pürrued wlth relentlesn tenaclty. 

i>iumerous are the articles whlch Ä«l/^ubllshed Izi in varlou? perdodlcala 

about criirinal law and ita reform. On of tif? earlleat pamphlets, 

publlahed in 1890, Rcforinvor8chI*>^e zum iBtrafp-csetzentwurf devoted 

to thls subject and It Is Bymbolloal that the very lapt llnes which he 

wrÄte for publicatlon and whlch actually; were publiPhec' onl^; post«». '. 

humously funder the title Pgychoanalvse und Str-^frecht and Strafvollzupc J 

in the dailv paper Der Mor,<yen on SB and 9.9 September 19^?4 clealt with 

Problems of criminal law and Its reform. 

Arron.o- the Austrian criminoloFlstfl of Jcwi="h decent, Alexander 
Loeffler ( 1866-1929 )» profes-or at the urilverpity of Vienna, rsnked 
very hl /7h. Hia inau/^ural the Pia, Schuldforiren der Strafrechtr? ( 1895 ) 
was the flrf^t compar^tlve and fieoretic^l urvey of form? of pru'lt 
ever underta^^en und proved of lastin^ influenae • Another "first" wiich 
owes its origln to Loeffler ia the Journal Oeaterreichi^ ic he Zeitschrift 
fOr St raf recht, It was founded by Loeffler In 1890 and edlted by hlm 
untll 1918-1 No magazikne of thia kin.4 existed In Aurtria reviousl^'. / 
j ^ Loeffler was an ardent Promoter of a reformatory treatment of Juvenile 
delinqu«^ts. He devoted t6 this queition hia book Die strafrechtliche 
Behandlung Jugendlicher» 

ii^mst Lohs ing (1874^194??). a brllliant Vienneae barriater, 

fbeßame a apecialisti'on criirinal proceedin^« HejpubliPhed in 1912 hi? 

comprehensive Oesterre i chisches Straf p rozes .pre s cht a second edition of 

which appeared twenty yeara latert When fhowever, a few yearp afterwards, 

the Aüstrien atatute ofrproceeding -Glikier' 3 work - waa atolinhed by 

. 29 - 

I . 

(••• ' 

( i 

r > 

1 ■ 

' '! 

th€ Mazl regime, Lohalnp, the «cute «nalytt of l«gal proceedlrif:', woa 
to becoire « traWc vlctlm of lawleBsnes» llke iTinunerftbl?» other Jews. 
He was dtpol«t«3 and perlahed In a concentratlon camp probäbly In 1942. 

Trm only profeaflor of rallltary crjminal law et the Unlversltv 
of Vlenna Gepr y Le lw»r^ ( ' ' )/ifat also of Jewlah orlp'ln« He had 

aerved In tho army an *'öerteral Audltoi^"l the hlprheat ran^c of a rllltary 
law off leer ) and became a member of the Suprene Court. le wa^« th« 
•dltor of the Austrlan Military Crlmlnal Cod« and the author of aeveral 
worka nbout thls aubject. 

Crlmlnologyi particularly the problema of crimlnal inve8tlp;ation 

anc crimlnal paycho-pathalogy , were the domaine cf the Vlen^^-»*« lawyar 

• . •■ 

g},e rfried Türkei ( ) . His bock«. Die krimin elle Geistea- 

krc nlchffit ( 1905 ) and L>i^ Zurechnun^afWhlykeit belonp^ to th*^ latter 
• phere, while atudiea like Daa Aug;» als Identifizierung-yrru n na/ore 
( 1927 ) were comtributiona to the development of crimlnoloicrical 

I 1 li 

» » 

■ f; ' 


ii '. 


No branch of Juriediction in ao expoaed to critlclr- ^^ that 

of the crimlnal courta. Thia waa the caae eaDecially in Au^tri'» where 

an antiquated crimlnal code and a conaenrative tradition rave tline 

anc agÄtnrise to di8flatif?faction and bittemea?, It wa? not the praallept 

the Ausjjirian . 

merit of^^ewi?h Juriata thal|from their renk« came many flphtera a^fllnat 

"the lavf'a delay» the inaolence of of"^lce." In vrila aphere, too » Jullu« 

Ofner ha» to be mentionetiit the firat place. He ncver «rot t ■ red lo 1 J 

critieize the Judicial aysttm and miacarria^re of Justice r^rtlculntly 

memorable ia Ofner'a campaign for the rehabilitation of Leopold Hilaner» 

the vlctim of the ritual murder superatltion whoae deeth per-altv had 

been commuted in life impriaonment. Ofner puraued thia atru|r,<i:le in 

Parliaroent and by publicationa for 18 yeara. It was finally th« rfr^utiilt^ 

« deputation of 
proaentad by &Xlii« at the.haad ofj^he Auatr&an Jowiah Uliion to the 

- 30 - 

Minister of Juitic«, v. Schautr, on Maroh 19i 1918 tha^^ pr'M l«d 


Hiitner'i amnenty yranted by tho i^mperor Charlet- 


l One of Ofner'i la«t artlclt« - publl»hed inJDo|^ Kor-en 

J; nn Lioo£rob«r 24, 1923» wa« a sharp d^nunclatlon of the Inhumjm ln"*tltu^ 

1 .»; 

' r 

tlov ^ejQ^Sciiulji»*' li 'Ä ^ntltl«d the pollce to expelj who w^re found 

r]V \ 

[f ! ' gul^'tv of (ven petty off#nc«si from communltla» where thev had ref^lded 
|: iii for aony yecra tut were not legally domiclled .^ Ofnar »tron^fly .advocated 

■■['...■ • ■ ■ ■ 

the abolltlon of thli arbltrary practica - a damand whlch tho prescnt 
•;" author reltorated In hla parophl^t* Recht und Unrecht der Sutwiaun;^ 

'li' ! 

) -^ 

c ^ 



( 1931 ) dcvottd to the quastlon of expalsion in general. 

A soecial itudy would ba needed to survey the nurabrlep«^ 

1 !' , «'.■■• • T« • •- - 

j!' ■'■;,' articlaa whinh Jawlth lanyan»»' publiahed in periodlcala to the purpoae 
I '■' • of acrutinlzinii Jurladlctlon In apaclal caaei and aaklng remedy or 

'• •• ■' .; • ■ ■■. ^. ■■■■-, ■ •' .': .•■.,..••. 

' i ; outrlpht reformation of the ttatutan« One of the moat forraldable pena 

In thia rejupact waa wlclded bv Walter Rohde ( ) a dynanlc 

Vlennase crlminal lawyar. Hla davaitatlng' pawphlats Garicht ^ber de m 

'Oba raten Gerichathöf ( ) and Oeaterreicht Fröhl iche Agonie A 192? ') 

the Cartoons of 
were satireft an |>blgnliftt''?i9y Henri Daumler. A partlcular place of 

honor amcniB; the critiaa of criminal Juriadiction and le^lalation is due 

to Hugo Sperber { - 1939 <^ )/, parhapa the wittleBt and one of the 

"^ • ' 

' mo8t popu'ar Austrlan crimonal lawveri. A leirend haf» be n woven «round 

him fully Juatilfied by hla iTrre'aratlblib'^ humor whlch proved often the 

moat affective weapon. In hlp paophlet Die Lf^ge in Strafrecht ( 192? ) 

Sperberi'unveiled the c^ntradictlons and hypocrisiea of th€ prevaleht 

Sperber* a 
criminal ayatem. Ncither ktÄl/oopularlty nar tM dlaarming charm of hia 

hilarioua natura were, however, able to aave hia llfe when the alnlater 

Power that proclafcmed without ahame the reign of Her amaahed the 

Allatrian Republic* Xt took not long that the brave fighter auccuirbed 

^ V ( 

to the brutalitlea he had to endure in the concentartion camp in Dachau 

I«' •• . •• 



- 31 - 

Not A lawyer but Auftrla'i »rr««te»t ■atiriatt „;^:arl,.K raufi 

( I87A-I936 ),brouflrht Auttrlan crlmtnal Jurlidlctlon 1t) the focus of 
th« nioit panetratlng ll^ht. H« envleaTei the fralltlen ond c!«»flcl<>nol#i 
of Auatrlanjudlclal practloe aa a i^art of a peneral decav, complec^ncy 

and moral weaknaas. Tha oourtt and th# Judrea, but no le«* the lawyera 


andp abova allt the praaa aa the pllant ln«truinent of judlcial Publicity 
becama the targeta of hla fulBilAlint' aftd ralentleaaiattaclcir. Hl« flrat 
book, Sittl ichkeit und Krininalityt .(- .'- ») ^^iileollactlon 6f artlölea , 
published In hl« own magazlna, Die Fackel, haa beeh called a flamln^ 
defence plea for the texual crlmlnal who becsmo a vlctlm of crimlnal 
morallty. jKrfüa accuaed a llfeleas Judiclary, a «enaatlonali^t praaa 
and a hypocrltlcal aoolety of a oonapiracy for the protection of a 
mandacloua morallty and aaked for a clearcut «eparatlon of morality 
and crlmlnallty, for tha Rbatentlon of the courta from the private, 

«, . 'V... 

• ap^clalljr XX the aexual life of Indlxrldual« 



A ■ 

The hlatorlcal achool ha« b«en founded by the '"•rraan Jurist 
Karl V* SgviffnY « but It waa Joraf Ungar and Jullü« GlAner v.'bo psvod the 
way for an hlstorlcel trertoent 0^ the Aurtrisan law. "^lla, however» 
the hlatorlcal aapect of the lAw wa» Incorporated In ünrerS Sya tem 
and In Glaser*« Straforoae«'' .manv Jewlah Jurietfl aade hl«torv of law 
lt«elf and Independent and «ometlmes eyclu«^lve «ubjert of thelr «tudlea» 

Ono of the nioit outatandlnur Romanlfta was Euiren Shrllch ( «ep 

above p. ). Although the foundatlöh of the fcoclology of law wa« to 

'....■■ . . |.,.. >•.. 

become hla epoch maklng Gontrlbutlon to Jurl«prudenc^. ( «ft* below pp. )/ 
It was Ju«t hl» profoimd knowledge of the Roman law whieh helped hlm 
to deBomatrote the aoalologloal «ethod on the Infftltutlnn« of the moat 
perfect anclent lagal ayatam. Ehrlicb*f ^l^oiianlat^^a «tudle« coinprl«e 


- 32 - 

y ,'1* 

1. •■; ' 

: h ■ 



iL ' ' 

t ' 

( I 

, ! I 

: I 

ü r 



amo jB' other« 

Beltr»^f^e zur Theorie der Recht gguellen ( 1 90 ^ ) ^ n d \ül e ^ ; n:CMn;y e.^e «_ . \ 

te^tairentuBi per «et et llbram [ 1903 ) iAlü^-^Fhrllöh?!« fcolrj •öolöl6f65lial 

wor'^ nnd the itudy Die RechtwfHhigkeit publitthed In 1909 a« the openlng 

vol^Ti:« of the collectloni of monofr^ph!» edl + ed by the pr'?»^nt wrlter 

abound in hlatorioal obiervetJon« of the Roman and other law«, 

Lilcft Ehrlich another hft^torlan of the Roman law, Ad olf ^ Ber^eri 

halled from the' Eaatern'Jewry of the ^Aüati?ian Konärchy. He vra«: bom 

In Lwov/ In I882f itudled there and ?^t thf ünlverülty of b«r ' in, «pecla- 

llzlnfT e&rly In itudiea on Roman and Graeco^Eprvptlan papyri.'ie publllhed 

Die Str aflclfeüaelil in d^nPapyruiurkunden In 1912 and tecaTio Profeeaor 

ofRonajn law 

at the ünirertity of Rome 19lA-15.^He aerved from 1918 to \)'^7 ap 

Secretaryto the Polith La^ation in Vienna und wae decorat-'^c wlth the 

Golden Medril of Diatinotion by the Auptrlan Reoubllo i'^ 19V * 3v vlrtue . 

of hl» Romaniatfcn itudle«he w«? appolnted Professor o"^ Rofcr, ^aw at the 

French Unlvcr?lty in New York in 194? and viaitlnp profe«.«or of Roman 

Law at! the Qitj Cöllegeln New York. Berber contrtbütad IOC /irtlclea 

to Pauly-Wii aowa * s Realenzyklopaedle der klaaa lac hen Ale rtu mf künde . 

and publlahed in 1953 bit own Encyclopedic Dlctlonary of R^' nn Lj^w. 

Stephan Braarloff (b> in Vienna 1875> Theralfnatndt 19'^2 ) 

taujgh" Roman Law at the Univertity of Viebna from 1903 untll 1938» 

■ •',*■ I • 


He produced a aerie« of original hiatorioal workt. The eirphaala oti 
social aapecta ia a eharacterlttlc feature of tome ^f them: Zur Ken ftt j^if 
deg Volkarechtea 'n den ro in ar^l gierten Ogtprovlncrr de» r?5mlachen 
Kalaerrei c h^C 1903 ); Studien zur i^ te i^odtemi Racht??ire;!chlhh te ( 1925 ); 

L.- ,-..■■.■.:, 

Der r^mi'^che Stqat und aeine internationalen Beziehungen ( 1928 ) 
f Poagegaio*^in den ^-chriften der r'^mifchen Juristen ( 1928 ) ; i( 
Staat und Geaellichaft in der r^aiachen Kgiaergelt (1933 ); 
Sozialpolitiache Motive in der r^aiachen Rechtaentwlcklung ( 1933 ) 
Bra«"lorfwas alao lectux^r on the Collc|iiof Comnierce of Vienna« 


- 33 - 




*ilF woj'r^ on thc subject? whlch he tauprht ther» comprli^c J. .'Aüi-«!!-, 

* f I • 

<^er of ntffrreic l tchen Verfa«unjrr^<cunde ( 1908» •eccnd edl !914 ); , 


6'!?formen und Reformvpr i chl^ire auf dem Gebiet 6er Priva trech [.j wr\(i , 

+ 1., 

r^ . I V 

i .' !. 

. I 

4ivil)prö2egffrechtfl ) 1936 ) Thu^ BrnsPloff- a tlT^lecS'-ij 

, , . .. a 

eifiay» and treatlese oan be found In ho?'t of lenimed ma/fra.A' 'S» - 
Oven in the ver7 Taifebrearf of the Re public was anjclauffl to contrlbut^ 

: öf j. 

to the rcforni)^AüftflrnlÄWi*But when the Nazi«; «lelzed power In Auftrla, 
he was forced to rotire. In Marcli 1939 he waf deprlved of hfs pen^ion. 
In Augu*?t 194? followed the deportation to Thoreaien«tadt» There he 
dri^d / alreody on February 28, 1943. 

Staniglaug '^inel.ea ( "^ ' )» llMrewi^e profe««or of Roman 

law at the University of Vicnrt^ » founded the p^riodical Galm which 
wagiexclufllvely deatined to the reaearch on thl« dieclplilie, 

The hiitory of German law, too, was preatly enriched by 


• dhaliii^i öf Aüatro-Jewlih origln. Sigmund Adler ( 1853 - 1920 ), 

A irother of Vletor Adler, the father of th« AuBtrian aocial-demccratlc 

party, |wa« pröfei^or at the Uni^er?lty of Vier>na and eoncentrated nalnly 

on the hiat^rlcal devolopment of Austrian law. Cne of hl« ^rlncipäl 

wo r k a . Die O^^irranitqtion der Cetatralverwaltu^g K^iaer Maciroilan"^ X 

auf urloi ndllche r Grundlage dara;eBtellt ,( 188^ } deölt /ith/ ^tdmirtlrtratlT-' 

meaaure^ of the'EöJperor Maximilian, the founder of Austrian unitT,(Of 

Adler • B^th^j» Vörkö »ny be nientioned- Zur Rechlg ^eachlc t^te de a s^dell/iien 

Gruncühn Sit 7,v:r* in Ocpterrelch (190? ) and \e Urlt er ric h ^ «ver f^a'^iTniar. . 

Let)i^oidali i 1917 ) :^1 

-' Eail 0<iI<laanty-^7 b. . 1hl Kal*itbadM8V3\ 'd'. In' Cambridge 1942 )" Wai 
a achoL ar^' 
{^f international reputation in many fieldfll>.who delved deeply In the 

most controvefeial problema of German Inw hlBt-^ry ^nd often arrived at 

and llniKüi'ptio 
«urprialn^ resulta by tdlff ethnologicaly6xaminr*tionioöf the löurce«. 

Thua he fpr inatance discoT«red eleroenta of roagic in varlofifr» form« of 


- 34 - 


I 1 • 


medleaval oftt;tit. The Ittllan icholar Devoto hat clled Goldmann 
"ll naijff^cr rerpeientante del Rlurlotldel metodo llnjulrtlco ." 
OoldmanA Laminate ■peclallzöti.on led to numeroua orl.crlnal publlcatlons, 
llko hlfi Beitr^pie zur Geichlchte def fr^n^i gehen ReGh<>eg ( 1924 ) and ,,, 
Chreneohruda( 1931 )• deallng wlth th<? »yateroo«« Chrenechruda cere. - .j 
mony whlch ■'*e man who commltted a inan«lau«Thter had to perfor»# 
Goldmann contrlbuted alfo numeroui articlep to the Vork of referecn© .^ 
about German luperstltlon, Handw ört erbuc h der; deutachen Aberglauben! t ' ■ 

Goldir.annf a man of ifrreat p^rflonal ch-^rm, became one of the most 
beloved and populal^ profetpori of the lavr faeulty of the Unlverplty 
of Vlenna where he tauscht from 1903 to 1938. It waa due to hla Jowlah 
orlgln that he had to walt fcr the itatus of an Ordinarius untll 1933 
vherT^he reacbed hl« alxtleth year. Llke Braialoff and hla other 
Jevflih «ollcftudij. Goldmann wat depr:*^ved of hls profetsorahlp by the 
Nazi government In 193Ö. But he rcceived in the «ame year a radiojBcram 
from i^r. D.A. Seip, Rector of the Undveristy of Oslo, inviting hlm 
to lecture at this first Norvefj^lan univeraity on the histor^ of GennÄi 
and ii-truacolo^y in whlch acience Goldm-nn hgd likewise excelled and 
becozne renowned by a aerlep of publications . Althou/rh Goldn-.ann throu<rh 
the Intervention of Lord Cecil wa* enabled to come, in Company with hii? 
wife and coworker, Roaa Qoldmann, twcxxwac to England, he was orevented 
by ithe outbre^^k of the war'in which Norwa^'Jbrcairif involved 'to oroceed to 
Oslcai . He f^und refuge in <&aabri'd>^ atid dlfed theudt^n the stret bv afla. 
heart attack on May 6, 1942. Hla literary heritarte has been acquired 
by the Mor^k Fol kyrou seym ,in Byprdoy near O»ilo, where^^ Itr h^p beon made 
acceaaible In a special room to »c'-^^^lars and to the publio. 

Am6ng the livlng historian?. of German law,_G uid o Xjgcli ( bom 
in Prague 1889 ) belongs by hii blrth and by hi« eduonion: ilv Pr;^gue 
f wÄere such eminent lahdiari acLWeasely,, Kraanopklaki , i^rrn'clji'etfichek 

- 55 - 

and Bruno Kafka have taucht/ to the orblt of Auatro-Jewlnh JurlJiti. 
Guido Kiachf the aon of AleKander Kl ich, a dlatlngulaejied rabbl of 
Pra,^e^ hat beooma oqually proüuctlve In the realm of b'^th lurlsprudence 
and Hebrew lore, a rare, indeed, a .unlque aace In the hl?jtorv of 
modern 'Jtirl*f prüden co . Klach t.Au^ht hlstory of the Qerman lavf at 
profeiPor st the unlrarfltles of Leipzig, K?5nlgibericr anc' Halle untll | 

1933» Slnce ha left Germanv he hai been actlve a» a vlsltln«^ profeasor 
of the Jewlah Inttltute of Religion, New York, and froni 195? to 195"=^ 
a« profeaaor of law at the Unlverslt.y of Basel* Hls nuirerou« booki 
comprlie atudles about the German law andJewlih hl^torj. In one of the» 
Guido Klach ha«, itranf^elv enoufth, aucceeded In raklng gt the aane tlme 
a major contrlbutlon to the hlBtory of the German law aa well aa to that 

of Judaiam. Thl« itudy, The SaehaeniPlegel and the Blble , 1942;^a8 

jrtJtitiBMto draw the attention of American acholara to the most out- 

atandln'T Germän le/ral work of the Middle Agea and to hla author, Elke 

It was also 

von Repirow, bu€yincldentallT\ythe flrat l'^culrr into the relatlon o^ 

>(— • 
that German law bock to the Blble. Whereaa the Gerrran hlstorlana of law 


had denled to JElk'* any knowledge of the Blble, i Klach was able to prove 
that £4ke nxx liaa been profoundly convera^nt wlt'n the Scrlpturea, that 
he even «raployedoral «^ewlah tradltlon aaone of hla aource?? and that 

. - ■ "* 

he moat prob'^blv was In peraonal contact wlth Jewlah acholarf». xi«f 

stifl9lxxwxjRX9ja3Diixkt3ixtnxi^atrxxi^a]Dit:ixin4txiBX](xtxxi9il^£;f ThUd Slocli^a 1 

C. study ahowed " 

juat In the ye^r when the "final aolutlon of the «Jewlah quefitlon" wa« 

reaolved In the heart of ^ernianyrttMt creatlve tfyi^ti^üriJPa ha^ b*'M 

stabil ahed betwen German law and »^udalam by the rrcateat Greraaan Jurlat 

In the thlrta-nth Century« 

In the aphere of the hlptor^ of nodem civil law th* Da«?it 

iBiportant work was performed by Julj>ua Of^er'a edltlon of the Urentwur f . 

» • ■ • 

i ( aee above p ) , In the fl^ld of crimlnal law, Aletander Loeffier In hla 


...w. tl.. 


- 3^ - ' 

Sobul dformen de« Strafrechtt ( »e* above p. ;)traced al«o th« hl^trical 
.-. orlfln of the foraa of triüln^lfr.ullt , Inoludlng those of the BlbUc^l 

^../ ■ ' ' 


A partlculer «kill and orlplnallty was exhlblted bv Auf'trlon 


author« of «Jewlch orlgln who cultlvated the hlftorv of pubTlc law and 
of thf» phlleaophy of law, Reference to these atudie« will be made In 
oonnectlon wlth the aurveir of .the icholprly actlvltles related to the 
"Juiüt mentlöned ,ball*' ditcipllnei. 

The nineteenth «entUrv law the eaer^ence of a new tci«?nce: 

, ■/ '•■ '''■'. ^' 

i. ■oclolof.y, Ulthough Au^utt CoBte frave the ttroni^eit Impulse tr Tieth-dlcal 

,i itudlep on aoclety and even cre-'ted the name noclology, t'ne indeoeadeüt 

.' dlaciollne of tocloToffT was born onlT After CoiBte'a dej^th IhJin^rs to the 

ploneerinfr worltn of Herbert Soencer In England it^ii'aul Durkheir In Fr.iince. 

of the German acholar« Feridlnand löanle«, Mar Weber and the Germ-^n- 

^;; Jewlth phllosot>her Georg Slnmiel,; It wat» however, left t-^ Au. trlan 

Jurlata of *^ewith origin not only to Introducejthe new doctrV ? to Au^trlüL 

but to apply it to the Cognition of Law. Thalf efforta pr6cee3cr' in two 

• ■* 

';, J ' älfferent' directione« On the one hamd , the ori,ffln and -^unctlon^ of the 

■ II.' . • 

" 'j/ 8tat'J5 were üiade- an obj^ct'of «peclal «tudleg« 'oud>flg Gunulo vcipz ( ace 

below p, ) pavcJ the way In thls reapect. On the other band, the geneaü 

of Iflrgal precept» and the quefttlon whether they reprepent the onlyajruroe 

.. • . • ^ 

of law became a matter of Inyefltic-ationa - It wae In pjirfluance of tliete 
Probleme thrjt the soclolofry of law par exoeljenc^ was ereated. 

It aeemt plaufilblife that Jullut Ofner» the flghter for a aoclally 
orientated legltlation» became the frecuraor of the new aofelal icience of 
law. He avoided, to be iure, the term *'aoclology'V and pref^rred > in the ^ 
veln of the then prevailing predllectio in natural icience - Ito advocate 
the "inductire netnod" in Jurieprudence. ^Ofnor considered the Jurlsprldenc^Q 

■• t 

• . .-ai'-Ak »;.;<C'' .iti^.V;- fl-'^i-.i' 



1 'r 


. t. 

.'! ' ■■ 

1 ' *'■ * 
■ \ * * 


' _ ■ 1 

.1." 1 ■ :, ',■ 

1 . ' 


:■*■ J . 

- 37 


whlch llirAta Itnelf to the Interprfttfetlonof th« law only s^i d • !irt 

of JuMfti« ■cle^^ce:; dlfferln^ -^rora the Interpre^atlre' Jurl^'p 'udence , 



* ■ * 

. ; ■ ( 


an other klnd of *ii2l'letlc^ •clfcnce had , accortflnf? to Ofrer. 'h-^ tc*k 
to InventlfTate thoae meana of "ucclal mechonic*" whlch, 11 'rr: -^icoTnoenfle, 
rewarcl, payaentf punlihraentf are able to parelTne actl'^n?' i^i:.: rln^ 
aoclal peace» Thl« klnd of Jürl« prüden ce would conteraet the a.)folutl)^in 
of the po^ltl« law and promote 4t» refor». -^tn tö«k waa actuallt that of 
le^al polltlcr ( "Rechtapolltik" ), but Ofner endeavor^ to tvanctovm thla 
polltlcöl actlvlty into a •olentiflc prepariitlon /Snä formulotlon of new 
lawa fmä to Incorporate auch a diaclpllne - the "Social Tcc)"no1.0(r7*' 
C fazlalitllfiÄÜüll!; ) a» he termed it - Into tbe body of Jurlnorviic^ce . 
He aiked therefore al«o to Include It In f^e ttudv plan of IJhe Jurlsts. . 
L^f^^er delineated In a aeriee of e^ffs^t the f^oala whlch would ^-^ 
har« to te reache* by the **£oclal Technology'.** Ar early.ap 1888, he 


developed In hli Studien sozialer Jurisprudenz hii demanda for three 

böiic rlfrhta: to live ( Das Recht ::u leben ) • to work ( Da^ Hecht auf 

Arb<?it) and to obtain the füll anount of m'jn*M produce ( Daa Recht auf 

:' d en vollen Arbeittertrag) . j In the epoch of rlalng eociallam and social 

"^ ' advocate 

. polltlci, O^ner thua beca«e the mott conaequent 'Of what he hlm-elf 

. called *'focial law*^ ( Dai aoziale Rechte ) . ht the same time Ofner 

I ■: . y,^ ■< ■■ ^ ' ■■■ • .... 

conceived and - in a lecture ~ «et folrth the Iden of a unlveraal law. 
After the pattem-tf Hillel'f famoui dictum, Ofner formulated hls o'-m 
concept of euch a law aa fol1owi!:"Act falthfully, have confidence and 

. . t 

JuBtify confidence: thla ia the tuana of law#" It wai not only in this 

, lecture that the «Jewish backpround of Ofner' u personality and the 

f' "^ 
inapiration he had received from ttudaiRB? beC'^T.e «anifeat. Mlthouarh 

, . • , -»^ — . 

aharply oppoaaü tc ilonlim, he declared to fe*6l patMotio prlde thät. 


(; ; ai'hia 'Bocial atudieahate ahewn hin, JeWiih' l^^i^lation was far abore 
!, any other ancient legialation by the lack of diacrimination between 

' ■> .'•, »t 

t '*!< uTii'.ir^^ 

- 38 - 



noblllty and «ommon ment b^tweun rieh and poor. Finelly^ In an artlcle 
publlBhed only three yeert before hiß de.^th, Ofncr deflned hla credo 
In the ientence: "Love wlthout Juitlce tum« eaally lnt:0 «entlrcentallty , 
nor ii there a true Justice wlthout lare." Thus Ofner uncon«cloualy 
proclaloed the baalc teneta of Judlalwiii almo?t llterally in the «ame way 
aa only most recentlv Robert Gord^a , ha? done in a paapap-e of hls bock, 

Th e Root and the Branch«* ***.* Juatloe wlthout love la venre^ulneap, love 

^ • • '. .■■•*".•■" 

wlthout Justice pentlmentallty.** , 

Wlth the fervor of a h'aaldlc Zadlk, Ofner puraued hli aearch for 

) n • . 

a aoclal law, utlng all the meana at hla dlposel and,flnfllly, br creatlnr 

- In 1916 -- 

^he Geaellac h aft ^for aozlAleg Rechl; ^In Cooperation wlth th<^ preaent 

wrlter who at the foundlng mefetlnir d^llvered' the'oo^nlng lecture. N^ue^ » 

R echtakgl^tyr and became the Hoir', Secretary of the poclety, The "Society 

for aoclal law" waa actually sj/aucces ör of the F reie .luri^t lache 

Vereinigung mhieh wat inltlated by the preaent author In order tO' promote 

^~-*. >,.•■'■ ' ' --7 ' 

a contact of Jurlaprudence wlth aoclology, paycholopry and phlloi?oph"(. 

'Mithin the framework of thJi aa'^oclation, the .author arranired a aeriea of 
paychologlcal experlmenta wlth the purooae of Iftv^fttl^a^^nr Into the 
aenae of law and Justice. One of thete exoeriiieft\l^ was cociblned wl*h 
an experlment on the 'depo« itlons of wltnereev. An exo^rlm^ntal double 
trial before t wo court* «ii::on« of them cönalstlniar of f)aychdiloJ*;l9t8, the 
other of ?|url«t« ( Judge« ) - waa arran^ed at the üniveri-^ty of Vlenna 
on-January ^3» 14 and 15, 1913« ^ 

The «ocloloprlcal trend In Jurlsprudence found It« most outatandln^ 
exponent In Eujren Ehrlich ■ one of the brljffht atars in the world of 
Auatrian Jurlsprudence. Born In 1862 in CzemowltÄ, Ehrlich bo^an hl« 
unlveraity career at the ünlToralty of Vlenna. In 1897 he waa called to 
the Unlveraity of CzemoHitk aa prof^asor of Roman law. There he dld hi» 

\ . 

- 39 - 



I • 


>. , 

ploneerlnf! itudles on the »oclology of law whlch fiained him International 

Ehrlich'« eorly workt deilt wlth civil and Rorran law ( nee above 
p« ), but already In 19^3 he publlBhed hls »tudv Freie Rechtrflndung. 


und Freie Rechtawi^senschaft . the battle cry of the Free Law Movement. 
In quick ■ucaeu^^lon followed In the To?5r§ 1906 to 1911 a »erleg of 
Ehrlich*« writlngo on the Free Law and on the new aocdioloflcel method 
of Jurlapruut ce, partlcularlv S62lolo<rle .und Jurjyprudeng ( 1906 ). 

j)-- ; ... •" ,; 

Die Tagfl^cher; des Gewohnheltiirecht;,^ ' ( an addreut dellvered bv Ehrlich ' 

on the occa^^lon of hls Inauguration a» Rectot of the Unlverrity of 
Czernowltz InTl'^O? ) and Die Erforichun.«? des leb enden Recht r ( 1911 ), i 
untll In 1913jt'hrllcli'i itandard work« i Gr undlerupur der So2loloq:le de» | 
Rechtet? appeared ,tA ^b^: followed In 1918 by another major work, |j 

■ -Die lurlstlffche Loficlk> 

Ehrlich' ■ Q-rundleiruny w as soon recop:nl8ed os the clasf^lc pre^enta- 

^' . 
tlon of Bocloloffloal Jurltprudence! and arouoed the most vlvld interett 

In England and e«pef*lially in the U.S^-. Hsrdly any forelcrn outhor In the 

• phere of law hat been mentloned aa often and wlth preater adralr'^tlon 

in the hlatoric correpondenc^ of Supreme Court Justice Oliver V/ertdell 

Hoinet and Professor i^atold J. Laaki than Eufren Ehrlich, -peaking of 

Fronch and G^rman legal 'vork«, Holmei doubta "if any of them have the 

quallty of Ehrlidi*» not without addinfi; "but he it an Auitrlan** 

{ letter oi Sept. 4, 1916 ), whlle Leakl, in hin letter of Jfinu-^ry 13» 

1916, reporta that when he diacusioed wlth Roscoe Pound plan« of the 

Law Sc tiool at Harvard, he placed, among the legal philo ««ophera. 

Ehrlich at the flrat place • 

' ■■.."■.' •» • - 

Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, Ehrlich hnd been 
invited to come to the Ü^S./i. in order to dellver a courpe of lecture« 
at the Lowell ^Siitltute and to address the aasoclation o^' m^rlcan 

I' :;■;',! ilV.! i Ji^>;:?;,; ;V^...^^i■';|:^'i,^:iivi!iiij;,■vr?'.■.' 


• -:. - Ji- . » . ^«^«r«« ^ ■•§««. 

"*•»•••; »i..^.i,. 

- 40 - 


.1. ■ ■! ) 

) ' 




; f. 

.1 "• 

;•■•■ I. 

h :■■; 

' .1.'', 

f f. :.< 


':■' ^ 

.' .■ ' I 

Law Schools« But the war fruftrated thl« plan, and a nevf^v^ attack of 

dl'^bet«« led to Ehrlichst prernature death on April 1, 19?Pt In the 

«aiüe year one of hlt last workf?, a brllllant lUBnaarT of hlp Soclology 

of Law, was publlihed in the Harvard Law Review wlth a in6vln^ 

appreclatlon of Ehrlich' ■ perionallty and work by Rot 'oe Poundpralalng 

Ehrlich ai^"one of the leaders In contenporary tclenceof law.*' It wai? 

alßo Roircoe Pound who wrote the Introductloh to the En^llffh edltlon 

of the Grundlegung whloh appeared in 1956 undcr the title: ?u>irl >^nngntal 

iülBclpXen of ^he SqcIqXo^j of Lr w 

' In the foreword to the »J QciologY Ehrlich hlnRel.-^ ieflne? 

the «ubatance of hia doctrlne In the aentence th^t at pr<^»<?nt ap well 

as in any other tlme the center of irrevlty of le^al develr^ oment lle« 

not in ler.lilatloni not In Jurlatlc science, nor in Judio 1 decl.cion^ 

but in »oclety Itaelf. Ehrlich waa th« firf»t juri«t who no- onl^ 

a * 

proclaimod f'la prlnclple, but developed it IntoVflvPterriatlc t'neory« 

Thö fundamental dlatlnctlon underlyin^? thlf theorv lu th.^t betn'een 

Inatruction« fraued in word« and norms which aotuall'' constltute 

II • 

aociel Order for whlch Ehrlich haa coined the term livinr law. 


\ V/hlle the modern Iwrlat underltanda by the word law generallv only 

the lef^al provlainnaJ Ehrl ich demonptratea that the aocial ordf?r is 
not only older than the le^cal provipionp but that It contlnuea to 
functlon ?nd even maintains Ita «raative aifinflcance alon?;§lde of 
the le/sral provialona, 

. ü.yen the lejral provialona are , accordinc^ to Ehrlich, only 
partly created by the leglalatlon of the atate, Ibn^ rather by 

Judiclal declalona whlch after the renoval of the non-earentlala 

. . • -^^ ■. ■ -^ ' •■ •■ .••••', 

throuffh the actlvitlea of the Juriat« ap'-ume the oharacter of le^al 

- f '••...• . . , f . . 

provialona. The great »aas of theae provialonp owe tbiÄxarfar« their 

orlgln to dlaputea to whlch already existlng Institution« have given 


r ) . ' 

.< I ■ ■ ■ 

■ '•' ! ', , ' . / • 
r'f, i' ^ '!('■;: 

'( " 

1 .1 I 

I (• 


- 41 - 


rl9»5, lo it ii alto toda.T.,Even now the legcl ppovlhlonf are m«lnl.v 

created by Judlclal and Jurlatlc law. Thejir are not fruit« of flrat 
thoughta but afterlhoüfsrht». Ehrlich pointa tö the Jurlatlc «ophiatry 

which triefl to preaent these new lejral prorial^na as Imicanent contenta 

■■■■*. •■■•■'..••. 

Of the atatutarj law. 


'Thia «öclologlcal aapect of the law led to important con?e- 
quendes in* the apherea öf 'Juri f prüden ce andlefal practica JThS dlaöovery 
that thÄ lA\r la basicellly a functlon of adcietv involved the deniand 

» 1 

to inrestltfote the proceaa of «uch functlonin^, thua of the llvln^ law 

'. • i. "•• ♦ 

in faiBily,coBUiunal gr^upin^f tpeaiant llfe, etc. Ehrlich founded for 
thl» purpOKe ö ppecifel aeminar at the Unlver-lt.y of Czemowltz. He: 

f.- > 

atreased no lei?« the importance to aoquire knowled/^e of the uaages 
related to oontracta, articlea of aaaociatlonf daclaration» by lapt 
Wille » to the enormoua nuraber of new forina created by modern eommerce 

and thouaands other phenonena of aocial llfe. 

f* i 

The «öciological niethod ertrlched and, to «orae de/rre, trana- 
formed Jurlatlc educatiom.Stüdenta of law became obllged to atudy 
custonip and uaanceat abore all Judlcial report« and orivat<^ documenta. 
The atrongeat impact waa, hoever, exerted by the aociology of law on 
the judiciary practioe. It waa by no meana a oere coincldence that 
the founder of the aociology of law waa at the aame time the leader 
of the "free law «ovement,** In faot, the view that the wrltten law, 
the atatutea, repreaented only a aegment of the law led by Ixnplication 
to the peroeption of the inadequaey of nere atatutary law for Judioial 
declPiona. Ehrlich aalntained that the Jud^e ahould have the ri/rht 
to recognize that there are in the atatute lacunae whioh cannot hf 
filled by conatructi^n. He demanded that a lec;al rule was to be troÄted 

........ , , ...... ... , ; 

* V * ■ • k ■ - ' • ••■.'' 

not llke a rigid dofrma but llke a living ener^ry, and erophanized partl-f 

• *■.'•■ .■ . , . ' , __^ 

aularly the peraonal element of legal deoiaionf .|ln one of the mo^t 


.i:l .:.;.' Vr 

'.- .»I .Is .• 

X. i'..- 

'*i' .«'■■/\;. , ;ii;. :• .M ,u..' 

- 42 . 



• plendld paaaagei of hl« Soo1o1o|;t Ehrlich ha« dcBcrlbed thr- ?iictivitr «jc 
XKxtadJcTkdhtxk whlch he deeoed necet-^arr to make Juttlce effectlvr ax "ö 
work of «rt w^*?lch, though shaped out of ■oclal materlali, neverthelci« 

recelvei fi*om the ärtlst the ttamp of "hl« whole pereonality •** f 

■' .^ ' ' ' ' ' ., • •■*' 

Ehrlich*« lÄpact on Jurloprudence wa-« irreat and lafftlnic. In th^ 
U.SiA. hl« ld*a»'fel\ eipeclally on a verv f«rtlle «oll. ParticularlT» 
Karl N. Llewellynfin hi« x^r^y.ludlzlenrechtfnrechunT In Aagrika ( 1933 ) 
publlHhed In üernan. created a work In thc fa«hion of Ehrlich' n doctrlno. 

•( ) • • :.-■■ "• 

In Auatrla Xsr l Georg. Wur2?el « a promlnetit VlennepeMawyer and Jurlati« 

of JewlBh^orl^ln 
author/^ shortlY after the appearance pf Ehrlich'« Freie H ech^. ^fl ndunff 

und Freie lv ecli t«wi?^aen«chaf 1? p uhllahed hl« book Da« l uflitlache Denkei^/ ' 

whlch too bacame a rcuch dl«cuared docuffient 4f the "free law moveaent." 

It« «econd edltlon appeared In -1924« In the aome year Wurzel publlahod 

another atudy, ijle SozlaldTnaroik de c r.c i cht«^ deeigned to off er a link 

between thc contradlctln/r theorle« of law. Iv Gerroanv Hu<^o ^Inzheimer 

out«tandlnt^'. lawyer and profe«^or of the ünlverjcGlty of Frankfurt, llke-» 

wlfl« ot^ »Jewleh deacent, wcl90Bed enthualastleall y Ehrlich ß new appi^oach 

to law. rfe' co^tiiiUüQ on the foundatlon« l^ld by Ehrlich in hi« own 

«tudlea^anc paid trlbute to Ehrlich by Includinor hin In hir remarkable 

work» Jüdische Kia^iaiker der deutachen Recht'^vlfl8en«chafj(^ t where 

Eugen Ehrlich, Rlongslde of Joaef Unger» Juliu« CJla«er and Georg 

Jelllnek V f«<^ below pp. ) appöar« a« one of the lumlnarle« od 

*:■'■■■■ ■' ' ■'• ? • ■ '■ ' . ■' .:■'•'■ •.^'' • ' 

AuatrlÄn Jurlaprudence. 

■ ■ ' XX> neiONARY LEGISLATORS ''-" \- 

ClTlb rlfrht« and llberty renalned for a lonp^ tlrre the primarv 

, . . ■ .'•■■' I 

concem of of Äu«tro-J©wl«h polltlclan«' and Juriat«, It waf Jo«ef ün;rer 

who decl^red that he wa« bom In 1828, but that he x saw the li«^fht of 

the World &p l.Bt© aji 1848. Two men of JewlPh orlp^ln, Dr. Adolf Fi i^chhof ; 

and D t* Joaepf Goldina;*)^ ^ both phyalelan« »' were the leader« of the. 

I I 

' "i 


1 ., ' 

- 43 - 

revolutlon whlch made March 1848 a londmark in the hletory of Auntrla. 
Mor«5over, Flichhof*« propoiala for the iiäfegüardlng of national rlfhts 
were th« flit atteapt to folve the cruclal problera of t'ie Austrlan 
Emplfe - the mational queatlon»- bj lep^lalatlva meatii. 

The *nlnetief of tha nineteenth Century law the rla« of the 
- Auatrlan Soolal-Öemocratlc Party- Many of Ita leadere wer^^^^'cwa. 

Althoia/rh the moat outstandln^ among them, Dr> Victor Adle r, who wa« to 

r be recoprnlzed a? the father of th© •oclaliit aaovement in Au'^^rla, waa 

i j ,, ■ ' ■ •»""•-» ■ "^ 

a physlcian he wa« followed bv 9 lon/i; lino of-Jewiah Juriats^ ^ho played 

, a deciaive role in the part^-llt was inde^d^ they, above oll Ot to Bauer 

— ' ''"■* to a great e^tent have 

( 1862-^^930 ) and Mag Adler ( 1873-1937 ) ,'?who1created; the ape-ific type 

of Soeli-laifl, called Auatra-M^^rxia». In his rpiln worl<:.''^ Die if^tiona lita t^ en^ 

fraf:e und die Sczialdemokratrie ( ^ "i ^ 7 ) » Otto Bauer, in the vein of 

Adolf FiBchhof r'niade conatructlve iuggeationa for the conatitution 

.. > • ' • of multinational atatea. 

Alao/independent Auatrian Jewiah thlnkers atterpted in the 

aecond half of the ninetecnth lentury to eolvs theburninpr aocial and 

political Probleme of the a^e by leiral me a^a. (.T'oeodor Hf ^rtzXa ( 1645- * 

/1924 } a Vienneae economiat, in hif? novel Freiland ( 18^X5, en-^'-l.editlon 

' : ;; 1891 ) outlined a project for the «fctabliphri^ent in Afrlc*^ 0^ b- st^^e 

'. ^ • : ■ , * ' i 

'. fcundedjon thqj orinciple of public land ovmarrjhip. Diffex'l^V". ' rom thia 

ii- utoplan achemei thJideaa and cf '"orta of two prre^t men- wore d:ir-cted 

' ,)' ■ — -f • ■ . .. 

■; towarc^a Imraediate fuT^damental chanTcs. jAlthouo^h ona of them war no Juriat 

;.',■*■■ ■ ... ^ 4 ■' ■ ,.*'*. 

. at all, law waa their comiron inf^truirent. 

^ By th« unlver^alitifof hia nifta,' Joaef Foipper ( t. ).n Kolin, 

. . ■ nir ■.•••■; l «.^-v • 

Bohoiriia, 1838f d. in Vienna 1921 )^reaeDibled the grenlua«?? of the 

... ■. '' ,. , ' ■ Sä^l»''"' . 


V- ■ ii' 
•»••ii * 

Renaiaaanoo. Hejexcelled in phyaioa and teohnnlog^^, msdn 4nrly Invention^" 
in aeronatutica and coapeaed faflcinatinf^ philoeophical nhort ,,8 torlos • 

,1 t 

. 44 - 

' » 

; t 

1 •*■ 



V >■ 

t ; ,1 


ghant^i igi<>ii eines Realiiten* t)ubllphecl by:hlm under.the pseudonyi? Ly nkeua 
And yet ill theae achlevementa were eclio-ed by Jontf' i-'opper'fl atrife 
for a ay.item of social Justice •it>r'aeci^<5 ^m a place benidc to^rXÄWAc 

the iF;reat toclal re^ormer» n <" all tlii^ß. ■ 

prophetic reformera _^y 
In contraat to othery/ixtc^xxkxxXt Popper dld not dr^^am ->f a new 

aocletv, Hlfli i^ugpectiona almed at law» whlch, whlle to a vv-ti' «xt«nt 

compntlbTe wlt i the exlstinp- civil order» were to be •up<t'!rpop**c! b7 

• • ' • • > I • ■ M,. f V 

p«raceful denoorätjlt procedure on the valld leprol «yf^te», Popper wap forty 
yeara öld when he publithed hls book, Dat Recht zu leben und die Pfl i cht 
zu <terb<*n ( forth e4. 1924 ). There followed in 1905 -^^h- -vRiphlct 
Fundninent eines neuen StatarechtP and in 1912 the elabornt-'? v.-rk ( of 
613 pagea )» Pie Alli^emeine Ntfhrpflicht alt» JL^Punfr der n o ^\p\' tr\ Fraye> ' 
The title« thempelrei Indlotte the le^alist.ic eharacter of Po -jperV • 
thinkin^r. He conaidered at an eatential taük of legifilötion to pecure tho 
phyaical exlatence of every persont who am* howtver he or shc iray be, 
by provipion« for hia or her livelihoöd and invlolability, '^^' for +^he 
latter, " to lire*' haa to be aecured again^t ^*the duty to die" 
whlch Popper found inherent in the con«cription for wsrfare involvlng the 
Virtual compul?;lon to die. Popper Tlsuallzed the replacement of con- 
■crlptlon by voluntary enllatment for war duty./The call of the ttate for 

•■■-.. ■•.;'•••( 

volunteeri ahould be the onlT meanö for recrultinfr for warv 

Ab rejcrards the baalc requireincnt« for llrelihood , Popper*! plan 
embodled the legal puarantee of a mlnlnua for aubaiatence and the earentia* 
cultural needs to each aeaber of the aoclety, from the cradle to the grave., 
Thla ■ mlnlEnum whlch would aecure ereryone ögalnat the viciaaitudea of . 

lifo ahould be produced and pi^orldcd by an obllgatory "v^b«?lstence Corps." 

./..••-■■ . •. * 

After the corapietlon of one't term of aervicet every Citizen would be 
free to partlcipate in oocupations and profeastLona^ohoaen by hina^lf in 
free enterpriae, in order to procura the better anenitiea of life« 


; l . • » 

1 • ■ >"» n, ■». .1 




Popper* • ichcme fpiclnated many and led to an orir-^irlzef^ movemeht 
for Ita reaiization. On the other hand the darlnr project met with nharp 
crlt,icl8H«Althouifh Ita falled to bocome innterlallzed , it helped , howeverf 

... t 

to promote the Idea that foclal in Justice hai to be met by le^lalatlve 

» ■ V 

mean 8.' Popper' « Impact on the social leglslatlon In the ölrectlon to 

a welfare atrite may b« ooipared with the in:f3a^noe of the /^rrent tesoiera 

of natural lavr on the olril law. .In.oortttait to Marxian «ocialiam and la 

■■■.■',..■ ' • .■ .'•■.".■■.■• 

agreement with the. philo sophy of enllf;htenaient ( 'hoee greateat represen- 


tative, Voltaire, became for Popper, hi» enthücwaptic adrlrer,the aubject 
of a special biofiraphical study ) Popper inode tha Individual hunan being 
the Center of hia lepal plana. Froa thia inolvlduallstic riew, he derived» 

however, a aooial definition of ht^ legislative ainis. Thua in the hiatory 

'.•'>■'"*••■ ■■■■-■.■ i •>■:■'■'. ■ 

of the natural law,Jo«ef Popper' a aystea niirht well be described as a 

lyatem of the natural law which pürpuea the harironization of the 

aovereiprnty of the individual and aocial justice, / 

, .*■ ?.. THEODOR HERZL 

When Theodor rierzl in 1895 publiahed hia historlo paiaphlet 

Der Judeqataat . he added to hia name on tha title p-ge the denotation 

"DoQlTor der Rächte" ( Doctor of law ). The additicn aup;f?e8ta that Horzl 

both . 

was anx'ijua to emphaaize^ir profe8?iionaljltf|flcitiraation to deal with the 

Problem, of^^public law and the legal oharaoter of the work. But apart 

fron the proninf^nce giveat^a to hia Juristic degree, Herzl left np 

doubt that he conaidered the legal atruoture of hia project ;^^' one of i ' 

ita moat impörtant features. 

The, last but' one ehapter of Der Judens'Aat which ia entitled 

''Soeiety of Jews and Jewiah State: Negotiorum- Geatib," opena aa followa: 

Thia Pamphlet la not intended for lawyers. 1 csn^there-- 
fore touoh only curaorily, aa on many other thin»«, upon ny 
theory of the legal baeia of a State. I muai, neverth^lea« , lay 
^'•■'•^' aome atreat on «y new theory, which could be mointainec? , 

I belivve, even in diacuanion with nen well veraed in 
Juri i prüden 06.; 

■.'.:■■■ 'i ••.. «-* • }^ 1 -. . ■• ' . • i ■ ; r ■ . . . . . , 

i ■■ f 
■ I 


: .. - . 46 - 

There followa an explanatlon of thle theory whlch Herzl iiharplr 
dlitlngulthei from other current theorles. Accordln«; to Herzl a »tato 
Is formed by a nuaber of nen utiltod under ,*i9V«relrn rule. Althoup;h h'- 
veorgnizen also the territory as a **foundatlon of the «täte," thls 
materlal besl» of the «täte •erms to hlm not of declrlve Importance. 
He refere partlajilarly t© the •overelgnty of the Pope, "perhape tht .; 
moftt re«pected In the world,** as to an exanple of a aovercl^nty whlch 


ha« no obJectlYe baii« at all.*Sla«e ae the unlfylng «overel^n rule 
only a Ifegal one' canbe concelted, Herzl' •c6noet)t of'the «täte '^ 
Ähtlcllpate« to «ome'Äxtent the iteodertirthfe6ry' whlch Identlfles the 
• täte wlth'the la<ft(Meelb*low opl >♦ Thla manlfeat«; Itaelf llkewl«e 
In the Idea« whlch Herzl put forward regardln/r the creatlon of Ä^ncw 
Jewl«h State^' 

A purely Jurl«tlc Institution, the "negotiorum gestio," appeared 
to Herzl a« the Instrument by whlch a Jewlph «täte conld be called into 
exl«tence. Th& concept'of ' thl* Iftetltutlon belon^a to th<^ civil law. 


The RoTiian«, with thelr manrellou« aenae of Justice, ** deölrea Herzl, 


produced that noble materplece. jV/hen property of an oppreased pereon 
1« In dansrer, any man may «tep forward to save ltv,^A peraon actlng 
In thla manner waa designated a "gÄctor" - the dlrector of the affalra 
not strlctly hl« own. Thla Inatltutlon of tbe Roraan law whlch by Ita 

Incorporatlon In the modern Codes contlnued to be a pofltlve law,'> waa 

applied by Herzl to the public law, Dlsperaed throufThout the world, 

the Jewc,' Herzl maintalned, were prevented from conductlnsr thelr 

affalra themii^lves, bealde«, they were In a condltlon of more or leaa 

• • • 
ilatrese In roany parts of the vrorld. They needed thereforea geator, 

Thl» geator, Herzl argued , could not be a elngle Indlvldual. Such a 

one would elther make hliii«elf rldlculoua or - «Ince he nil/rht appesr 

'■■;.. ' 

workini«; for hl« own galn - contemptlble . The gestor ©f the Jewß wa« 

• ■' '■. • ■• -• .. . \ 

_p^,..^ , . .._,....., ^ 


. /* 


1 1 

- 47 - 

therefore to be a corporate perron luth as the "Society of Jews," 

another concept of Herzl. 

Ve know that Herzl not only concelved thla Jurlstle '^^chetie, 

but that. he, In f act , put It lrt6 practlce. it Is only wlth referenöe 

to the theory of the nerotjnrfcm i^estio that Herzl 'a famoua prophetic 

entry in hl« Dlarlee of September 3» 1798 c an be properly understood: 

'Vere I to aum up the Baael Gonffreas In a word - whlch 
I ehall guard a^alnst pronoilincln^ publicly - It would be thla: 
In Basel I founded the Jewlih State. If I aald thls out loud 
today, I would be anawered by universal lauprhter. Perhapa In 
flvc yeare, and certalnly in fifty» everyone will know lt. 
The foundation of ä Statejllea In the will of the people for a 
Statc^ yes, even in the will öf or^^ sufficlently powerful 
lndiVIdual_ l'Etat, c'oct moi - L^ui« UV ). Territory la only 
the mnterial bagla,the «tstefOyen vrhen It pcappap«« territory, 
ig alway« aometh^'n/y' abstract. iThe Church State^exista even 
wlthout it; otherwiae the Pope would not be aövereiorn . ; 

' •' In Baael, then, I oreated thia abetraction whlch, aa auch, 
is Invlalble to the vaet xaajorlty of prople....! ^radually 
worked the people in the mood for a ßtate and made them feel 
that they wereÖLts National Aaaembly. •■ 

Herzl even afterw.ardP did n^t ceaae to conßlder hla theory of 
the nep-otlor u ra irea .tlQ. ae the baaic notion of hiß actlvitieff. Ir(a letter 
to Lud wi y Gun olowicz •th#fi#>1<^hw*ted jurtat and ar^cioloflat ( aee beloe 
pp. ) Ol i>ecember 11, 1099, Herzl not only eicpreaaly polnted to the 
theory, but emphatioally streo-ed ita dlfference fmm other theoriea 
of the »täte and oroudly FU-r^^'eated a ßcholarUy discunsion of it« 

Gumplowicz* e reply whlle «LBouiitlng txt# an utter rejection of the 

.. • ■ .*■••/. 

Zionifit movenient, txX threw a füll load of contempt on Herzl *s 

; II 

theoretical vlews.' You W!<^nt to ereate a. atate without blordshedV 


Gumplowxs; nr^ed. "Where have you ever aeen such a thirgV Wlthout forc^ 



and wlthout qunning? So very openly and honeptly - on sharea? /Ae to 

the nerotlonx!< gestio. Gumpl>owicz did not refer to it at all.^Thua the 

,_-,<, . . ■ ■ ■ . . . . ,-..■,...-.. > 

exchan^^e of these merroratl-e lettera airniflea both xx^c the claah 
between the Zioni^t and the asalniiliiitonlat aapect of the Jewiah 
qucaticr. AoA Incidentally alao tho encounter.of the lejrali and 

■.••'.^.Üu.x: ,k 

. 48 . 

emplrlcal Interpretation of the «täte, loon to ^ecome reflfcted In ^^^ 



the Jurlsprudence of thlt «phere of law. 


The Juriitlc asp^ot of hlf polltlcal : actlvltle« ocf^upled 
Herzl up to hia end.jwhen he, on May 19, 1903, - about one y<58r betöre 
hla death - In a letter to Dr. ▼. K^rber, the Au^trian i^rlrpc KlniPter, 
aeked for ^n Intrr ductlon to the Portuprue?»r» /iT>"n*'-ader, he re-echoed hla 
favorlte tneory by callinpc hlmarlf "a Port of ooor man'» lawyer for the 
unfortunate oewa."|It was by lepal rea«onlng (Woatt Herzl endeavored to 
vlndlcate hla stand frorn the auapiclon he f^^arcü mott - that of belng 
a utoplan. Thls reaaonin^ wa» baced on the positive law. Hetzl avoided 
in fact anxiotialy to baae the claimp of the Jewish people on the 
natural law or on hietorical rights to be Juptlfled by the lawle»- 
depossetalon of larael fron Ita land . Herzl *r concept '^f the re-creatlon 
of the Jewi«h State reveal« hia lep^islative /renlu«: that ablllty of 
"plannln^ out of the preaent doy," which, acrordlnj to Franz Roaenzwelg, 
cönatitutcf- "Kerzl'e greatncaß.** 

/ in thft perapective of later eventa, Herzl'a Idea that, under 

^■.- ... •., • 

.'•'••'•■,■ • , 

apecial conditlons, an orf.anlzed minorltY of a nation were entltled to 

exerclse the rlght of aoting a? a trurtee of the entire people fore- 

•• < 

fihadovred all the proviaional govemmenta which In the courf?e of the 
.two World wara and afterwardp formed the'nuclel of atatea in the 
niakinjf or re-makinf^« | 

There was, however, in Herzl'a universal mind alrro roor for 
a broad vialonary dei^i^n of o new aoclotv. In the purauance of theae 
plana whlchha aet forth particularly in hip Al tneuland « Herzl was 
guided by the idea of aocial Justice no Ter»«^ than hia Auatrian-Jewiah 
conteÄporariefi,^^elnb«'ck, Ofner and •^'opoer-LvnVreua. And while he, 
the well trai»4Ji juriat;^ had drawm hia theorv for the creation of the 
Jewiah ßtftte from theclaaaic Roman lav^.he wap well awsre of the 

I i 

• t r ' > ; 1/ 

i,: f-!' !(':;|:M^'ii': 

-illl.Mli(_ Xll .iti» J._ •! » / •' 

• ll 

- A9 - 

. . t 

■ h 


fenulnr. Jewlsh herltflge aa an unexh^uetlble eource of füocl'^l and 

international law: 

i (3o not belleve that the People '^f thf- r^ook have kept 
alivc s'o long and under so much nufferin/? in order to brln«' 
! home t;]C' new meanfl of tr^nfiportation and communlcatio»^ . AnoLher 

m^r-^nin^ muat be attached to the anguiah of our rauch torm;?nted 
people« A yeaminf? for, Juntice, for humanity mupt be In un and 
we mufit aatlafy it. . . .^x^erhapa in dolng no we shall dlscover 
and tranplate into reality the p'^aslbility of poclsl iirprove- 
DQonta which can bc of value alpo to the tollin/^ n:! hi?rd 
presflcd of other n^töna," Only then phall w(* be tru3 laraelitea. 


In the reala of Auatrian Juriaprudence public law becaire a 

• • • . 

favorlte dlaclpllne of nany outatandinr Jurlata of ^ewlph depcent 

i whoae worlt^ ery thlp'anbject not only proved of utmost Irr -»ortance but 

' -^ t 

also became parte of a coherent meanin^ful developir^n j. The!]^ produc-' 

tiona forir -^n uninterrupted llne, ctretchin« öveV» nore than alx decadea 

up to the oreeent dTay. Moreover the theorle? the^^ exponnd r-^rspri ^^. the 

wliept divcrsitv o*^ vlewB fmm one extVeiaei poritlon to itfJ' '5x?*ct 

'^'ppo alt* c oun'tcTiDj rt , | 


\i • < 

1 ' 


I 1 

, ,Ludwli^ G iiir.t;> 1^wlg7. wa« hnrn in Krakow in T838 aa a son ofthe 
merchant Abr^^hnT- Guinplowlcz, a member «^ of- ffi.nlly of ue-lPh sc^oiara. 
A otudy a beul? the legal atatuF of the JevrB in Pol^^nd, en In th<» 
Polish waa, apart form a study on th« lafct will, Ouirplowlcz' « 

firrt public Btion ( I867 ) 

rt— T 

V/hen theae writln/rrs were not scceptet by 

>— - ■ ' 

the: Uni veralty;>o f.- Krakow as a sufficient bapi« fnr the hj^ibllitatlon , 

« ■' ■ ♦ 

Guroplowlcz ,vfho had become an attorney in the meantlme, engaj^ed in a 

fltrugrle for e radical and liberal Poli.ah nationaliam. 1 Büt hs turned 

• ^ ■ ' ... .>.-" 

Iflter to the weat and succeeded in being admitted as ]ecti;ror rt the 

.<■..''.-■ ■ ■ ■ , 

üniversity of Graz in IÖ76. He waa appointed anaiatant prcfenaor In 
1882 and füll profea'por in 1893» C^ü^plowic2 who embraced Chriatianity 
and remalned attaohed to the i'oliaK nation Induli^ed in a aharp 

.!•> .: 

I '. 

I i.. 

. 50 - 

). ■, 1' 

' \K •' 

crltlcipui of the national pollcy of Auf^trl^, He d'?mpndf;i \:\ irnn^- 
forinatlon of the Habsburg Monarchy Into a fcOerateä muH' n a:! nal Ptüte 
and correctl.T foreaavf aa the unav-^ldable alternative thr- t ir.vr '«nc* of 
«ini^:;!« national states.öüiBplowicz* s • end wsr tragic Strlclrm wit: Cancer^ 

he oonirrltted 53uJ.4de in C0D3p8n;T with hip feithful wife and co-'fi'^rker , 

,'■■■ \' ''•,■"•• • .1 • ' . ..(■•" 

I*^ranciiCÄ, nee Goldmanni who had loat her si.^ht, on Au*uRtl9, 1909. 

,* ■ • 

Gumo^^owicz ! has the inerit of havinr been one of the :"] ^-»et echolara 

who have extrlcated ■oölölogy from kindred htudief». H© end«5r'r/ored to 
diBcover the fundamental law of the aoci^^tT by analof!;ou8 xnethod? as they 
are used by the natural aciencea an actutlly asaerted that this lavr le 
Identicsil' with the Darwinlan law öt therflürvlval of the fittoat, the 
antögOnlatio aübjebta of thi« atrufrptle for aurvival belnp; «trouop» , not 
Individuais. Gumplowicz eonfliderp the history of the stat^, ün^eed of 
the whole clvilization , aa an uilendin? strugrle between different rroupa 
which he calls racea, a term used by hin, hovrever, not in a biolo/i^ical 
aense. The State came into beinpr when raflc«iiDf herdsmen nuppreased 
populationß of peaaantf? »»nd ae-^umed relrn over them. It is the enauing 
coritention between the jnilin^ and the gubjuftated claaa which leada to 
the creation öf law with the purpoae to deJtersiine the barriera of the 
doiEinationof one group by the othera. But'while Gumplowicz regarda the 
•täte aa the only source of law, he utterly deniea any Juriatic quali- - 
tiea to the Ptate itaelf .,?; "The atate is no leral inptitution?" Gumplowict^_ 
declarea cat^prically ,ln hia Geachichte der Ftaatatheorien ( 1905 ). 
**It ia inpoaaible to «ret any inaijrht into the phenonienon of the State 
by JurlÄtJb methodp//'Je definea the atate in hiq All remfelnea Staatsrecht 
( 1907 ) a« *'a naturally ,<^rown ( umfftchgi^e ) ori^anization of dominion 

-, 4 j, % 

intended to naaintain a certain legal order,rbut the atate doea not nerge 

' '' • <« H « > . • . 

in the lepal order./Law and legal order are for the atate only neana»" 

• . , ■ ■ '■ ■'..'. ,■ , . ■>.,'..■<■ 

Gumplowicz ftttacl-eÄ and ridiculeq^^ the juriata who are tryitig to 

!'■■ ?" 

>. . . J.k- L 

• -p^ ' ,-■ llttl ( 


- 51 - 

to reverae thla procesF by vlewln« thc atate ap a product of the law. 

The notlon of such a State bullt and raalntalned by the law, of the 

Rec htaataat ,ia aocordln^r to ö^mplowlcz fl^rtlle conatructlon • l He 

llkened th^ efforth of those who treat the »täte Juriatlually to an 

undprt^ifini»: of one who would try to "eat a Beethoven ifcnata with 9 ^ 

«poon.ji:3ut nothwlthitandlnp: hia negatlon of a Jurlatlc diaclplne 

of the publ.' c law, Gumpa^owlcz imacribad hie own soclolopical study 

about the state In the flest edltlcn ( 1877 ) wlth PhllosophlacheB 

Stainterecht and. in the second editlon, publlshed thlrty years later, 

even wlth A lliremfelnea Staatarecht -» Among hl s nuraeroua 'A-orks, also a 

volumlnous textbook about the Aüatrian public law, Dag Oeaterrelchlsche 

Staatsrecht ( 1891 ) can be f ound , of whlch an errlarged editlon was 

publlshed In Cooperation wlth R. Blachoff ( I9O7 ). 
■. ' 

Gupplowlcz* 8 theory became a toplc of a worldwlde dlaoussloij 

in whlch the ^regtest eocioloielcal thlnker?, aa Durkhelm, Tarde and 

Sinameltparticlpated . His worka were translatcd In man7 lanrua^ea, 

|In America, Leater F, V/ a rd became hla devoted follower. jfranz Opyüral^elmer 

the outatandlng German-Jewlah acholar, developed hla own ö^ptä aoclologlca! 

ayatem on the baala of Guroplowlcz* ß ideaa and coopcrated wlth Kax Adler 

( Vienna ) and P. Savorgnanl Rome ) in the editlon of a Felection of 

Gumplowloz* a works In four volumea whlch I7 yeara after the ijaaster's 

death was arranjced by G, Solomon ( Frankfort ) .j In Auatrla the theory 

of Gumpl'öVl'öz ^^^ *" ambip'uoufl fate. V/hile the soclölojrlst Gustav 

Ratzenhofer erected k'^nev k aoclologlcal aystem on the foundatlona 

layed by Gurrplowlczt the latter found no followln^, amonpr the l^jurlats, 

thouffh,'» 08 alr«ady menttoned t': I'^ax Adle r reco^nlsed hl^s slgnlflcance by 

partlcltiatin4ln the. odltion of Gumnlcwicz* « wor'^a. Bot In snite of the 

oppoaltion whlch Gumplowicz theory met aLionp: the Austrlan and Gor^ian 

Jurist«, hia influence on th« theory of public law prored rtron^ and 

, 52 - 

Gurnplowicz' 8 counterpart on the chalr of public Isw at the 
Univerlöty of Vienna w?0 ( aince 1894 ) the eminent Jewls-h hdm 
echolar, Adolf Menzel ( b. In Relchenber^l857» <3 . 19?8 ). ^i'? was 
Rector of the ünlverslty In the yeer 1915/16, aejrved a^ chalrnan of 
thä 6taatgT)rUfun.<y^-Ko ]n!Bl8 61orA and In th'-^ era of th« Au 8 tri an ?>e public 
aa Vice -tresldent of tiiC VerfgaPUA^ffgrerl chtaho y .I-^nazel' s flrat major 
andfhla maln worlc in the aphere of the pcpltive law war Dj,e -irbelterr 
j;; ergl ('h^rungr nach oefftferrejchlgchera Re cht. C 1893 ) » the inont comprehen 
aive presentr.tlon of the obll^^ator.v Innurence of the workers. Later- 
on public law, adialnlstratlon and philo cophy of law becane hls 
prlnclpal Gphereo of Interest. Hlg thorou^h knowledg;e of Oreelc hlötory 
and llterature enabledKezel partlcularly to delve deeply Into ancicnt 
legral Order an«-'' thou5;ht .' Anotheri'favorlte subject of Menzel *a researe'i 
wa« Splndza's doctrine of the public law. He consldered thls doctrlno 
of the *>ewleh phnosonher as"one of the most orlp^lnal phenomena in the 
hl Story of huinanitiee ( Gel^te wlsf ^engchafton ) »Menzel loublished .a 
«eriefi of monog^rapha and tjrscxxacxicaxjlfi 1929,under the modest title 
Bei treffe zur Geschfchte der St.agtH«»hre a hlstory df the theory of the 
State »actually a hiator^ of the Idea» on public law from antlqulty 
to hls own day. Menzel Aemonstrated partlculrvrly the declalve lnfluenc( 
which Spinoza* fl Ideas on public law, above all those about the freedom 
of thought,exerted on later thlnkera and oubsequent lejjl sl-^tlon. 

Menzel wan also a atudent of poclclOf^y. In hls Natur recht umd 
Sotiolorrle ( 1912 ), he expounded the' the eis that soclology, thoufh 
its emoirical irethod differa from the deductive reasonlnr of natural 
law, Is no lese permeated by. politlcnl and morel Ideas tha^ the 
theorles of natural la'.. jThls in Itaelf Involved an Opposition to 
Guxplowicz, irioreover/ Menzel enrafred/ in tjlrect poleoica apainst him 
( als" in the Beltrffq; e )./He declared that no eerta-lb conclunlons could 
be drawn from the origin of the st&te lUa to its inner atructure. 



- 53 - 

- I 

At the end of hla llfe, Xenzol hlmoelf was absorbed In ?ociolof^ical 
atu.Uea. dis Grlachlgche Soziologie ( 1936 ) and Grund rlnin der 
$62i6loffie. ( 1936 ) belong to the laat works publif^hc^d In Auftri«? by 
Jurlets of Jevtoh descent before the seizure of the Republio by the 



i' In the chapter of hie Beitr^'jce which ig devoted to Auptrlan 

philosophers on public law, ^^enzel, after havlnr de alt /ith Sonnenfels, 

whom he characterizea as the laat öne in the line ol creative writers 

in thie fleld, decTares that a stap-nation aet in afterwairds to be 

interrupted only in the aecond half of the 19th Century by the 


appearanc^ of G^org «Jellinek. Jlmilarlv .^.obert Piloty , one of th«-- ; 

moat outstsndin/y contemporary German Jurist^, haß tald^.with referenco 


to one of Jellinok'p worka - that it "höc brou^ht now blood into the 

fita^natin^, discipline of general public law." ' 

, ,-^ 

Georg; Jelliriek is the only one anir on^ the srreat -^ustrian 

Juristfl of Jewish daacent whoae father belon^s by hia own raerits to 

modern Jewish hletory, Adolf Jellinek ( b. in Dr«lowitz, Koravla, 

1820,. i. In Vienna 1893 ), a profound and prolific Jf. '. .^.'h rjcholar, 

earned ao preacher of the Jewish com-runitv of Vienna «!uch a ferne 

th3t he wog. called the most jrrifted preocher Jadaiarp haf5 pr-nduced. 

His ideal and moat ardent depire waa ^he transformatlon of Judaiam 

into a roligion of univer<^al aignif Icance • The crestivitv and many- 

eidednesp ofplölllnek a, his atriving for universaalitv and j^ynthegia 

reappearcid in the peraon&lity of his flon-Georg.. He wa? bom tw 

in I85I in T.eipzig where Jidolf Jelllne'^ was xxx active aa rcbbi . 

• . • • • - • 

But when his father accepted the call to Vienna in 1846 and th- 
faiBi^.y moved to the imperial capital, Austria became also Georgia 
true fatherland .; He apent the forniative years in the Vienneo 

environment of his father and made ao quicl^ a progrea<' th9t he, 



- 54 - 

already A the a«re of 16, wgp able to enter the Unlveralty of Vlennq. 

After havlncr'', however, firat obtalned the de^ree of a D6ct6r of Phllo- 

■ ' in 1822/ 
sophy at the Universlty of Lelpzlf^iTelllnek became Doctor o^' Law at the 

Unlveralty of Vienno in 187^« Two years l^ter, he prepentfd to the 
Law Faculty of thls unlvorplty hls thesls for the admittance 39 lecturer« 
the stud Y Die nqi^lalethiache Bede ut unff von Rechtf Unrech t unc] ßtrnft^ ^ , 
a brilllant werk of such a laf'tln^ value that it had to be r •-edlted . 
thlrty yeara later.Wevortheleciathe profeaaorfl **could not wln the 
conviction' that the candldate posooöaatalready the amount of maturlty 
and erudltlon whlch Is belng consldered as the Indlp-nsablö ^'"ndltlon 
of lecturin-c at the Law Faculty." 

Althou-'h Jelllnek, on the basls of onoti^i-' paper, succeeded In 
beln^ admltt^d an lecturer ( Privatdozen t )in ^hilböopht' ^^ ^ ^^ *^" 1879, 
the ensulnc ten year» of hls connection with the Univerrity of Vienna 
wer'-' bo'ind to brlni«; him more verv palhTü'.f' dieappointments . There was no 
Chance for the eon of the local Jewlsh pre-jcher to ^et a fair treatrr.ent 
by the Univ.«)rsity of Vienna in those days of rinin^ ?nti-£einitlTira. 
Althou'^h Jelllnek since hie appointment hns publi.=hed an exeelLent new 
wor'T, Ble rechtliche Natur der .^ tr. tenvet^t^*^gQ^hlff apollcaticn for an 
exti?n'^' 1 MJof hls venia legendi for public Ir^wKrr: jected 1t Ju*'. I88O»' 
But yh-A k^jcpr In 18B2 Jellinev'e book, l^le Lehre vo n den St?i ttr?n* 
verj^iflluTj g^il'^iP-^'« red ,• Joseph Un/rer was «^o impressed by It th^t he 
exerol&ed hia whole influence in order to overcome the opoo :*.lon whlch 
clerp-y put up a^ainst the aon of the rabbi of Vienna. Jelllnek war» 
flnally appointed ' augperordentlich e r profes^or for putllc ^ i\-r , ?lnf:e 
ho't' hoeweveriDQarried in the xnoantime and the inccir,e of r "; »""er-or 
extraordin?ry*' was by no means sufficient to Cover the llvelliiood of 
a famlly, hia Situation renalned er' ticel . 'Vhen, in additior;, the 
intrißues a^ainat him did not end, Jelllnek decided, thourh vory 

■ ll 




- 55 - 

reluctantly to qult the Unlvorsitv of Vienna. Fortim-^telv • ' •■^eout-r/Aon 
wa^alreadv so wolio stabil shed abroad that he almoet slmul' iURl:' 

obtalnod calls to the unlversitle.q of Basel and Berlin. J-ü*!!:. !i'?k' s ^tay 
In Baacl, vrhere he arrlved Ir: eprln^ 1869 wa^, howeveri rothrr Fihort, 
for In the next year the profes^orahip at the celebrated Ur. Iveralty of 
Heidelberg v/as of^'ered to him at the per536nal wlsh of Fred!vr3c, Archduke 
of Baden -the iome apnarch who only a few yeara later wrf to b^^ccre the 
flreit crowned pstron of Theodor ^rzl. . ■' 

Thua in April 1891» Jellinek eettled it Heidelberg, There he .gpent 

the next twenty - the laat *• yeara of hiß llie, Hia lecturer- became 

»■ • ' ■ . 

famous fln<J attra^tecleven atudento from forelrn cou»^trleg. in Heidelberg 

• ■.«•*"...■■—■ ■ , .■ • ■ 

he also produrjcd - apart from numerous inono-»;raphn and essaye- the /rreat 

three worka nn which Jellin^,k' a renovn ap the legdlnfr authorlt^ on nubllc 

... ' the 

law of hlfi day t^ests. kkx'xxx th6 fifst one of theac- ^>oki jSysteni der 

/ ^ Li^ö sam© .^ 

gublektlven öffentlichen Rechte (18921 w'iich Robert /^lloty , ch^rncterlzed 

in thf» abovö 1 P' ) T^enilcned way./ tx v^Bji Iti hiä^^ördö "ibxxxxx^tkxxkx 

ÄXJöÄxÄkJCÄÄKÄitxV^celved oa the "resurroction of the huran riiffhte which 

80 often had ^>eön declared dead." Jellined hod indeed for the first tlme 

elucldated the Juriatic character o^the subjective riicrhts ae indisaolubly 

linked with theimodem State inwhich the comrmnünlty haa become a Sta^ts- 

perg'^nlichkeJ^t « The validity of theae rights Is, accordin'r to Jellinek, 

based on the l's^lf-obligiitlon" of the State. The same will of the State 

which crea'c-:8 Icfral Statutes manifests itself slao in the aubjection 

to the law« The foundation of this theory haa been layed already in • - 

i/ie recht liche I^atur der Stantenvertr^ nge where Jellinek declared: 

"Soverei^nty of the atate is the power to preacribe rerulatiotir* to ita 

own will, the ability to create law obli«rirtcr the State itself. ,Alt^.ou/=rh 

this theory haa been sharply contested, Jellinelr'g SjF^ejE^ has remainec' ;. 

tho basic inquiry intö the problem of the oub.leotlve public rights« 

'■■■■'.>•' . . *' • , .-..■ .•.•■■■ . ■ v . ■■ • 

«IN i v; wv.,:^-^ 


. :^ 56 - 

Jelllnek'ö next fundamental work Die 2 . -P' ji^ncr der 
Ken gehen und Bflrgerrechte ( 1895; forth edition 192? ) was a 
masterplece of hlstorl^al research* Devlatlng frora the accepted 
opinlon that Rousseau* s Contrat gpclal hag priven the declslve 
splrltual Impulse to the riee of human rights and thet the French 
declaration of human rights of August 26, 1789 constituted thelr 
first formulatlon, Jellinek proved that the puritan convlctionsf^of 
the American foünding fathera were the formative elements of the 

human rights. "Xhe religious motives," he declared, "have given 

the hifltorical Impact to the belief in original right of man. 


It happened hardly by Chance that such words were uttered by the 

• ■■ •. 

son of a Jewish religioue leader. The book cauaed a great Sensation 

• . »•'*■*' • . . • 

and was translated into Engllsh, French, Huseian and xää 
happened = , .■ . " ',• 

^ also on ac ount of thls^i work that the University of Princeton, N.J^. 

o*T the oocasion of its 150th Jubllee bestowed upon Jellinek the 

. • • ■ • ... ■.,•■,'' 


honorary Poctör degro«. '^ 

JellineVs third magnum opus, Allgemeine Staat 8lehre , ; 
( 19^0j third edition 1914 ) , an allembraclng system of general 
public law, was the crowning piece of hla entire schölarly work. 

It is based on the distinction between the State as a social 

• ••■••• • • • '. . .. .--•- 

phenomenon and the State as a Juristic concept.'As a pocial object 


of coneeption the State Is a reality related to a territory^, to 
a people and to power to reign ( Herrechermacht ) ♦ The «^tate wh(-:n 
viewed Juristicallyhas been defined by Jellinek ar "ijjcorporation 
of apettled people endowed with original powir to relTn.".Only by 
a combination of the two aspects a true , comp'^öte Cognition of the 
State cen be achieved accordinp ■ to Jellinek. Thus .he rofuses to 
cOnslder the State as rrerely an object of Jurisprudence and usea 
also the sociological methpd for its exploration, but - in Sharp 

i-.. "i 

- 57 - 


contrast to Gumplovlcz - he rejects soclology as the onlv Instrument 
of a sclence on' the ötäte , and Impllclte Gumplowlcz's fundamental 
thesls that the law 14 only a meana of the State "but does not belong 
to Its easence. The formatlve process of the State, Jelllnek mfllntalns, 
was at the aame ttfee a formatlve proceas of the law so that also 
hl storlcally State and law were from the very beginnlng In a close 
connectlon."From the earllest unlt - whatever It mlght have been, 
farally or horde - onward, law, mountlng higher and higher, absorbs 
the higher unlts whlch rlae oVer the prlmgry ones and flnally the 
hlghest unlt, that constitutea the concluslon of thls chaln,the 
unlt of the State«" 1 

Jelllnek vlauallzed In an analogoue duallptlc perspective 
also the law Itself. It l9,ap an abatract deirand, ^n "ought," but It 
has to be vlewed too aa as motlvatlng force working withln man and 
thus as a reallty. The aame duallsm reappears flnally in Jellinek'a 
theory of tho "normative force of the factual." It p^-rports that real 
happend)ngs can aasume the character of norma by recornitlon, whether 
these happenings are a continuoua practlce ( custom ) ot revolutions. 

Thuß In the very formal structure of Jelllnek* s philopophy of 
the State and law the strlfe after a synthejbis becomea evervwhere 
manifest. Hlg mlnd , like th?3t of hls frsther v^fip a^ allembracing as It 
was unlfylng. He gra8t)ed the real facts and was able to penetrate 
into thelr esaence but he welded them at the aame time with the world 

of norma Into an indlssoluble unlt. Hls theorv of the state, - the 

twosided System of the atate - wa^a developed and expounded by Jelllnek 

so lucldly and In a so compre'Tenalve manner that It became the 

prevalent theory of the State» 

There was a depp ethlcal meanlng hldden in thls magnlficent 

I . 

- «58 - 

; (! ■. 

;" "> 

attempt tp blend the abrtract realm of;'law wlth the emplrlcol theor?^. 
It sprang from the belief in the ever spreadlng relgn of la'w, The 
rellglousi Indeed the Jewlsh, orlgln of thia belief was evident. 
; It manlfested Itself partlcularly also In Jelllnek's hlrtorlcal obaer- 
vatlons.. Thue, when deallng wlth the anclent ataze of Israel, Jelllnek 
polnted to the subjectlve personal rlghta whlch were hldden behlnd the 
Imperatives of the Decalogue and to the covenant betwoen JHV/H and the 
Hebrew' important factors In the emergerrce of denocratlo 
deßmnds. Georg Jelllnek has nevertheles embraced Chrlatiariltv . But hlg 
great non-Jewlsh frlend and admlrer, Max '//eher, clearly percelved the 
source from whlch the son of Vienna's insplred proacher has drawn hls 
deepe'etlnslghts: "From hls orlgln and the traditlon of hiß famll.y:- hev.ixjgid 
percelved a tlnge of that oure fragrance that emanatep from the gentle 

and raature crlental world of fe-llnfcs«*' 


When Gumplowloz and Jelllnek dled almcst at the aan'.e tlme 

before the outbreak of of the First World War,|/6ther Au'^trlan scholars 

of Jewiah doßcent were at wol'k In the ephere of public law. Three of 

them held ,8lde by aide of Adolf Menzel, chalrs of the public law et the 

Unlverslty of Vienna. 

Administrative law was the prlncipal obJect^/Fr ledrlch Tezner 

( 1856 - 1925 ). One of hls earllest works was a textbook 0:'' the ." 

adirilnlJ^tratlve law, Händbuch des öst^rrel di^go.hcn AdirlnlF^tr tlv^ 

verf ahren? ( 169'^ ), whlle his last monogr^phlc etudies ds.ilt ori icMlly 

wlth tne free Judgmeht:5f admlnl'tratlve bodies xKOt ard wlth the Impact 

of Hdmintstrativejudlcature oni^fcevelopment of 'he la'-'-^Oafi f:e le Kr:neasen 


der Verwaltung^begh^i^rden; kritisch gyste inatlg ch er'j rte rt t-u " C-rund der 
Ver wa ltu ng- rlchtllc he ^ Rechtg prechur)if:j ( 19?4 ) and Die rec'nl ?blldenr:(? 
Funktion d er österreichischen ve rwhAtunri^fc^erichtl ichen Recl': iorechu n;; 

- S9 - 

i M 

I .' 


■ ' ' ' 


, — ^ 



( 2 volurne«^, 1925 )• Tezner war. »hotvever, also a profoun i a-u nroll'^'c 
Scholar In the ;ield of the constitutlorial law. He öevöte^l compre •■; iriSlV'- 
atudies to both baelc elements of the Auatrflian Konarchy. Th^i part of . 
the Cro'/m w.yo presented and dlpcusaod In the riionograph Dor :' nlger, 
( 1909 )• Three year« later appeored a volumlnous work od the rcpreaen- 
tatlon öf the people . Die Volkpvertretung ( 1912 ). Tezner ..xogIIcI : • 
llkewiae as hlstorian öf the public lav-. HIp eorl.v study, TechnV-^ ü^^(^ 
Qel gt r3ei3 sf-'ndiac h -monarcl^lechGn StgatFrechta ( 1901 ) analysed t'ne 
mecUeval 'feudal System and demonstrated , in oppoetion to the pre- 
dorainant o Linien, the fundamental differencea betwe-^h the feudal s'^'-pteD 


and the conrtltutlonal monarchy.jln hls monograoh Die V/a n dlungen der 

V» ., .««<' 

^^sterrei Ch i sch»unp^,a ri sehen Reich sidei^ ( 1905 ) Tezner descrlbed the 
evolution and siifrniflcance of the political concept the Danubian 
I'mpire stood for. 

Leo Witt ine^ver ( 1976-1936 ) was interested malnli^ in iriodem 
Austrian ana German constitutional law. In'hi& booV: "Un ser Reichgrats- 
Wah lrecht und die Taa ff ersehe '<\^ahlordnunr ( 1901 ) Kittnia-'^er analvped 
6nd defedded the reforms of the eüectoral System which ?rime Kinster 
Taaffe and Steinbach have tried to introduce. Wittmayer' s principal 
work, Die >^eirtiarer Rechscerfaspunc; < 1922 ) wa^ devoted t& the 
Constitution of the newly created German Re public. It was foILowed by 
the monographs Reichsverfaseung und Politik ( 1923 ) and Demokratie 
und Parlarri':ntarigm\4 3 ( 1928 ). We owe to ii^ifmayer also a concise 
biographical study on Emüil Steinbach whose enthusiastic adnirer he was. 

Leo Strisower ( 1857 - ) specialized Irt the law of 

nation and" International law« In 1919 he püblishöd the book^ Der Krieg 
und die V^lkerrech t sordying In which he deält with the problem of 
securing e Isting peace, an ideal to which Strisower was zealously 
devoted. In 1922 he was appointed füll profescor. He also was a member 
of the Institut de droit international and of the Academy of inter- 

f ." 

- 60 - 

national' Ihw fat Hague. 

At the Unlverelty of Prague, Lu dwlp; Solegr r^ ( 1864^19?^ ) 
held the chair of public law.Hla theoretlcöllstudv on thc nclence of • 
ädmlnlatrat :vo 'law» Die Verwgltun<::^3rechtpwi/-3enschaft ( 19C9 ) was 
a contrlbutlon to the methodology of Jurlsprudence . The lestlng 
slgnlflcance of thls werk Is shovrn by the public ntlon In 1931 6f Ita 
trartslatlon Into Spanlsh» A collection of £plegel's lectures and 
essays appeared In 1913 under the title Geegtzur^d Rec ht • Ac a 
hlatorl^.n of publlclaw, Spiegel publlshed In 1905 a bock -«bout the 
hl Story of the Au st rl an publlcJaWi Dle geechlcv^tllche B: ntv'i .clrlun g 
d e g ^ g %e vrei c M h c h en St a a t g re ch t s . but he alno bec^^me thc- author of 
the flrst hlstory of the Czcchoslovak Heoubllö In the German language: 
iJle Ji^ntatrhu npr. ,de s tachecho ■ lov- ^Mrcli r,r: ZU v^tci^ ( 1921 ) 

Spieftel was for a tlme a Senator o-^ the Gzechoslovalc iJational 

Aasemblv. In aplte of hls being a confe??8lnp; Jew snd of.^the fact th'-^t , 

the electlon of the Jewlph professor Samuo"^ Ätelnhe« p.b i^^ector of the ' 

Unlverslty liad been frustrritGc! by derüonstri?^lon of .^ntl-^Seiiiiltic • ! 

•> . 

•nti^'ü^int« »'^'olecrel w?>8 mado Rector, bu^. he dled before taklng the offlce/ 

A conteinporaty arid countryman of Ludwig Spiep-el was Alfred 
lye ls ^ner (b. In Mlada ßoleslav [* Jungbunzlau,j In 1871 ) \^'ho oerved 
under President I-^iasaryk as Ml 'ieter of Justice frorri 1920 to 1929, 
and In 193^ as Minister of Social -elfare. Hip Jurl.9tlc atudles were 
devoted malnly to Problems of social securltv, of V'e cultural 
rights of ffilnorltlesland of the Industrlal law . A- Hfenc bool^: o"'' thlr: law 
ie oiie of hls maln worka. After the occupatlon of Czecho: lovakia by 
the iNazls Meissner remalned in thdlsnd In wh-^se reblrth r o had 
partlclpated so Intensely but he has hardly survlved th miss murder 
of 1942, 

liili -A _;HMkl'^' ■ 

'. 1. 

- 61 . 

L. y 

From the Koravlan cltv Hodonir. ( ö^5dln':' ) h'A 
«Jossif Redlich ( 1869-1836 ) , equally outstandlncr b '■} 

.j!;rlrit ant 

hit?torlan, moreover an unsurpas'-ed wltty converaatl-n.?.! i t. *.n hlr^i 

day., He started his eplendld career as a ir.etnber of t.he ^or^'tri'in 

Labdtap; ( dlet ) »beoame; member 6t the Austrian Relcl-ir -iit ^ Hourts of 

Representalves )| was app inted Hon-^rcry Professor "or public law 

at the ünlverslty of Vienna an? served in the shirtlivc' lor^t 

Auetrlan Cablnet of the Prlme ^dnlater Karl Lamrrasch a" -inl^ter 

of Financo. NO'.lea8'axtr8or(3lnary activitles followed Q^ter thci fall 

of the Austrian Empire outeide of Ite borders. In 1925 Redlich was 

Invlted to Join the Law ?chool of the Harvard Universitv as Professor 

of Conparatlve Public Law and bepran to lecture there, Finplly he was 

electedfaeputy Judr^e of the Permanent Court of Intemati^n^^i Jur-tice. 

Redlich'e scholarly productlon was^ equally astonlshin^•^ . His nuMerou^- 

works comorise Juristlc and historical studies about thü Auptrian 

and Enpllsh con^titutlonal law, a combinötion which resülted from 

-'Empire f? 
Redlich* fi personal attachment ^o V'xe twovwith their histrries and 

tradltioBS stretchlng over many cehturtes'^ahd'.to hisboundlees 

admitatlon of the n^nglish Parlament. 

it was due to thiß erithuaiastic "ff^-tlon for the subjects of 

Redlich' s studies linked with a rare lnr=l^?,ht and ecientlfic mastery 

that an -Aüntrian scholar of Jewish dercent became the Intemationall'. 

recognlsed authoMty on the Engllsh Constitution. The iaprespion 

Redlich' a 
made by fejt^j^^^lrst booke or thla .. fleld> Theorie und Recht der 

^PgU^C^e^ . LQk; ^ X7erwa T.1 ^V5P r> ( 1903 ) and R echt und Technik ,^6^ , 
en/7li9che^ Pfat.l aTP^rit-y^^Vp'^"^ 1905 ) wa3 so great that the Engl.löh. 
tranalatl^n of the latter boak publlahe-i in London in 190? was 
prefaced by Sip Charles Courtenay Ibert ,Ci^x»'^ of the House of 

' ■ ■ , r . ■ • 

Commono» [ Thie work haSt aecording to a stntement Charles C, 

r »l* «.B.,^ 

. 62 - 

1: \\ 

läurlingham, a dlstlngushed American lawyer, made after Redlich' s death, 
"held Itn place for the last thlrty yearp aa indlapeneable tc the 
atudtints of Engllsh parllamentary lnstltutlons# ^ 

liven before Redlich was called to Har\''ard he publl'-hed the book 
The Oon-j on I^aw and the Case Kcthod on Ame r ican Univeraltv Lr^w Tchoolr 
as a report to the Qamegie Foundation for the AJvancecent of T^achlnga 
( i^ew lork 1914 ). ^ut thbugh the U.S.A. were to become the Pphere of 
hls teachlnF and social actlvitlep, hls scientii^ic interest during the 
decades follov.'ing fclx« the war wa?^ aöjoncxtx absor]:'ed by the Problems which 
tketho histor^» of the aboli^he-rl Austrlan i'mplre Irrposed upon 1*.f ^sith- . 
ful 3on and n dm-* ring Student- .^e feit the callinf? to vl^idlcnt': itr 
exiPtenc3 even thcuffh its belon.cred to t '^e pa^t.'Thus, whllc- :]e once 
had Doncentrated on a Single part of AuFtrlan lecral atructur- in hlp 
book, i/a p V.' eaen d'rr ÖPt errelchlec ^-gn Xömmun alv«r> rf s g ?un/y , ^ov: t'ie polltl- 
cal hlstoryof tthe Austrlan Empire becan^e the prl-^cioal X,^^'-- o'f Josef 
Redlic'-i in the closlnfr period of hls llfe. 

The booka which Redlich produced in th-f ruraul ' •• ' :.r^ plan, 
jj,??g_.^^terr€l chfl lche gi;.-iat8'- und Rglchepro bl ^ery— Ge a chi Cr: 1 1 1 :■ •.? 
Jaratellunp der Inneren Politik d q^ HabPburfTSchen I^-onarchle ^ ^n 1843 . 
bis zum Unterfjanc- des Reiches ( J: volumes, 19P0-26 ), üle ^^Pterrc ich: . sehe 

Regierung irn Wei?tkrieg v 1925. Engl, transl. 1929 ) and i^ii.ll'ir^i:au^ 

Joseph VQn „O est e rrelch ( 1925 ) dealt wlth the various appeots of the 
compllc'ited subject. Of - the monumental flrst one of the -e wc rks only 
three volumes Jiav6'.beeA'.:publishedtlling the story until 186?. Aftt.r 
the perusal "of the first two volumes Harold J. Las^l vrote to Holmes 
on Nov<; itab3rl4, 1920: "I have read with profound admlration Redlich' s 
two süperb volumes on Austrla since *48. The- are reallv m,^-nlficent - 
of the stuff o"^ which psrmanence Is maö^. . He can draw pictures and 
analyse moti^^es hardly less well than he ie able to drpict Institutions. 
It Is a masterpience.": Thua it is perhaps not an exagger'^tion to State 

- 63 - 


that the worthiest epllogue of the AustriPn Himplre canie form the pen of 

Josef Redlich. '• 

But the cloalng yeara of the Danublan I^^onarchy and of the risinp- 

-Aurtrlan Republlc alao saw the emerpence of a nei^r generatlon of IJewl^ih 

born Jurlsts who, In thls perlod of tran?!formatlon , were well aware of 

t'ie necessity to re-examlne the baalc problemso^f public lavr and of the 

philoflophy 0"^ law.They Jölned the ranlcg of the Free Law y^ovement , led by 

Supren Ehrlich and represented by euch flphtltl/y spirlts l\ke K arl, Geöv^ 

Wurzel <S f^ea ?.h-)ve pp. ), or choae thsir indlvldual ways. Thu9 

Friedric h Kf !bl .in hia able study, Da? Rechtspre^^nhT, ( 1909 ) analvzed 

the eentiipcnt of Justice and investip-ated itc Manifestation up to the 

region cf international relations. Wal ,ter ii^c k.-t ein , . in a book of 

lastin rfvalut, Dgp anti ke Naturrecht in P02ial,ph i logophi{?ch er I:eI.euchtun.cT 

( 1926 ) co.uiblned akilfully the presentation of Greek philo so phy 

concerninfT the natural law wlth a re-appriaal of this controversial 

branch of law. In accordance with a thesia of the Austrlan Jewiah 

philosopher, W'niielm Jerusalem, dempnstrated convincingly that the 

indlvlduall'-tic tendencies of the natural lav which are orip-inallv 

■ ' • . 

directed aßiinat social authoritariani?iiii u?=ie to pave the way to the 

rise of Universal and cosmopolitan trends. The fundamental problemp 

i ■ * ' ' 

of law wer^-^ also dlscussed bv Robert Lnzar a feld. . in Das Problem der 

. ■ ♦ . '..,.■ 

J Mrlspruc^ep ^ ( 190? ) and by I gn,?., z K o >^n f e 1 d In his work, A1, l fre me i ne , 

j ' ' • I ' 

Recht slehre und. J urisprud enz { 1920 ) . 

^ The TLoicentous event of this peribd in thi spheres of public law 
and philosophv of law','"*an achivement which ranks among the crreatest 
feats of Auezrian Jurisprudence,^des©rver , ^owever, a chapter of 
his own. 

1 1 

I ■ .} i^ 

- 64 . 

The loncer the splrltual war, rofring slnce the b-cl-nnlng of 
the|twentleth Century wlthin the realm of Jurlsprudence , drs^^cred on, 
the flercer the battles on the varioufl fronts p.rew, the m'^re It became 


apparent that the very exlptence of Jurlpprudcnce as a pcie-ice of 

po{?ltlve lav: wa? at stakö. Its theöry and pl»ictice wercMnr ^aaantly 

the comblned 
exposed/to' Attacke by the xnoinh^ m^jgx ^fisjpcxaa of the younf?, vlp-orous 

v/c:ences, eociology and psychology, as well ao by the fliTh* orji of the 

...... ^... . . • •. . 

Free Law Movement. Thus the whole of 'jurirorudence seemed to be doomed 

to become e prev of extemal powern. The state of af^airs was th--^ more 

confuslhg • n the advanclng forces claimed thc^t only by their vtctory 

Juri ppructencö^ could be saved from utter flterillty and[compl:^te down'^all. 
' ' ' ' • . 

Cn the background of thle development th- appearance of 

Hang ICelpct . 'born to Jewlsh parents In Prapue In 1861, haa to bfe faced. 

Endowe'^ with a loglcal mlnd of a sharpness nnd lucldltv whlch formed a 

Äxxxxxx a unlaue phonomenon even amomc? the brllllant Oernan and .'^ustrlan 

loplclans, rlelsen oet out Pingle-handed to stein the tide of the ho?tlle 

forces. Hl-^ prlnclpal alm wa? to liberate ^;rlL' Druden ce froii the 

Intruding "ir.eta- 'uristlc" methoda, whlch in h'.e vlew infected the 

eclence of law wlth a dangeroup syncrv^Dti^n en-^ to reubuild ji-.rl p o-u.dence 

on ita own unshokable foundations. Hie undert.ikln.ff haa oe n cojnp^jrei 

"/;lth of Immanuel Kant v;ho ^t the md-of the öightof:nth Century 

\ , amidfit the etruf^crle of the metaphj'.gicianp gnd the ration-jl! tpf, designed 

hiß critical philosophy of pure reason er- a gulde of philo«' <phiCc"l and 

scientific thinkinp. In fact, Keleen himaelf polnted to t^'. anglco'v of 

hin teachlng wlth that of Kant, though In ita neo-Kantlo^i ' rilnn a.« 

developed b"^^ the Cxerman- Jewlsh philosopher Hermann Cohrn - V e ne'-'^A:>ntißM 

. r- origin of Kelaen's doctrlne lg also reflected - in its nörriOr Pure Theor^' 


of ILaw. j 



. I 

- 65 - 
Kelsen set for*h hlp theory when he wap, alnce 19]..'', lecV.irer 


\;J ' L?XH^AQZ^il ^nd later, ?ince 1915 f profeseor of public 1: v^ 8t the 
., ■ '; Unlveralty of Vlenna ( untll 1929 ). ■'Ithln a Short tlire h ;7:iint:5 vo 

' many pupile and followera that a new school of law, th«r '^Virnna ^c'nool»'* 
! was bor 1 . Amon<7 Kelsen's adherents the -Autrlan-Jewish JurlatSn /^lllian 

Ebo:!^ateln, Ffelix Kaufmann , TÜana ÄLlnghoft'er,' Joseph L.Kunis » Fritz Sander 
md Frantleek V/eyr, as well as the German Jewlbli Benjamin Akzira and the 
French-Jewish Charles Einsenmann - alongside of the Austrig^jw Adolf 
Merkl and Alfred Verdross - played an outstanding part «ä in the crenesia 
and hietory of the achool« But though thev contributed new ideaa to 
the developiren of Kelaen* ssyste, , he remained the Chief arc litect pf 

the Purn Tlieory of Law. He formulated hie viev/s for the first time in 

his work, Hau D^ P robleme der ^taaterechtPlrhrei e ntw ickelt aus der Lehre i 

vom Rech\t8f^at^ ( .1910, , aecond edltion 1923 ) and in his lecture, Ueber .j 

Grenzen zwischen .lurigtiacher und poziolorrl qc he y I^^ethode ( 1911 ) » i 

to be followed v apart from nujierous es-'-ay ) bv Dag Probl em der 

£ouveranit^'l { 1920 j . I^er gozioloffifl ch e und -der ^luristiache Sta -'Stb egrii/ < 

■ i 

( 1922 ) f Allgemeine Staatslehr e ( 1925 ) and by the crowning work. 
Reine Rechtslehre ( 193^» aecond editlon 1960 ). In 1929 Kelsen left 
the Unl/ersity of Vienna and followed a call t'^ the University of 
Colog-ne, There he taught from 1930 to 1933- ^ut in this yearac, tlough 
he held the office of the Dean of the Law Faculty, he was deprived of hls 
profearoröhlp wWing k to hie Jewish origin. ( Kelsen v/ho had been 
baptlzed in Vienna never co-^cealed hia Jev/lsh deocent. ) Cslled to 
Geneva by the Ir^stl tut Universitqire de? H av^te,?^...I ^tudeg Ir\te matioT)>?le8 . 
he became profesnor of thie Inctituto in 193 J» '^he ^niversity \ 

of Prague was the last European Univerpity where Kelsen taucht ( 1936- ' 
1937 )• *^e ccntinued, however, hip activity ät the Institute In Geneva j 
before he emigrated to the Ü.S.A in 1940. In the next year i^Glsen became 1 
Oliver V^endeT» Holm^a Lecturer at Harvard Law School , Research Associ-te i 


-^ 66 -^ 

at the same School and Vlsltlnpr Prlfes^-or at Wellepley Collp'e* In the 
years 1C42 to 1952 Kelsen was Professor of International Law and Jurin- 
prudence at the Unlveralty of California in Berkeley where he -toolchis 
permanent reaidence« 

Kelsen' 8 international reputation haß bern firmly eatabliahed 
during theo*:' years of Wanderung and creative work. "Kelsen of Cologne, 
certalnly the first German Jurist of the dav," thua Harold J. Laski 
referred to hiizi in the letter to Justice Holmof of April 17, 1932. At the 
same tlme the "Vlenna School" grew Into a v;orld-wide "international 
school of Juri Stic thoufrht such as had never exi?- ed in the annala of 
Jurieprudence ." iMothinfr perhaps can prove the correctnesr of V/illlam 
Ebenstein *s Ju?t quoted etatenient than the fact that a seriee of Kelsen* s 
main bookff h^ve been translated into 25 lengua^es. The r^jcop-nition which 
Kelsen's wr-rv has o-ained wap even most recentlv conflrmed by the bestowinu 

on him the ^'eltrinelli prize by the Itellan ^c adein ia de i Lj ncei in i960, 


valued inter-nationally like the Nobel prize,- -'.oreover, i': haijpened for 

the first tlT:e thal a prize of such a megnltudc has be n awarded to a 

•••.■ ... ' ' • ' 

legal Scholar. ' 

The fundamehtB. principle of the Pur^; Thcory of Law consists in 
the distinction of two logical categories: the Xs and the Ourht, the 
forrTiCr b;iiiig relcteö to Statements about reality ( nature ; , rthe latt'~r 
to ßtatement.a sbout norms and society CöAstitüt^d' 'oy ndririative order. 
The distinctiom araounts to a sharp diffcrentaltion between the law of 
caugalitv nn d the principle of Imputation ( Zu rechriunc- ) ss two differcnt 
ways of conneecting facta aa conditlon and consequence. The statemnts 
by wh-ich t le acience of law clescribes its object, the legal ordern? , 
Kelaen calls "rules of law" ( Rechts8*^tze ) , in contradistinction to 
"legal ^orms" ( H e cl^t enormen ), Jurisprudence being, like ethlcs, a 
normative acience par axcellence, that is a acience whase ob.^ect are 
normSf established by the legal authrit>. The function of Juri -prudence 

I 'i 

r "'^ 


. 6? - 

i;:i tier':-. fore nothlng eise than the Cognition of norrns. It ir hy vlrtue of 

thla definition that Kelsen* p'( Claims to be a Pure Zheory cS Lavr ( Heine 

Hechtglei i,re ). This meana by the same to--cen an utter rejectlon of . 

soGioloprical nnd psyc "ologlcal methads aa meons of Jurisprudence . whll(l 

not denylng the legitimacy of a sociology or psychology of law ond of 

politlcs of law ( Rec]^t8TX)litilc ) bSBed on the results of theae ficienccß^ 

Keleen insifjte/on the difference which exista between th<^m snC Juris- 

prudence,and conaequently between the r<:^spectlve iiiethode and principler;! 

From this principal polnt of view follov/s necee^^arlly that 

Kelsten concel^eg Jurtsprudence aa a theory of Doritive ""sw. V/henever he 

use^i the terr. "law" he uaea it in he aenre of positive law, th**t of a 

valid law wlthout regard. to itF rightnesp or rnorsl quality. Rlghtnea? or 

Justice could be recopnised, acccrrding to Kelsen, ds -^r, es?ontial 

eler ent of la'\^ only, if an absolute ricrhtnes?^ or Juetict wer' concevalble, 

Thir 13 jU8t vhat Kelsen denies, iib^nlute justice can derlvt otIv from 

a transzendental aut.hority, from God. i^arthly, huinan Juptice c?n be only 

a relative Justice. A Justice of this relative charachtor aei'ireötes «ny 

positive law and secure?; as the most precious good an öl)rnv^ylr:!ata !^tate 

of peace and pecurity . i'The allembracing moral principle In- < ved In this 

relativiat philoaophy of Justice lies in the pri ciole nf ':.;-. srance , iti 

the sycapathötic understanding of the political and relirriou^ belle fs 

of othera . 'Acöordingly thel*^ does not exiat'any relatiön' bet veen the 

science dfloV and Ärdefiftite politioäl aystem, even tho sy- em Kelsen 

prefers,' derhogracy »vwhich, in fact, he considers indispensable for his 

personal life, as he conr«:'sed in an emphatic stateirient: 

• ...I cannot sa^^what Justice is^ the abscl-j-t^ Ju'^t.lca 
for which mankind ia longi^g, I must ncaulecce in ;i rel-i + ive 
Justice and I can only say what Justice is tö rne» Sinei-: 
science is my profesplon, and hence the most implrtant thing 
in my life , Justice ,to me , is that social order under whose 
protection! the search for truth can proaper, "My" Justice, then 
ia the Justice of freedora, the Justice of peace, the Justice 
of deiDOcracy - the Justice of tolerance. 

• "■ . 68 . 

The elliDination of the sociolcglcal method fröm Iuris prüden ce 
ana the llmltatlon of the latter* s sphere to the positive Idv/ affects 


espentially particularlyKelsen a theory of the state. Ha diptinguishea 

two different concepts: a Juristic and a soclological concept of the 

State, bot'] of which refer under the same name to two different ohjects. 

Consequently Kelsen rejectö Jellinek's theory of the two Qides of the 

i* •. ' • > • • ■ 

State which iraplies that the stote as one and the same thinpr han two 

aspeots, a legal and a aociological aspect. The state is, accordincr 

to Kelsen, neither an orpanifim, nor a collective will ( Ge?amtwille ), 

nor a ma?8 soul ( Maaaenseele ). All such ' hypostatizs-tiona," including 

Jellinek's power to relgn ( H errgchern q^ht" ) are, as analyzed by Kelsen, 

xr« hypostjtizi/ed personificationa. He decla-^^es inptesd that the 

State is a eoercive order and as such identic,?! with the legal order, 

that - in :his senee - State and positive law are Identical. 

Sinctj Vcilidity is an essential quality of positive law - the only 
pne which Kelsen recognises as law - the problem of the reason for the 
validity of the law occupiea an eminent place in the Pure Tieory of Law.. 4 
-Again enciological or psychological elment? have to be eliminated from 
the exauiiViutloti . On the other hand it is seifevident that there is no 
further rej^r^^i- to a positive norm c6nceivable. Kelsen offers the 
Solution by pointing to a presupposed basic norm ( Gru ndho nn ;• Thus 
thevalidtity of the law is revealed to be of a hypothetical nature: 
if the poöitiVe law ie considered as valid , the norm that one have to 
behave according to the historically first Constitution iJ5 Implicitly 

Kslsen emphaaizes strongly the difference between the basic norm 
of the Pure Theory of Law and the foundationa on which the validity of 
the positive law is based by the natural law doctrine. üccordlng to the 
natural law doctrine - of which Kelsen is a sharp Opponent - the 

. 69 - 

reason why a positive law Is valld conslsta in its conforn:lty wltn the 
particular contents of the natural law: the law ie vslld "because it is 
Ju8t. In ccntradistinction the basicnorm of the. Pure Theory of Law. 
does not determine the contents of the positive law and hence there can 
be no conflict between the basic norm and the positive law. It is the 
main feature of the natural law doctrine to be a dualistic theory of 
law by recognising two sphers of law: the positive and the natural law. 
In contrast to^ the natural law dpetrifte, the Pure T'neory of Law la a 
monistic doctrine. It proclaims: there ie only one law - the posltice . 

In fact ,though >no relation seems to exiat betwee-n the rellgious 
sphere of Judaism and the rational realm of the Pure Theory of Law, 
the ptinciple of oneness, of absolute unlty, is in the Pure Theory of 
Law as dominant as in Judaism. l^^oreover, Keloen'fi abhorrence to Identify 
legal norms and the State with empirical phenomena of any klnd shows 

* • 

a Strange slmilarity with the Hebrew notlon of the incorporelty of the 

i^ivine. There is even a direct pxpresrion of this relatior to be foünd 

in Kelsen's Der soziolo 'Ische und der .luristipche Stta^^tbecrrfeff : " . . . 

thenotion öf th€ only-»ohe ( einie-ein zig ) State of the Theory of 

Law corresponds . . .with the notlon of the only-one God of "h- Jewish- 

5iSj?i<3ti9P tieology." And as early as 1913 Weisen declaredln hia essay 

Ueber Steataunrecht : 

If an analop-y between the microcosm of the leral order 
and the order of the universe is. perii]itt''d . . .then there Ig 
in the idea ocf of one God the, same or ^^et ?? 9lTtilr?r ecnnomy 
of.thinking inherent as in the JurlstlC' oonatructiom of ..i. 
the personal uniform State.'/ 

From the conceptlon of the law as a normative order follows also 

the denial of the difference betwen physical and Juristic ( corporate ) 

persona , as well as the rejecticnof the diviPion of th'^ law into 

sub.Jective and objective, public and private law. The unlfyl-iff tendency 


' '■•) 


of the Pure Theory of Law m^nifepts Iteelf furtbermore 1 

reco'Tnltlon o-^ customary and all kind^ of unwritten non- -^t^*/. •^-.• rv l-^tv, 

^or any law hafi a place wlthln a le|3;al eystem whope vallül^-' \r ba^r-ecl 

on the Gi;nc1JläniinD of thle syatem. It ,ie In t'nlö perapccti ve ;• it /k1o.]J:_ 

l::^äslf cne of Kelsen's most outstanding Au'^trlan nor\-J' irlnl: illcv/er^, 

conC'3lvcd the theory of the h 1 <^^ r ^rch 1 c g^l -. t ru c t u. re (Stuf en 1:^ o -^ • ) of th-: 

law .vhici has been adopted ty Kelsen.Thls theory contemolM- r: the 1 :ral 

Order 9;:: e. fiystem of super- and aubordinated norms, froin tht' highest 

forE'ta to the lowest onjcaJ Constitution, "Statutes, custorr.ary law, 

Judlclöl declslons, private le pal transactions . V/lthin the framework 

of thia theory even ■ the 'J^ree Law ^^chool c«n fl^d its place. The last 

consequence whlch Kelsen deducee fron the princlple of the ünity of 

Law ia flnclly the unlty of international lav and national law, i.e. 

the Ipw '5f the State. Keleen not onl^' envls^ea the creatlcn of a 

World State as the ultlmate goal of the lep-al evolution, but he declareSV 

that ;Cognltlonally internatlobal law and , the lepral orders of the- Single 

statea irupt. be con?ldered aa a unltv.It/ie/paccordinf? to thls concept,/ 

general international law which makes the co-exiPtence of Single states 

within the "Space and time poanible. 

It waa the architectonic grandeur of Kelsen's concept, the 

product of a faaclnating logical reasonlnir, which helped the Pure 

Theory ofjLaw to emerge from the great battle for the Jurisprudence* In 

the course ot the first decadee of the twentieth Century as the 

favorite theory of law. The litPisrture on Kelsen, including gystematic 

expositions of his theory and symposia with authoritaive contrlbutionsj 

aasumed gityantic »"^roportione. Accordin;.'ly, th^ irapact of th- Pure •> 

Theory of l.?T/r «on Jürln prüden ce waa farreachtng. It has been aaid by 
• Wolfgano: 
l3^K ^'rledmann that hardly any branch of legal theorv has renj^ined 

untouched by Kelsen's ftheöry, and even the bltterrt opponentaof the 






- 71 - 

"Vienna Schoöl" conceded that it has forcedlegsl theory to recon milder 
Its Position« 

The world-wlde contrbversy which haa bern called :'*:r:/"! by 
KQl3en*8 Pure Theory of Lawls one of the most frultful effect?r of hls 
teachln,-?« The Spanlsh Jurist -egaz y Lacambra sumued up the C5h.riracter 
and slgnlflcance of the debate by declarlng that legal thln'^ing of thls 
Century must necessarily be a "clalögue wlth Kelaer," though one njU5.t .' 
loclc beyond the bordera drawn by Kelsen for an anchorage of the law. 
The most reinarkable contrlbutlon to thla histcric "dlalo|2;ue" has been 
made by Kelsen himself In a huge sequence of wrltlmga. BeFldcs of 
countlea«^ artlcles and boolc-revlewa In which he has replled to hla 
crltlcf, a large number of comprehenslve putlbcatlona hae be?n added 
by Kelpen to the baalc books ouoted already above. Cnly soiue' of the 
moat important vrorks of thls arcazlng productlon can be mentloned here: 
ÜJ? philo aophl sehen Grundlap-en der I^aturrech t sle hre und des Hechtg - 
Positiv.l,8mu8 ( 1928 ), Ver/yel tü und Kau sali tät (19*59 ) . General 
Tbeorv of Law and State ( 194s ) . ^^at lg Justic e? ( 195'^ ) - '"'^le 
poRltiviötlc View has be^n exoounded by Kelaen in these :ind In hla 
prevlouB works to the extreme consequences. Only recently In justria, 
' f r-^m which the founder of the "Vlenna School" had been bsn^^^ d for 3o 
many yeara, Kelsen *s merlts as the supreme theoretlclan of 1h' positive 
law were summarlzed by Ren4 Marclc In the words: "Throu^'- i^-l.sen the 
positive lav; haa found Its own pecullar method» only so !:;c:l v::,lfic 
lecal poaltlvlsrn has become poselble at all." 

The Opposition! agalnst the Pure Theory of Law carre nct only 

frcan theadherents of the soclolorrlcal and peychölocioa'l method s. 

Kelaen' övlölent attacks on the natural law and hie rela^l^lst attitude 

to the idea of Justlcecalled foAh no lesa critlcism of mrmy philo« 

'■ ■ ■ ' 

sophlcally mlnded Juriata. V/ith 'hll : the due recognltlon of th-a 

- 7? - 

invaluable contributlon made by relativlpir. to tolerance -ir':; flYmp-it'-r* 

for the varietlea of legal Systems ,the negative or znertly riv^bjective 

approöch to the buming problerro of human exietence in 2 torn world , 

whose divislcns had'prown to Irreconciloble extreraesn, a '.o:.-ld whlch 

had be.n Imperllled and jhardly escaped the desdly danrrer of boing. 

enfjulfed by a realm of lawlesnness masquerading as a State . d?3eiiied. many 
tq_ be / ■ • "" ' 

iln'süfficient. The need of some objectlve ataridaidhas not been effaced 

froin the aouls by the Pure Theory of Law,' Againat the nepatlon of an 

abs-^lute v^lue of Justice volces were raised all over the globe. 

Lilce sraono; the co-builders of the "Vlenna ?chool" and later 

followers of Kclson, Jurlste of Jewish orlgin excelled al?o as analysts 

of Xelsen'v*". theories. To whlch depree r>nd whether at all the tradltlon 

of Judalsiri, In v/hicbtlie belief in the dlvine ??ource of Justice onC .'he 

idea of Justice itself held focal nopitlönö • has 'conrclously or 

unconsciousl^' a share in the of jiatural law bv Jev/ish juripts, 

is obviouslv fi matter oT conjecture, but the intensive participation 

of JewG in leadinp: roles on both aldes of the strugcrle for the clari- 

ficstion of the fundacentals of the law Is a pröof of the vital 

Interest Jeus have talren in the central problem of Jurisprudence and 

constitutes a an honorable chapter in the history of le^a'. phllosophy. 

Amonft, the works of Kelsen's -Äustrian followers of Jev^ish descent 

( see above p. ) may be particvlarly mentioned: Felix Kaufmann , Lo-ril^ 

i;nd Rechtswip^enschaft. Grundriss eines S ytem s der reinen Rechtslehre > 

1929» 'HK and Kethoder^lehre d e r Sozialwissensc'naften , ^ 1936 ' ( Kaufmann . 

does, however, not accept Kelsen'a dualistic view on the "Is" and the 

"Ought" ); Fritz Schreier, Grundbep-rif fe und Grundforme n 6er- Rechts. 

1924, and V/iiliam- Ebenstein ' a comprehenalve book. The ?u^e Theorv of 

Law ^ 1945. From the ranka of the "Vienna School" csme also K^^lsen's 

most vehement Opponent, Fritz Sander , who originally wa;3 an enthusiastic 


' — N 


- 73 - 

devotee of Kelsen*s teachlnp, but later turned wlth the typlcal zcal 
of an apo^tate agalnst the maeter in^hla Kelaenö Hecht aleh re, 
Kampf nc'-?r^.^t gege n die norm .s tlve Jurisprudenz. 1923* Sander hap, 
however, afterwards publlcly recognised his deep indepbtedneoe to 
Kelsen and paid him the highewt tribzte in his Allffenelne Gg; Bell Schafte» 
lehre. 1930* \ 

A very dignified criticiam of Kelsen's doctrine wa? put forward 
by Adolf Menzel, , V/hile recogniaing the merlta of Keleen*s logic, he 
emphaaized the poßltive value of what Kelsen called the "hypostatizstion 
of the State. Fut?thermore Menzel pointed fo the taslcs of Jurlsprudence 
which cannot be achieved by a purely normative niethod and declared 
that a cautious uae of the empirical methad vraj^odmisrible . ^v^alter 
Eckstein in his work on the ancient natural law ( aee above p. ) cnme 
to the conclüsion that natural law constitutes a concept whi -i in the 
paat ha 8 become the carrier of revolutionary ethic?3l reforir.9 and that 
it will continue to function in thia way. Finally F.R. Bjenenfeld 
( aee abpve p. ) in his study Rediecoverv of Justice . lo47, bv an 
analysis of the feeling of Justice innr^te in chilr^ren,tried to ppve 
the way for finding the very eleirentary qualitie? of Justice* 

In German v £rich Kaufmann devoted a special study, Kritik der 
neukantiachen RechtsphiloaoDhie . 1921. to the examination o:" the 
normative trend in Jurlaprudence . He recognised that Keleen by a i 

"critical acu' en which is unparalleled in out literature" has rei^ealad 

, thH ttalftruths in contemporary legal theories. But the werk which, 

■ , ' • , ■■ • . ., .• ...,',■ 

according to, Kaufmannes Judgment, has to be done after that purification 

.«.■•. . . . . • ^-*f» 

haa been refueed by Kelaen Wilthout Juatification." Kaufrann contempaiates 
the law as a divine order - an evidently Judaic notion . - '-'hich urges 
men to formulate the principlea of Justice »ttöughlthey are rubjected 


to changes according to the tiine and territiory.I^öom a different angle 

- 74 - 

the adherents of the phenom noloprical philo so '■)hy of the AuBtrinn-» 
Jewlsh philosopher Edmlmd Hu s perl, hls son, Gerhard Hun- erl, äerrnanri. 

Hel!l. or and Hg rman leav oppoaed the Pure Theorv of Lav^, clslm'nitr aloo 

for the norms llke for all values the character of phenomenoloFäJcal 

exlstence. ./'.Volfpfgng Friedmans ^ in hls Legal Theorv demonstrateg partim» 

cularly that the problem of/valid fundamental norm cannct be polved 

wlthout^an Inquiry Into polltlcal and social facta and that thus *^purtty" 

here cea?3er • 

In >^nglahd Harold J> Lasl^i« in feplte of hidämiratlc-:! of Kelsen s 

work, in hl'^ Grammar of Polltlcs ( forth edltlon ) declared: " ' ranted 

Its :;x)Qtulaten,I^ bellÄve the pure theory to be unrnawerable , out, I 

bellen also that its sübstance is an exercise in lop-lc and not. In Ufa." 

H» LauterpriQ]:] ^» one of the staunchest -American followers of Kelsen, 

uttered hlr dispent from the stand of the i^ure Tlrvory of Lav; regardlnp: 

the rejectlon of the natural law. He ralsed the questlon v;hether 

natural iaw princlples should not be Included in the hierarchy of legal 

norms as pro?pective positive norms of a hierher order., i'-ost rccently 

put . ,^ • 

Geoi:^ ; Co>)^i a Danigh«»Jewlsh Jurlnt ,fa'r\ca"Ed; a criticif^m of weisen s 

theor^' on the basis of existentialiat philosophy. Cohn m^intains t'at 

each case v/hlch has to be declded by a law court can be Judp'e(i| only 

by "relivlng" the concrete realitv of the partciliar caae. Thus a dou bt 

is cßst on the ef-^ectlveness of general norms and even on the uaefulness 

of abstr-^ct notlona. 
'"apart from being the foimder of the Pure Thory of Lrvr and the . 


Initiator of an unprecedented global dl pcu seien about the ecrence of the 
law - whatever may be Its ultlrcate results - Kelsen has perfc.-iEed IIrcIs- 
lative works of an undlsputable per"^ection. In the last vear? of thhe 
Austrian Empire, Kelaen as the Juristlc counsel of the Minl.-iti'y of '.'*'a r 
and in this capacity in immedlate contact wlth the Empercr '''- .'l todTc a 



I ii 


leadinp; part in the frustrated attempta to reorganlz<: thr; .:.■ " le , After 
the war Kelsen's public activity became, however, öne of \^ '.\x\^ ni?:'ni- 
ficance, for the draft of the i^untrian repu^lican constl'':u':lc i whlch he 
prep<-,red i •;■ Cooperation with G-eoriT ^ro ehllch^ the ( likev/irjü >'ev.'i^.!-wtorn 
head of the department in the Federal Chancellary, has br?' n .- fter oro- 
tracted debates adopted without esaential chan^-res, Thüs the :*'lrj3tv 

Constitution of the Austrian Federal Republic of October 19:?C' if? fore;Tiöff7.r 

Hans Kelsen's work. Although it hae/^ at the tirae of the reglr.:^ Dollfuso, 

replecöd by another Constitution, it was destined to become re-enacted 

after the Abolition of the Nazi domination with some amendEents dating 

ot July 30. 1925. 

Amon^ the many morits of Kelsen'a concept of the Constitution 

the shifting of the point of gravitation fr-^m the "Bundesländer" to the 

"Bund " must be particularly mantioned. The moat outstanding feature of 

the . • • - ' 

Constitution ia, however, the incorporation in ita structure of ^^ Bunde f=i — 

" verf as gunfrarrerichtshoi , " tho Eederal Qonstitutional Gourt. It waa 

• ♦ 

modelled according to Kelaen'a own normattvo theory and thus enricheO '..'i 

the realm of the public law ly an entirely new Institution. Kelaen him-: 

■ . . » ' 

seif called it his "most beloved child^" nd Hen^ Marcic, the üuatrian 
Juri st I has 'dcclared that through it Kelsen has raaterialized what all ': 
the ti-Teoriea of the natural law could not achieve even In two thoMdand 

yeara: an ef^ective guarantee of the obeiagncqby all the orgar^ 

■* i 

of the State to the law.^'There is yet another historic Provision in the 

Constitution which Kelsen has advocated: the abolition of the death 

penalty in ordinary precedure. Thus the last Austro-Jewish legislator 

cohtinued the humanitarian tradition of Sonnenfels and Glaser. ] 

Kelaen blao became the auüioritative Interpreter of the Austrian 

conatitution. In the yeara 1919» 1920 and 1922, he edited the coiT^tltu- 

tional laws of the Republic with an hiPtDcrlcal survey and critical 'M :.v.. 


- 76 - 

comments In five volumea .Already In 1923, the systematlc worV, : : r- ' .• 
QesterrQJQhischea Staatsrecht follöwed.In addltilon to thin echolarly 
production performed alongside of Kelsen's great theoretlcal works, 
Kelaen served as a Kember and Permanent Advlser of the Conp'itijtional 
Court • Numerous casea were dealt with during his tenure of the offlce, 
among them ospeclally thoae concernlng the ao called " Plgpensehen" 
( diapensatlon marrlagea ) . The deCialons of the Constitutional Court 
declaring that ordinary courta were not competent to decide about the 
lrgallt:>lof an admlnlatratlve act conatltutlng the diapensatlon became one 
of the maln reaaons of attacka by clerlcal clrcles and papers agalnst the 
Conatltutional Court, and - in the end - of an omlnous airendiiient regardlni 
the appointment of the members of the Co«irt, Deeply reaentlng the l^.palr- 

ment of hla "dearest child," Kelaen declded to leave Austria and there- 

fore gladly ec^epted the call to the Lnlverslty of Cologne inl929. 

But eventuatly ls«)'experlenced the great aatisfactlon to aee the 

r / 

conatiitutlon, he had drafted ghortly after '.iTorld V/ar I 're-enacted after 

World War II- by the newly establlshed -Auptrlan Hepubllc. New .Auntria's 

indebtedneap to her ^leglalator was reGop:nised nnd officlally expressed by 
a«' seriea of solcmn acta on the occaalon of Kelaen'a eightieth birthdy In 
1961. The i^u^ trlan Government bestowed upon hlm In recognltlon "of his 
merlt? as author of the /^ustrian Federal Constitution" ths ©eoorntion for 
Sojen ce and -Arts ( Oegterreic li^chea Ehren z eichen f^^r /Vl flaenvqcha ft und 
Ku nst) , and a con^ratulatpry telecrram waa sent by the President of the 
iiustrlan Republlc on behalf "of the grateful -Auatridto the creator of 
the Austrian Constitution 6hd great legal achoiar,"whlle the President 
of the Academy of the Sciences in a special address empha^ized Kelsen's 
"merit of having as.Juristic counsel of the Republlc suggested to incor- 


porat!2 tho iöea of the Bundesv e rfasrungsgericht s h^f Iri'to the Constitution. 
Ihcu^tly efter the end of of World War II, Kelsen had be-n appointed 

-t -* 

■„1 ,i:-l . >■ ^ ■ I : ' . j. ':> . .. u 



- 77 - 

Consultant of the U.S. Depatment of '^ar for the preparatlon o -^' the 
iNuremberg triala. He publlahed- in 1950 hia huge v;ork obout 2k:. Law of_:the 
^n-^J:/=l!lA^'^-^<^nfl' ^ C^ ^tical Ana lvpia of its _Fundainent8X_?.r.a)>l "^ ' ' ^. ^^^ -... ^9 9 
in tho yeora 1952-53 active ao Vlsiting Professor at the pame Orrr.duBte 
Institute at ^eneva where he hed taught in pre war yeara. T'ne aext tüo 
years saw hlm as Professor of International ^aw at the Naval «ar College, 
Newport, Rhode Island. It was in the "International Law Studieo" of 
this Colllegejthat Kelsen's important hoolTf Collective Security and__ . ^ ' r 
Inter n ational Law , was published in 195^. Since then frecuent lecture 
tours in the U.S., in the Latin American States and in x^urope followed , 
and a new 'ßctivity at the newly created Institute for /»dvanced Study 
in Vlenna has been Inaugurated by the tireles^ spiritual fio^htGr. 

Up to the enactment of the Constitutlonof 186? orofer-^-lnpr Jews 

were bar red from any public Office, But even the equ.-ality whlch wap 

granted to therr.lby the baslc civil rights pröclalmad ln> thirr Constitution 

pröved in creneral illBSory as far as the. par -iilcipatior in ■p^.:l:.c 
Services was concemed. An unwritten law of the Austrian xLmplr' ,v;hose 
eraperor and dynaety were for centuries the most devout prot-nctcr.^ of the 
Catholic Church :nd whose population consisted to an overv^helifilnr* part 

of Catholics, jmade the asherence of Austrian public servants to the 


Catholic faith'an almost Indispensable condition- This applied ' Tticul&rly 

to the Judicial Office the great authority Judges er, ]r vtd , to 

Ttheir linir.ediate contact with the population and to the religiou i form of 

the oath which was taken by Catholics in face of the cvu^fir. ~t proe?; 

- in^^ddition - 
without saying that'/a genuine antt-Jewish blas made feit itsel"' etror.c-ly, 

eapecially after the the rise of the eutspok^n anti-Semitic movoirent. 

j Koreover the Kinistry of Justice was traditionally th' domaine of the 

'—■ -} 

anti-Jewish German party. ,( 

•* i«-ii. J» i- ,_ 

- 78 - 

For all these reaeona the certificate of baptism became - aa a ! 

rule . - the tacit orecondltlon of the adralsalon to the office of a judge. I 

Jurlsta ; 

Among the Jewishy'who- whether Independently from thelr Intention to ; 

facilltate their career or solely for this purpose - nr^de the fateful i 


Step out of their Community, the ipoat famoua namea can be found . Of them 

Jose f Ung;er -achieved the hiphest posttion as the President of the Reich p - ' 

f^^erichtf while Emil Stein bac h became the Prestdent ^of the "upremeCourt 

and Julius Glaaer held the Position of an Attomey General for manv years. 

Aa the fourth baptized Jew who kocsts rose to the top of the juducial hier. 

archy in the Austrian Monarchy of that pericfl Alfred Baron von K raus , 

( b. in PardubitZf Bohemia, 1822, d.l909 ) has to be mentioned. He receives^ ; 

an orthodox Jewiaheducation, studied law at the Unlverslty of Prague, [ 

entered the career as a rallltary lawyer ( i^üditor )and - havincr embraced 


Christianity - succeöded in becominft ennobled and appointed President of 
!^upreme >'iilitary Court in 1681, ... [ 

j ParadoKically, at the time when these four eminent men of Jewish 
descent held the higheat Judicial Offices of Austria and son^e of then :- r . 
reshaped i-ustrian legialation, it was practically impossible for professin^' 
Jewe to become even Judges of low ranks.'«Not earlier than in the 
first not baptized Jew. Josef Lowner. was appointed Judce at a Viennese 
court. The break throu^ithe hitherto maintainedpractice was deemed so 
epoch making that a reference to it was inc6rparated in the inacription 
on Lövmer* s tombstone. After Löwner several profesaing Jews became judges 
at the law courts of Vienna. Even more numerous were such ap^ointments 
in the eastem Austrian provinces of Galicia and Bukovina .with their - in 
some parts -rather dense Jewish population.This fact was to have atrange 
consequences after the dls^olution of the Austrian Empire. Since many of 
the Jewish Judges in those countrles availed themselves of the right to 
make their Option for the newly created Aurtrip^. Republic , : the i -fluE ofCv 

(, ; : 

- 79 - 

••• relatively larcce number of Jewloh .Judp-ep'' ( accordlnc to rjome f.r^Ar.^jtep.of 

aboi-t fifty ; took place. The v^l'^ilstry of Justice- rencted to ^' 

undorlred "invaalon" by the alnio8t complete stoppspc of the ot oointments 

of Jewp to Judlclal Offices. Several .Jewis^i Judres of the "ol pruci^d" 

advanced, hovrever, in the Austrlan Republic to rather hir^h port^?. Thufi 

shortly before the end of the Rrpubllc three profes?lng Jev;?, iJniüi 

Bettelh^i-n , HeiTij?ich Klang «. Lbv{, 8er\'ed a.9 heads of Senates at 

the Superlor Court of Vienna. The garr.e offlce ot the sa^e cniirt \ras 

held by the Jewish bom Judfres Freehlich ,g^d Sjr-Triund Gr-' nber g, 

Geor p- _Weunian n 
whlle the likev/ise Jewish bom judger.- gzepepy served a^ councillor.7 

-As to the ' upreme Court, baptiem remained also öwrinr the twenty vearr. 

of the Ke public a prerequisite of membership in any capscity. All the 

Jewish lx>rri Judftes who durinpr the dsyß of the Hepubll c' held the po ata ••' 
ef Souncillors of that hichest Austri-m tribunal - Bni Gser« ♦ v 

■ V . ' • __F^9n Vf^lj, Grabs cheid ,, Georg Lelcver« who ore-^-inusly had 

served ae Vice Preoldent of the i^mprejnor.llirary Court, R\;äolf _^Qlig_}; 

had pald that price. Only after the re-eateblishirent of the -Av.^trlan 

He public in 194'"S /ieinrich ^lan r:u'\on hla return fron^ the coric ':•■ tration 

an rrentioned above 
caiDD TheredienHtadt vaa appoin' . d '. Chairmah of a Senate of th^ .'^upreme 

Court thus becomlng the only professing ^ew who has obtaünec -.h-U 

judicial rank. 

It happened, to be sure , also after the renewal •: f V- iu*'tri-n 

Hepublic that for the firat time after the dayg of ^''rnil : tG ■ n . /^ :;h a 

Jurist of Jewish decent, thöuph a devout Catholic, Karl V ^ah^e., becair^e 

Prseident of the Auatrian Supreme 'Court, i^ndowed with an outs':andin,cr 

penej:rati{7 intellect andi/ind<nmi table fighting spirit, ^^ahle hao servsd 

aa a Judre at the Court for Comrerclal Cases in Vienna until 193&- 

-Deprivedfof hia offlce by the Nazi regime bccause of his Jewirh ancestry 

and threatened with deportation, he aucceeded in remainiricr in Vie-na 

. 5C - 

In hiding, V/lth an almopt unllmlted endurance he and hlr: vll' ha:3 

gone throu'gtithe ordeal of Incredible hardship^. '.Vhen hc flnsilly aftsr 


the end of the war emerged from undergroui^, he ^'-as immedlotley 

In Vlenna. 
appointed President of the Court for Comcierclal Cases» Eventually he 

reached the hlghest Judlcial rank. He also became President of the 

Auatrlan -Association of Judgeg and in thlp capacltv took prent palna 

to secure the absolute Independence of the judre? from the lUnlPtry of 

Justice. Cnly the retlreraent in whlch he is living now terminated 

Wählers atormy nnc' fruitful '.career. 

A rather contlderable number of Jewp have been called to 
the Federal Cönatitutlonäl Court. Apart from H^ng Kelsen . it? creatori 
who served an Hember and Permaent Advlser of the Court, and from 
J ulius Ofner v;ho war active a? Permanent Hg porter, the lawyers 
Arnold --inier . Jacob Freundlich and Arthur Lenhoff became raembers of 
thl£) hlrht^r^t. trlbunäl. 

The abilitv of the Jewf? for the Judlcial offlce m^nlfested 
itaetf, however, xorttjcxxjcxxicxxicx In ^ all ranks'- ör:the 'judlclöry 
hierarchy. The Jewlsh Judge's proved mo^t able and efflcient al'o in 
thelr actlvities as •chaiTmana or membeffiof Judlcial Senates and 
as Single Judges. Several of them gained f?.reat reputation and 

In the -Austrian adminiatra^jj^ Sonnenfels, the minlsters > Unger 

G-laser and Steinba'cp-^ mäde::.hifetorv. Joseph Soliev and Karl ga i r.uel „ 

GrUnhut bedame members of the Herrenhaun ( Houpe of Lordp ) . Albert 

Ehren zweig and -E manuel Adler excelled in high mlnisterial popltions' by 

a Creative legislative actlvity. Jewlsh Jurists plsved alpo an. oüt- 

Standing role as public servants in>fiSlds of finance and economy. 



[^Such an actlvity of trained Juristo was facilltated oy the indisaoluble 
link 0<5 jWls^ru^^nQguwith^ipolJ^tibal. seiende oh the Joint facultleoxof 


■ i 

- 81 - 

the Auatrina ünlveraltlea. Rudolf Slep-hart ( t. 18'^'^ ) aerve-: 

c3urin(y the Konarchy as secr^t^ry öf; the Cabinet and becan.: G-Dvernor 
of the leading bank Oesterreichlgohe^odenkredlt aiaPtnlt. He wae an 
expert on customs policy and - like J.osef Redlich ^ composed a work - :n 
about the finÄl phase of Auatrlan hlstory, Die l^t zl^/en c/^^hr -:;-]: ^:Jljgl:_fir-, 
S±a5L2L]MÄ.bi » 193?. T^ichar d SchH ller ((b, I67O ) wq^. the head of a^ 

Department of the 1-lihlstt'y^of For::i^n ^iffalrs and became the Auntrisn 
delegate to the Leggue of Nations. He too wag an authorlty in the sphere 
of cuatome policy. Hia work ^_Die klag sische N» tlopal,^ikori(;)m^ q vnf ihre 
^Qgner, 1895 was translated Into the French l.?nc,-uage. He published 
Jointly witb Gustav Gratz': xhe economic policy o f Aut^trt a^ :un; yarv durin g 
the w .^r. Both Siepchart and Schniler were Professors at the 'Liiiversity of 
Vienna. . . 

X II » L avrv era 
It wüp during the tolerant reip-n n-^ J^öseph ^^ thet Jewf? were 
admitted to lep-al studier? at the univereitier:.The facfaTtles denied them, 
howBver,the right to acqulre the degree of a -^octor of Canon Law and thus 
preventcd them fron becomincr lawyere. -tranrely enoucrh, due to the efforti 

of a Single Jew nar.ed Joel a special decree ( Hofc^ekret )., of ?5 October 

1790, was iR'UGd which entltlec! Jews who had accuired the dsfcree of a 
.boctor« of ülvil Lnv to become advocates .with th ri(7ht to represent 
Christians. In spite of this succesr, only a few Jewi?h lawyers were 
admitteu to the bar during the next decade??, ospecially becguse 

r" beglnnin^ w.lth 1818 a serlesiof decrees /were proinulgated restrlctinsr 
the nurrber of the i)ractlslng lawyera by a nuinerus clausus. 

fi^ven the revoliitlon of 1646 did not bri^^g about a mit! -ation cf 

/ these ir.ear'ures . But In the 'sixties of the 19th Century a irovei-nent for 
the alxDlltioti of all restrlctions set in. The de- and for l fe bor 
( Freie >^^dvokotur ) was raieed siirultaneously in Germany and .^ustria. 


- 82 - 

whlle, however, In Germany the most influentlal pamohlet about thls 


aubject was wrltten 'Rudolf Gneiat, a famous Gerni'^n scholar, in Auatria ,-• 

one of the main rpokesiren for the liberatlon of the Icp-al orofeeslon 

from breaucratlc reatrlctions was the Jewi^h lawver Hein ?•*! c h J a c q ue n 

( see above p. ) . In hls book, Die freie iidvokatur und ihre lecrislatlv e 

Q rp^an ig atlon ( 1868 ) he advanced polltical as well aa economic rean6ns 

for the intr6(fuction of a free bar, whlch he considered to be puarantor 

o"^ law and freedom. The movemnt reaulted in the creation of a new rep-uls- 

tiv.for lawyer3( Advokatenordnunp- ) of 6 Julv 1868 by which the -dmlacio >. 

to the bar was opened to everybody who complied with the legal xrondltions i 

From nov.' onward the profeaslon of a practiaing lawyer { i-^ dvo^ at « 

later. - in the Re public - Rechtsanwalt ) becanie one of themoat favorite 

occupations of the i^ustrian Jewa. Xhx The mcstly in Furmoun table difficul- \ 

tiee encountered by Jewiah ap^licanta for public aervicea, enpeci-lly 

for the Office of a Judge, have undoub'.edlv contributed to the tendency 

of the Jewa to make uaeof their Jurlstlc ablllties aa free lawyera. Tne 

number of Jewiah lawyera Increaaed rapidly. V/hile in 1869 only 33 Jevri ah 

lawvers were practiaing an-' not more than 99 candidntes of the bar were 

eraplyed'KK in Vienna, the number of Jev;ish lav;ers among th'_ ^'81 Vienneae 

lav/yera araounted in 1889 to 394, thus to rrore than one half of the total 

number, while of the 38O ca-^didatea even 807o ( 31O ) v;ere Je^^/lah. The 

nurber of Jev.iah lawyerocontinued to incresae ateadily, A large influx of 

Jewiah lawyera from Galicia and Bikovina to Vienna t ok place aa a 

' conaequence of «v'orld V/ar 1. In the end the total of Jewiah lawyera in 

Vienna slone amounted to about 1750 practiaing ulawyera qnd 43C candidate. 

V/ithin the Auatrian 3oarda of the bar ( üdvoVa'^en --*- later Sechta. 

a nv(c O,t?3,«'' Kammern .) Jewa took an outatandincr oart. Thia aopliea eapeciall 

to i;'ne Vienneae Board. For many yeara BCewiah lawyera acted a? exr-minators 

of the candidates of the bar, AirAng them were Adolf Adler, the lawyer of 

- 63 - 

the Ii^mbaasy, gav'l Br^e cV, an expert on tax laws, i.ernh'\rd ii-recher, 

author of a thorourti study on the law. of the railwayp, and Rohrrt Knr'dug-» 

The responsible offlce of the Prrldent of the Disclpllnary Cojncil wa? 

held almost permanently by Alfred Bach. It happened finall^' in 1922 

that .3 »Jewlsh lawyer was elected President of the Board of the Vienna Bar 

He wBi Cru :;»tav Hgrpner» an outstandlnf? Jurist and brilliant orrtor, who 

enJoycG a great popularity within and out?ide of hir profes-ion- V^rloua 

social reforms were due to him. A premature death ended, however, 

Harpner's i'residency alreadv in 1924. üipfht years later anotner Jewish 

member of the Vienna Bar, Siegfri ed Kantor t was elected Prepiccnt of the 

JDoard. Kantor - an ardent Zionint - combined great admini ßtr^rtlvo ablli-' 

tiefl wt.'h a universal Juristic 'cnowledge and devoted hiinrslf t:^ the officti 


tirel(;^!3a '.^nergy. But hir IPun^cx'tion^oo , wa^ broken tip. alrc^ov -fter tv/o 

years by a decree of the Kinistry of Justice, a forebodinar q-^ tne 

appöraachinr-- catastrophy, orderini? the terniination of all the -if^'icesf 

held in the .Austrian Boards of the Bsr. After the seizure; of .irtria by 

the 'N.azis Kantor wap arrested Ibmt permitte d to leav- the :oii': :"y. lie died 

in iMew York in 

Froi" the ver^' outset, Austrian lavjyernof Jev/ish deßc-:"-;t have 

excelled in various branchea of the legal practice. Heinr ich Jaccu : 

who h.ii:' hJlped to pave the way to a free bar intervened in a perie? of 

great tri als, publishedmuineous Juristic books , particularly abcut u^ury 

and the law of the preap, and was member of the Heichf?rat v Hause of 

Reprenent^^tives ) from 1879 until his death { t^r suicide } im l£94. One 

of hl? icain lecrislative achieverents was the draftfcn/r of the new liv^a on 

the presö arö' Copyrights. Kax Neuda gained world fame by his splendid 

forenslc akill and eloquence. Perhapa his greatest triumph vr?i8 the 

acquittal of Victor von Ofenheim, the Director' 6'f a Railway*- -Company , 

from the accusation of having comrr.itted "^^sriöus frauds in connection with 





1 b - 

^3 cori5't.ruGtion of a ^reat eostern ral^'woy. -^eu'^c.'a puccv: '^!'i '.r- ■ • 5:;pe^:::;.r'lly 
seriGational becauae the charpeE 9/::ainat Ofenheim were bacl:^:.-;a b;/ t.he 
^^ini£t«::r of co":i'erce and, in fact, by the vhole frovern^r^ent , A ->• ir-- Neuc'a's 
c 1 1 c a f'x\ es, "ul mu nd Mn rl^b reite r p p i n c d a s i & i 1 ar re pu 1 3 1 1 on . C- ^ f i-. ;: :•• '•'':- 
brclterr-' cnuseg c^lo bres was his defense of the Ii-np'lish ci:vl:':,'--- r-.' ery 
Tourville before the Austrian Surireine Court, Tourville haJ l;fifBr; condeirnod 
to death b^' couirt in Tyrol for havinp killed bis wife whilo \^'-\' cl'.r.tinjK 
the Alps bv purhinp; her into an «ibyss. Karkbrclter succeedod in havinr the 
doath penaTty cor.muted into iSyearf^ lir.orisonrrient. 

j:;clmi.i n a o.jncdi kt ( b. in Vienna 1851, d. 1929 ) helds a"-. c-JtPt-^nding 
place !i:ixxciir.;ts:.tÄ"KÄ5:r[pcxpixi2Ä in the history of the -^uF?trian bar r^r^, a renreaen' 
tative fi^rure of the Juriatlc world in the days both of the Ein^ire and of 
the Republlc. He eKcelled aa a civil as well ss a criniinal lawyer, unfolded 
a remarkable literary actlvity and Influenced i^ustrian le/iislation i-^ many 
fields. ^B a favorite attorney of prreat industrialists , Benedikt pleaded 
in several trials of major economic interest.' Thua he defended the 
central director of the Praiger -SineninduBtrie -G-e8ell?chaft tKe.^tranek, 
against a llbtil gult of the councillors of the Prague Conraunity before 
t\ Prc'igue Jury. Shortly before the end of World V/ar I» In the trial 
aqainst some Viennese financier? who were acr'used of frau(^' codfcitted on 
the occaslon of commiaeiona for the army »Benedikt pcored a creat auccesa 
by achievding the acquittal of '^v. Kranz, one of the defendanta, by the 
Supreoe Court. It was; .however, the dealing vdth asses of thecivil law 
which constltuted the greater part of Benedikt'?? of^ice. In fact, his law 

Office beGides that if his aarociate, the likrwipe Jewish lawver, Ad olf 

jjqchrach ., the reprsdntative o:^ thr high^at eristocracy ,was' foreicost of the 

Vie^naeseo/ law officesin the last two decades prior to "^^''orÜ V/ar I. Benedikt;. 

himrulf ha 8 erected a unique mönument of thepe actlvltiea by the puhlica- 
tlon of a aelection of hia own forensic Speeches, Zw^^lf Gerichte reden 

- 85 - 

aua den Jahren 1 880-1911 ( 1912 ). In his theoretlcal works, Benedl^^t 

dealt with problems of the crimlnal, as well as of the elvi' law. But the 

most laetinp literary succesn brouprht hlm his book. Die AdvoT ratur 

fourth ed. 1912 
unserer 2^1 t ( 1903:) whlch becair-e the classic about the: thenie of the 

bar. Franz Klein, the creator of the new Austrlan civil 'pro c^-eding, 

calledthe book "the most impörtant work in the historv of the bar,'bv 

virtue of an happy comblnation of synthsie and univesality, a contribu- 

tlon to the hiatorv of politlcs and clvllizatior In genei r^l • "^ -^enedikt* s | 

reformet.lve activities were devoted particularly to the criminal law. ] 

He waa for ceveral yearda Member of the Diet cf Lower Au^tria ( Landtag;) ' 

and became in the Republic the chairman of the CömiTiiarion for the .. j 

Controlof i'ublic Debts ( St -atsschuläeno-Kohtrollkcmmlssion )" which, ) 

ao^ordinp- to Kelsen's Judgement |la equal in Status with tho Parllanent« 

From the lonc list of the outstanding Jewish criminal lawyers 

par excellence who flourished in the last decades of the Mon;3rc''.y,in 

some casjes up to the days of the Republic ,only a scanty selection raey : 

■ j 

be offered here : Friedrich El bohre n , Gustav Hr.v>pner » Lud wir H ^ rzbercr-. 

r . raeiiel , Ric hard Pres sburprer . Victor R og enfel^d. a dynamic speaka: of 

an irresisti"t-le wit and linpetuoaity ,xx± the valliant Heinrich Steo^er » 

Juljus Ofner has to be be mentioned here too , not only a? one of the 

most outstandinp: barriatera of that epoch,'but also as the prototype 

of a selfleas and untiring def ender and adviser of people Ir dirtressf 

He was ever ready iHXEra^aga to engage in the flght foE ju:-'tlG»3 end 

therefore has rightly acquired the nlckname, "Ceto the glder, reborn aa 

durin r the i^'-onarchy 
Hof-Önd GerichtsadvoVat" ( title of +he lav.yers who practised^-ln the 

imperial caoital ) ♦ --O^ n e r - u oed al so— hi-a ^Q-altlon-as— a -iViember - of the ' 

P'»^kias5eH4=*t7e-eepe^i^e— jijytr-^ -Thue— he-ws^«d -a~-de-ap£:r-a-tr .stxuggXe 

f or--the- r ehanil Stati-on— of-Lüo pel d- -iii^^---e--^fe5t44?r^o^ "t hG^^-r^rta-ui- . ir.u^;i4^r 

ap^ ^M3titieTr~~-j:^ ^^^=fiixtl^<J^w4rfiJi= ^ whooo do - ^th p eR^l-t:y had— be^^^^v oo^r^-^teted 

a s- .th.e . he_ad. •--oi^-a--^e^yata tion— o ?- -th ------j stri an- -Jewirrh - Uni nn r;,r; ". :,€ I^il n 1 i* trsr 

FroiTiinent Jevrish lawyers intervened in several major nlitlcnl 
trialE» st the time of the Auotrian I^'Ionarchy. An early ar l8cX' O'o ? ■^- f 
RoFon '^l^fit/^ pleaded in Krakow for a group of Polish Socialis t' ,then 
considered bb a subversive party, v;ith the result that all the accuped 
were found not guilty. In 1909 Edmund BenedJT^t defended the his^orisn 
Heinrich Fried Jung ogalnet the charg*^ p of 5? members of the Difetc öf 
^agr!3t tö havö 'H-^publiehed a libellous ^rticlc^accusing the ^erbo^-rooä- 
tita coalition of plottlng a^ainst the Austrian .Hungarlan -Empire. The 1 
trial f a for'enaic prelude of -Vorld V/ar I, ended bv an agreerr,ent in whlci^ 
Fried Jung*? bona fides was attested. The counesl of defence in the 
hiatoric trial against I^r« Karel Kramar and the other Chech leaders 
accused of high treaaon before the military court in Vie ma in 1916 wag 
Eduard Körner ^ a member of the Austrian Parliament, who later became 
the President of the Supreme Accounting Court of Czechoplovakia . -^t haa^ 
however, also to be recorded that the Auatrian GovermT;ent chosic among 
all the wllltary Juriats at ite disposal, a Jewish aiatrict attömey,v 
Harküo PreTTilngci?«- ae' tPi^ only' public 'prosecntor. who .was able to formulatc 
an(3t5lead thö öhärges ägainst the accused politicians in that ominoua 
trial. On a quite different occasion, nobody could have shown cjore'- 
courage and found more powerful words in defense of an accused political 

criminal than Gustav Harpner when he delivered bis fulminant speach in l 

1917 In 

the trial^ agalnst i^r»* Frita i^dler 'who had shot the i^iuptrian Prime - *. ■ .: 

Minister , Count StUrlch in the rniddle of World V/ar I. 

In the last generation of the Austrian Jewirh lav/yers new talents 

- 87 - 

ÄQde thelr appearonce In the crlrninal fie"'.c]. Thcrc v/ere - to mantion 
only a few narea - Herr:?nn Kra^zn^i , a suutle päyxihölp^^i^tt , the excellent 
thecTotlclän £mnt Löhfllriff. ' V^oTfprar)g!:PQllr;czek , Valentin Ro.^enfel d , 
thqfWorthy son of hla frreat fnther, Hugo ^chönbrunn and Herma nn Tnrke l. 


Original flgures arose,. flghtlnpr wlJh the raodem weaponi^- of humor and 
Irony, aa • the brllllant Juri at 'and acld' öatirlQt , Walter Rohde or that 
Inexhaustlble xaraKKCCxixiJ wlt. g Hup-p fiperber. In the nu-ierous politlcal 
trlals whlch preceded the abolltlon of the Republic by the Nazis, 
the defence nf the accused offendrra - liberal*^ ,. fioclali ^ta , comüunists 
- was mostly perfor:..ed by ^ewlsh layera among whom bealdes Huf7o Bp e rber , 
parlcularly ^!:^on Schönhof . Hei nr ich Ste?.n lts, O m-ral^ Richte r. Ogkar 
Trebi t.QQh i exoelled. £ven after the seizure o(ff ^ustria by the Nazis in 
i^larch 193Ö some jf the Jewish lawvera in thie short period vr;aich was 
left to them untll they w.ere deprived of thelr off ice^ifulfilled thoir • 
duties and continued thelr actlvities wh^ch were 6fteh terminated by 
thelr arretit and deportatlon. ^mst Lohglnf y« Hu,o; o Sperber » Heinrich 
Steinitz were amonpr them. All three perished, ll'^ce manv others of thelr 
colleagueSiin the concentration camps. 

In the sphere of the civil law Jewish lawyere have pained 
confidence and reputation in all strata of the population. Aoove all 
In Vlenna at the aame time when Adolf Bachrach represented^bers of 
the Auatrian Imperial Court, the Court of Coburg -Gotha and the King 
of Bulgarlä » wh en -e^dmund Benedikt pleaded in sensatlonal cause? on 
behalf of the big induFtitalists , when Ru 'ölf Bi enenfeld , Siecrfriei-^ • ' 
K antor» Walter Konirsch and '•'^llh e lm R ose n ber? settled the af^airs of 
Austrian bf.nics, the Offices of Max Adler. Juijus Ofner .i lujy p :3perb er . ' 
lielnric h Steinitz snd of many other Jewish lawyers in Vlen"^a and all 
over Austria teemed wlth cll(-:nts of all clas?es Includin.Tr penniless 
proletarlanp . Jewish lawers frequently specialized and becaine renowned 

. 88 - 

experta In particular flelds, as for Instance Paul /^ bel» I'aul Ku-^th > 

He inrich K i tzler in the law of trade raarks, Felix ^Its^ch'-nnn in the 

law of patcntp, H-^^inrich Kjttler. £l:-icn ^axl Ot to Zjmbl er in af faire 

of fair practiseg. . Heinrich -KiWe , ^Jpsef ^-\chell ,rI'^^oritz_'-tem"berg in 

the law of tenants . Hu(? o Knclpf ma cher in the la - of minin^ rrncl forwardlng^ 

Pgu I Klemperer in the affair? of the actorp. Several Jewish lavT-yerg 

became ver?6Q in international law and gained renown as international 

lawyere as i^dmu nd Benedi kt« R udolf Bienenfe ld, l--a ximilian K^j asler* 

The particlpation of JewfslilawyerG In public life w3p very 

conaiderablc. Heinriqh Jap gues was one of the first in the first 

generation of Jewish lawyers who becatriC a meinber of the Reich ^rat • 

Austrian an 

Very few, if any, m*^mber8 of tne'/ x'arlic'^ment loo'^ed back on/as lonc; end 

aa frultfui actlvity in the House as JuIIms O fner . In the 'last years 

of the Hepublic aeveräl Jevriah 1 a wye ra - , l'^s x J^ö 1er, Feli x Korrffe^d , 

Artur Lenh'^iff, /i chill Rao oaoqrt tau.p:ht at the University of Vlenna. 

At the same time the lawyers JaCvob i-hlic h and Leopold Plaschkes - both 

Zioniats, vrere elected membersoöf the City Council of Vienna , while 

their colleafjue, Desider Friedmann » like-'ipe a ^ionist le^^der, wa'= 

head of the Jewish Community of Vienna. Ehrlich, a man of «reat courage 

and blameleas integrity, wag one of the first victime of this -^*azl terror. 

Friedmann v/as deported to Theresienstadt and did not retum. 

Nothing provides a better yard stick for measurin-^ the hicrh 

Standard of the Jewish members of the^^ustrian bar than the Intensity 

anathe rank of their liternr-' ■^•ct' ^-''.tieg . Some of their workg as those 

by Benedikt, Bienenfeld, iClwe ,, Kl^bl. La^^arsfeld, Lenhof f », Ofner, 

Saxli Schell, Sperber i Rohde, V/eisl, i'urzel, have bem alre dy mentioned. 

In addition, though bj^r no means with the pretension to cover an adequate 

part of thi.T- astonishi^g Diitpint and thus \;ell aware of thT- •jnavoldsble 

onii-ssiona of equally qualifie(^orks, a selectlon of some ina.'or pübtl- 

I i 


I I 


- 89 - 


tions mey be offered here: Pairl Abel, _gv?tei^ d6c ö^ter rel 0^:7! eben '. '. '\. 
Märk-srireolits, 1908; Kax Adler, Die Staatsauff agpumcr äe° K,?rxi in ug, 1922; 
Jakob Altschul, Erfurt erunren zum ^sterrelchP^hen Urheberf^epet z. 1904; 
Arnold ü^isler, ^ie Prozespvora iiPFetzun.^eYi „in _ö er öpterrelchi^ch en ■ 
Jlvl lprozerFordnüncr, 1899» Heinrich Engl'^nder, ^i e Sta 8tenlo5-'en , 193-; 
>iarkus Ettinprer, Die Kartende in Oeeter reich 190S; Emil v. Hofraannsthal , 
Der deutsche und de r ^gter.'^^ei Chi seh e Fr i ed e n qve r tro£ , 1 9 21 »i^^i Vern^'y enn? - 
ab.^a be in Oeaterreich. der Tsc h echoglovak ei . D eu t p c^hla^d „und d e r_ 3chwei,^ ^ 
1921: Paul Kiemperer, Daa SchausDiGLerp-epe tz« 1924; Kaxiirilian Koen^ler, 
Selb s tmord und T^tinry auf Verl:-in>'^Gn . . 1925: Heinrich kitt'er, Hlovs^le , 
Konkurrenz und Karkenschutz, 1896: i-Joritz Stemberg, Entm nndi rrungBrecht t 
1912, Die n euen V/oh n un iggp ^e setze, 1923^ Husro Strauss. Die ne uen Steuer- 
ge setze; Koritz Zalman , D ie Valorifiirun - ^ der Kro en for de run den n.?ch 

?58terrei ch igchem Gesetz , 1924 

it is'/notewortny that Jewl-^h lawyers were the author- of the 

ffiost important workp about their professlon. -t^^dmund Benedict' 3 

Die r.dvo^ü^^tux:. ^un serer Zeit became a Standard work on the sub,j'-ct. 

Friedrich Kübl wrote the only existlng history of the Austri-n bar, 


Ge<^chic h te der c^ster rej chi sehen /^dvok atqx:, 1925 > and Ernct Lohsing is 
the aut^^or of the only comprehcive monograph äboüt tle Austrian lav^ of 
the bar, Da.-^ O eete rreich iachep Anwältsreöht : E in KomiDent ar. 1925, which 
has becn re-edited after Lohsing* s tragic deatnby his Jewish colleague 
Rudolf Braun in 1950. 

iqually importont a;? thepe Single f^tudies was the particip'-tion 
of the Jewish lawyers in the public discussion of the oucstions concer- 
ninr the bor, The countles? articles published. by theiD in trofesoicnal u 

aja;:.-azlne& ruirror the conditlon and d^velopmentof the Aystrian bar, 


above all the vivid , active inteljs^t taken by It? Jewish members in the 
refcrm ' nd the legislative chnne-es of thrir organiaation . -oire of the 


«.-,..»..., ,.._ 

. 90 - 


nev.- recidations were actually Bugc-ested and drsftsc/b.y thc Jov/lsh p^ttl- 
clrantf! in thip de bäte. Thup paragr."^19a of the Re c n t :^ 3. nv; n 1 1. ^ o ^-^r": nim r/ 
deallnp- vjith the gecurity of tho lnterT7eiiin^lnwyer of the lAncAn^-- party 
for hl s Claims har been forn:ulated 'accordln-^ to the r^vc■ooiM^A.s ir^nde by 
Jorsef Sch€/ll In a serles of artlclea at varlance wlth thoo'e sufrj7eEti2d 
by I?.nvr. Georp; r-'etschel:. 

A very prratlfyln^r werk- oul generi? of great docun»:>n"^,ary välue . 
for the hiatory ofthe Jewiah /iurtrian levryer?! ha? been •• thoup-h 

wlthout thlj:> specific Intention - perforrr:ed by l->a x Neu de ( .lun. )_ who , 

in coon-crtition with Leci)Schmel2, editeu a eelection of farnnu'' spe^chog 


de}.lve:red before criiainal court??, Lernbrate Vc rteldlcrun crrod : r g v 18^0 - 
1 . 91 Q _)_> 1921. -ince more than one half of tho 28 j^peaVcer:-! vere 
/iusitrlan lav/yers of Jewish orifrin '- Max Neuda , Alois H;;;r;';of:' • i^dmund 
■-inprer, iicliiiund "Karkbrelter, Josef Rosenblatt, Sdrnund Botiedl :t, Heinrich 
Steper, Cruptav I-^orgeTistem-, Friedrich E'lbo^en , Ludwi,'? He:"? i urg-^Fra -jnkej 

Hupte Sch^p,br\inn, Eduard Körner, Gustav H.arpner, HermavT; Fv aiDbur^'d'», 

• - 'i 
Viktor Rof^enfeld - ' the book of"^erf a true echo of thv^ IV;;:; .-iic .skill 

exhibited V.y Jen-s in the last decades of thc <?ustrian I>'Onr:i]v '7. 

i»r;ci y^ct the epic of the Auctrian öev^ij^h In-Mror-- h— ■ ■^till Z''> be 

attome v;^ 
written • Tor more than the crreat oratorv of the f amc^.us ^who came from 

thelr : IdFt the daily toll of the thousand^ of eimple fervai>t3 of the 

lav/t-aa fricndly counsels and adviaers of the peoplte, sb firiterr <'^.(7,'ilnö t, 

the routine, ted tape and Indolence of the judiciary and of r'icialdoin 

participated In the legal llfe of i^ustria for almost a Century conatl- 

tutes the historic achi^^ment of the Au^tri^n J^Vlsh lawve:.^? .Thev have 

Indec-d fully Justlfied the lucid words of /imold Zweig "that in i^his,* 

profeasion,in vrhich thinkinfe' önd talVin^ are n61?rial toola-, '.howledo'e : 

and\insight continuously have ' to bb' bl'cnded" ^^® Jewish i^^enlür by its 

embodiment in the piain Jewish lawyer has reached its most legitimate 

materiali7,sr5 ■ ion« 

TilE CCi\iTiai3UTXCi\{ O F THE AU'^^TKI.AN Jg;/! 

,LA,'.A.mD JUKI ^?';UDr.: >]CE 

4 n •«••>« f- 


a—i ^ iriM !■— ^— ■! ' -f ^ 


Introductlon 1 

1 . PreludeJ Joseph von ^onnenfele ^ 

IX. VolfTanp" VesFely pavep the w^^v for JewlFh Jurlnt?' 5 

III. ^le'. nrlTjh Jac uer ^nnt] the Ptrugcrle for clvlc rights 6 

IV. Julius Cllciger b^xI Jopenh Unrrer - the Clas'^lcr of 

Auctrlan JuT^lsoruclence «.•.... 8 

V. T le Ploneerp of Social Lep:lPlntlon.* ü-mll -telnbech 

find JulluR frier 13 

VI. Jev'ich Contrlbutlonp to the Clvl' ani Crlmln^i 

Juri R prüden ce froir the end of thenfc*Rt4tenth 
centur^' to the end of the ^ii-^trlnn lvrm:ihllc '" 

l 193B ) 19 

'i0^ 1. vyivll JurlBpruaence ... 11 

?• Crl: Inal Jurisorudence ?? 

Vil. h:ifltori:in of the Law 3T 

VIIjl. The Cre tlon o" the Foclolorrv of Lav 36 

iJ^/ 1. JuliuF Cfner'p ^oclnl ^tudle^ 3^ 

2. i:-Uf7en -hrllch'e Fundamental W>rk 38 

IX. VlnloriPrv Lrrrlglntors 4? 

1. Jo?ef Popper-Lyn^-^eun 43 

P. Theodor Herzl 4*^ 

X. Mew Theorler nf Public Law -^nd new Phil'^po -hie« * " 

of La^i 49 

1. "rorr Ludwig Cuirolowlcz to Geo r^r Jelline^^ 49 

P. The ^'tudie? of -'ubTle T^^w f^ nn In Vlen^ia , 

Pra^ue rir>.c\ - HtHÄar^ard "£ 

3« Honp Kelsent hls Pure T-neor-'' nf L'^-^, nnö ' 

hl 8 Lecrlpl^tlve 'Vor^c "oA 

Xi Judfrer. snd Public ^^ervnntp .r" 77 

aIX. Lavyerp Öl 



The hl^tor-^' of tho Jewlf^h contributlon to the rer^lm of Icaw 
otfepä a :='tril:l^;r p^-'r.'.vjox. V^Tiiie th- impaet of the Orcilo.^ue on 
mankind cannot be overeRtirnated and t'ie cripture- In -eneral 
served QG th' ba^le of the cj?n©ii Ir-jw, pc^t-b. TdIIc--?! Jcvvish ln\f, 
though it? äerelspraenti exeg'eria and apolic-'^tlon fo-«^mcd in Inc sean 
taök of Jev.iüh !?cholarr for ciiÄtG»i4ia, remnirjed to th*? .^reatsot 

- 1 

extent an int-irnal fe:ature of the llfe sn6 hi^tory of the Jewlsh 
people. In coLooi^ri^on vrlth the perniant'^t ef ectlv^'-e^'^ cf the 
l^afiHl^'^' on the ii^uropeon le.^al sv«?t«mc vrid pToctic: , only a 
ßecondr-ir.v ßirnificanc can be «jicrlbed to the ppor-^dJc link? 
betwoen '.'ev/inh nnd werrtem lerrgi thourhts durln«? antiaultyi the 
middle a^es and the flrct centurler of irodern tlrrf. ^'t Th^ world 
that did not refraln fmm availln;? it^elf of JewlsVi physicians 
had no Uc'-- for the mnster? of Jewlsh law uho h^' thelr ordflnanoep , 
decifülonp and recponsn were abl'^ toceir'2n''üttht J»5'vijra coir.rrunities ai 
and to Unit to^-thsr the dippersed peopl'-^ of Isra-:!. 

A f3poCt';Cular chanpe of the r-flitl^n bet^-reen thr »^ew? and 
the le^r'al sohere of thelr envinintrent too-^ plrcc v/l + h th?-; adv^nt o: 
the Emanciootlon era« The initiative to bre-^'^ t -jro'jgh tne separatii 
barrier can.o f-:^om thr- Jewa . Their lon^ing .-^fter civic equalityi 
thelr f^trönf senpe of Juntic n? de^plv roiteci In Jüd45:ft]ji,t!xliart»:^ 
gr^lnlng in the Interpretation of Igv/ - all thece facto tg frave a 
pOwrj^SÄ impll'-e to the denire of havin^ -n c?ctive part In thf.ialat' 
aiicfeiiti :'ti!etidm5,nr fuaticn of JunticG as well &n in ©11 branchea ol 
Juri^prudt'ncc . Th;! s de-^irc vt^b indeed o-:)rt 'niu p.?.rcel of Jewiah 
enli^htennent which heralded the emKncipAition of the Jsvro , It in 
therefore not s'urprining thet t'-ie sector of the i'^uropenn Jewr.7 whic 
« ,. gave blrth to the ^reat plone-rr of enlk^ht^nnient, Mones Mmc^elsr^ol 


- ^ - 

and hls follower^-, al^o prodncen the fir-t rricdern Jcwlah mar^tern of 
Jurippr-uJence: Eduard (>.-nr ^nd Fri -^drlc'-^ Jül iu-' "'t- bhl . who, thourh 
V'th of theiii embr^ced ChÄl -• tlgnlt-^^ , r: ortrpent - n'^t Icrtlv jur-t owlng 

to thelr conver^ion - th-r ver'^^ ttvpf* of the t ^ snffr rined n^K Jcvish 

it wa?- ^Iro fro;:. the stook ^f "er^^jin Je'.^ry that the niun hailsd 
v^o 1?ec?fc(^ ^>3ooii-:i;a]3i:Qi? Ibn^^th.« ^Iiotral d ;.v:lo;.>:.i'3nt of Au'tria ^:nd b7 
the com teV'Tj '.♦n',.: t'^^. laipTtc^nt role -Je.:-/'- were :-bout tc play 
In the Mi^tor of Ai;-trly>^ lav; an'1 jiirl' ' prud enc- # 

f>t t'r:' bcpinnln^- of thf* thlrtic-r cf t..'^^ ei 'it'ienth ct'>it..r.-, 

Llpmnn Pe v-iin , f;on of 3?^pTb'il "echfißT', ■ \i rn ::. n t ..1 IIi- la ( th? PIout ), 

eJöSTv^^tti! ft'ith hipl'^Äfe from .".«rlln to ••iGenGt-idt , th-'n In -Q^t -unr^aiy, 

®adci:Lli,tlf^- to NiV:oirburfr In Korpvl-^, Vt'. elfe-- v.'ith rcnowncd «Jev.ith 

§5pmmuDfct(t<ie««^ In Nlkol.-^burr tvm r'oriJ: ,J>T©ä>)J'| -n. Trvv^Zp ^\cra hörn liliii 

iAr. 173'^ and 1735 rr^'-ctlvclv . j^ fr.w yerv Irtsr Lipni??n Pcrlln Uccnie 

cooYi©Pt^.d(it<to Cr^-tholiäfci'mrn^^nJ' chan^'-ed hl-.: nci//- inte -*:l'ir '.Itner. 

ThÄirrSfS'nRi;' >td[09 we^e then baptlzed, vhilf th'*r iiother ret^iaeö her 

J«fwid'7- f'^it.h. Zt] -^ rhort tlrt-, Aloir '..''lenf-.r cucc'i-:ded in becoiMing 

anpotnt^^j pro f er or of fctetefttrl T.nnp:üo<Te? rt th: Univ :r-ity ;-:f 

Vl/döns}.^ nnd oficif.^1 interoret^iT ir) :Isbr^:'.'« In 17-'i-'j, i« v;a." fnaobled 

un <*ff!r >-t lt=i^ •• • n a n^e %.qiri Tonnen f?l r , " 

.. ... ..Ä^- •♦* 

The «-^plencVd car ';r of the -^irrt ^'onn- nfJ::.^ wsp p-restl.v 
öiany»ai:^irxieabt.<-'^i1u:^'tit 1^ hl- ron Joneph. .^ftcr h.xir.;- rtudied la\v at 
tttoo UnlT'er*:-=It^- of Vienna f^nd oractl?-erI in .? Ipw o'^'ici, Jcc-eph von 
Sdttemrjffk-Ibr' lycciTf^e l^ireaclv in 17'^3 -^rofer-cr of ''Polizei u^:d ^^^ameralwlsf: 
wl'ä.3«:^rcnör# u':'tn'r" { -o ll<?*d politic:!! r^ci^nc: ) -t tho UnoV'3r:'it7 of 
'^^Hmm\4!'ifn^-(' 1779» hc- war sppointed Aulio Councillor -ind noon after- 



wards Vicepre' ident of the Commisnlon of Judlclal Reform to whlath 
the codiflcatlon of botht the Auptrl.^n civil and crlrriinal Codes, was 
entruated. '\\ 

SonnenfelB p£irtlcip5>tec in each of the?e (jreat legiplitlons • 

Hls share In the codiflcatlon of the the civil code , ÜAMgenielnes 

\ \- 

Bürgerliches? Gesetzbuch, **of 1811 wer conPlderabl#,The code whlch 
remalned Aur.trlan law up to the preseni. tliüe owcs to "onnenfels several 
provlslons of irarltal settlenent and the' ev?li:atlon of pernoonl 
Service? of intrintJso volue«. But the chlef r.erit of Sonnenfeljg 
re^-^ardlnp the civil c^de con^^ltfesln hls puccea^-ful effort? that the 
new law should be wrltten In n cls^r, rlnple nd pure Innrvsro • In thln 
resp^ct rionnenfels had the aclvantap*^ of hnvln^ been an eminent Jurftt 
afl well af^remar^cable mnn of letter®. He wa«' conrldereJ - -^ one of the 
foremont wrlterp and therefore ns erirlv ar I78I elected 
chalrmon of the Llternry Socioty of Vlenn.?« nbf» .^ourn'^l "Der Konn ohne 
Vorurteil" ( "Th K-r> wlthoiv*- l'^rejndlce" ) v;ar rizco bizadT.derlrhe v;ork 
of e^rl-ful and cour.TeouR wrlter. The mont lestlnpr frults of ! onnenfels 
Iterary talent arc, hovrever» to be fourld in the fnr.iulatlon of the 
Austrlan civil code. The preclPlon pnd f-^rmol elerance of Its lanprua^e 
made the ?l.illr-eii:el'^ef^ 3Mr?Terllche? Ge^etzbou'* German classic. 

iraportant ap i^onnenfels ' contrlbutlon to the civil code has be n 
It wa? vaptly over?h.?dowed by hl^ ach'eve'rnt in the flied of the 

\ crlTlnal law. it 1p, indeed thic -^eat that ranpree far above all the 

■ ■ +.» 

activltleß of hlf5 long ?nd productive llfe.and ha^ secured hirp -n h 
honorable pl.?ce ar.onfr the c-reat huir.^nitari'^nr of all tgeo. in hif fl^ 
for theibolition of torture , '^onnenfelp v/ar Inrpired by the noblest 
Impft' sesof hie ch.-^racter and of hin heritage, iorfeA'pefV^ht fipktaefo 
tibol^ii^e of hl? fToal ftf not perr'ona'' freedon:, certainly hlF core r 
and perhape eve^^ hie llvellho^d in .Aurtrla. He had in hi^ rtru -^le 1 

- A - 


face the opooeltlon not onlv of the powerful men nf the Imperial 

admlnistra' Ion f of celebretec! unlverslty profesrors nd high churchmen, 

b^t even of the ii^mprear iiarla thersa he^eelf in rplte of her other'wlse 

favor^äcle dlnpositlon towordr? him. '/he^ he ?2fter the prornu"^ ratlon of 

the new Con?titütlflrti0Wr4iibfiiBilit*otfcDn«fcfinfaftd to c^ttacl^ the Inrtltutlon of 

torture , r.arin Ther«an ordered Sonnenfela to abr^tein frora further 

dlscusf^lon -^f t.he questlon«) of torture nnd cnpital punle»hrnent to whlch 

hci an admlrer of Bec^orla, oIpo wan opponed .£^on«nfela warp however, 

not deterred b^- thlp move frorj purnulnr the Ifsue further. He addr^s'^ed 

the r:.iit)rep^ directly and Implored he to order '■'n Inouirv Into the matter 

with ecQ'pprtv oresentinr its vlewp bv a rpeelÜ reor -enfetlre , He 

clopeJ bis adJres- with t'ie iLovincr apoenl: 

1 arr not bllnded op to irv lir.ite ' nbilitie?^ i^no'.'ln'^ 
well th-^^t the cnuse of hu" nit" ir entructe to oovverlep'- 
•^•^d trembllncr hind^. l:ut I llft iiv^elf bv th - hopetithat 
my ze?'' will rlnr^ ir:e '^bir^ve mvpelf gnd thnt Pr-^vldt-nce will 
pend reecue throurh s fe-ble one in order that one may 
r'-cnr-nlze th^t '^'he ha- oer'f'oriTed it.... 

^^ l W'uld be f=o fortu»?''te t^ eypnund my reasonp 
before \-our throne, th* wor^d ^-»ould n t b-^ ir doubt sbout 
t'^e deol«^i^n which the tcndemeF'- of your heart 'vould 
pppwptt Your ^>.5ertv to take.... 

The appefil wa«^ not lopt upon I'Grlr» Tier^erj. TRiifheffftfölhlal 

deliber^tion or the oue^tlo^^ war inde^d r- o ^tned , ^onneiffreleo-^ tribut 

to thi? dec-'te hi'= rol^ndid Votuff "e pa rgtur ^'hich wa*" publirhed in 1' 

under the titl*.- "Ueber d i e / b ac hn f'^unr der ■ olte r** 9nd has becon.e t^^ 

mögt femoup -^nd ir.o'^t r^U'^-cepTful arronp- hlr wrl'in--^, 'or itJ= v»9^ in ' 

followinr ye?r that i^aria TherCv'^s irsued the deor^e of i'nucjr^' '^ , 1 

orderi'\'^. the ?bol.itio ' of torture ( erc^pt in the l?ndp of the 

Hunr?iriar; crowni.The other /roal ^c^nenfelp h d pur'^ued, th= re?tri 

of cj:^plt?l pun: ?hmf»nt ^nd Abolition o"^ it? birb rou? fornr^wa^' re? 

^ ly Alfter tbisf'sixxtls: of denth of the Enipres<^ vrhen J'^^-oeh II intro 

the^-e re forme. 

• c; - 

The hum-iniz^tlon of the Auptrl^n crlralniil law wb" th*^ rrre-ite«- 
triuniph of uopepn von ^onnenfels, iiven on the rnonument whl ch h?. p 
be n erected for him in Viennr' t e brolten in ' trui'^ent« of tortur^' at 
his feet indic-itec3 the true reapon of hi'^ Imr'iort'^litv* 

The appenrance of l^onnenfelP m^^r^^F? "• rlorioup bep^innlnp o' 
the portioi V tion of the Jevn in the le<7ipl'->tion and Juri'^orudence 
in i^UFtria and ,et«n outride ths? "••-tsburr rn norch'^-. For in no 6ljfaer 
State a ir^n of Jev/irh de^ccnt h'in pl^a'^^ed a rirr;il'-»r role -^t thot 
time. ^n the eve of emancljpntion , evfn before th^ 0evt 4fi nnv part 
of the weitem world had obtolned civic ri-'ht'^, a Je'j had heloed 
to codify a ne law and to purpe Icgirl-^tlon from the most cruel 
Institution. The Juridic ability of the Jew had proveü to be re.^dy 
for the flc-rvice«^ of mankind at larf^e« 

Sever^l dec^den hncl to oas'- after the de'^th of "on-^enfelg 
^ löl"'' ) until ??nother Jew^becnme av*?"ocl'Tt':d in «pnorinlnAttJaonnafpr 
with '*• he lef-ql affaira o"'' Auftria. 3ut while in th« cop»e of 
TonnenfelF the door to the hiprh Position he wa'^ to ntt in ha? been 
ttokrown wide open thrhour?h e rlv "^•*utl9m, the nolitnrv Jew who 
at the tirae v/hen the revolution of 1&48 pwept avrav the discriminatory 
anti-Jewish mearurep for a -^hort v/hile took hin putst^ndin«^ Position 
arnon^ the C.-ntile ,lurl'tp of -Auptria war a profe? inn- Jew, in fact 
- by a r-tr'inpe contrast - a Hebrew acholar« -ie wa;? «»'olfFanp Wesrley 
( fVV '~/ yO * bom 1 Trebltrch, I-ornvi-^, who in hir outh 
recelve.] a tradi^ional educRtionq;! but l.^ter rtuJied st tht Univer^it^ 
of i'rs/Tue and p-rsdusted there ap/JÜ'AiJ^j U^8?C ) an j ar LL^ (1834). 
After hnvin^ served ar? teacher of reliiTlon on Je-vl^h pchoolp» 
Wepscl.-y wa*r appolnted le-turer on the Hebr^r.v l^nr^ua.^e and liter'^'ur^ 
at the Un-ver£^ity of Prap'ue. "hen fter the protriulg-^tion of the 
Constitution of lc49 the miniPtr" of Justice viap in the handp of 

. 6 . 

S'chmerllng, s devout liberal, th'- younjr ^mperor Franz Jopeph, 

consciou^ly devlstlncr. from the practica of larla Therec and Franz» 

appointed V/eseel;'' a lecturer of ' '**» et the the Univerpitv of IVaf^iue, 

Thus nt^rted ?. cnre-r ^Bish^iew i-'hich vp, «^ without precedent 

In Aurtria^ hiftorv. ^icprelv hln:;^elf, on th<^ zenlt'i nf hla llfe, 

pun!n;srl-jzed the ir.a'n eventr of hl? cpreer In 9 letter to hlf f rleod , 

Leonnid Ww, f Jnnu.?rv •^3, 186'^: 

It se^mr? that rr^^vldence h?^^ cho^en me ar on Inj'trurr.ent 
In Order to necure vlct rv to the lll:>er'?l princlple In the 
In Order tqueatibaro ?irct<5roin<joct^«tl4b«rJ6lworltblpr&rtt C^iw v/ho bepved 

ö8 court trannl'Jtor in ^^c ralcis, -/ho vin^ rum oned to th« the 
con'i'ultntlon obcut the orrnnlsntlotf the courts In iBohemia in 
1548, who was oermltted to pra^tlrc Inw at 3 crir-iinal court, 
who war admitted to and pa'^^ed th'^: exgminotion for the 
Judiciary Office nnd who wa irade a lecturer at an Au^trlan 
.Uü4W«?»llty to becoem l^t<^r ^n extr-'or 'Inarv ( ns'-lst'nt ) 
and fln^;li^' an ordlnarv Professor et n law faoultv. 

Vep-ely rade •:1po hi-stor^ in .Au^^trlon lerrirlfctlinalnloofflpBnyn^^ 

with other Juri pt^, he war enfetr?ted wlth th^^ tgpk to Invertli^nte for 

the Auptrlan p-overnT-ünt the reforrr.p in criTin-al orocedur^? In the 

RhlÄae Province and Jelfrium and d.^ consequenee of his reoort the Jurv 

systeir. war introduced in -Aurtri^ , t-oup:h onl'" for a phort time. Thus 

Weeeely continuedar It were th*-^ the v/orlc which -onnenfels had Initinted 

of llberslizinp Austrlan judiälel procedure . The Innovator wis, however^ 

thls time a plous Jew auionp whose v/ritings be pider of Juri' tic 

n;onorraphrf3uch ar trcatise? nbout the meanp of evid nc in ^^ustrian 

civil procedure or aäbout emerrenc^^ ?nd self-def cnc^f also a prayer bo 

1. ■ » < 

book wlth Getr-^n t'-an-^letion In Hebrew ch^raoterp can be found. 
III. HelNhlÖH J^acügP d^'fid "'HK "THUgcLK PC' CIVIC RICriTS 
The annuln.rnt of the Constitution 0:*^ 1849 bv th«? decree of 
-uecen.ber 31« IC5I Put the /iUPtrion Jewp t?c> into f^-? c^^dltlon 
prev,'3ilinfT before 1848. Iowever the Imowle^'^-e which the f lrf?tJew5 Ph 
Auptr' an lawyers had acquired waf ^-^ow utilized in the strur^le for 
the rc^tora'lon of the lo?t rlrhtp. r^lrr.iltirlv nr- Gr^brie' Riep^er had 

- 7 ^ 
fought In Geriian^' for the clvlc rlp-htp of the Jewp, Dr, Heinrich 
Jacques, a glfted Irwfyer and writeri bom In Vlenna In 1631 1 who 
had 8tüdl4dÖ philo ROphy et Heldelberp and in I856 nbtained the degree 
of a Doctor of Law at the Univerrity of Vienna, enp-aged in v. forceful 
C(Diipa:lgn against the renewed dificrlminstion of th»? Jews . He subjected 
the leral ptutusof :\ustrian Jewrv to ?n acute crltlci*^3n in hie 
Denk.qchri ftf nber die gfadiiaiunr. der ^uden in Oegtirreith^^^^ienna 1859t 
whic'i went throur'i foored* tlon? ih theec^urp^^ of a fev; we ^^s . One of 
the n.oln Ideap Jacruep put forth Ün the l)ook was th-^t Aurtrla by 
excludln- t':e Jewp frorr, the baric clvic r* -htr nemitted "fithespbl^t'ttBll 

weglth of the Jevf9 to evaporate aimlec ly ancl Inefectuall' .** It Is 

thot , 
true in '-pite of thip ar^^erion of Jewirh culturnl quilitiep^Jac ues, 

as Hans Tietze put It, odvoc^ted on unconclitionr?! rubordl-^^tion of 

specific Jewish vslue«- to the Au'^trlnn stnte. -e v/ar neverthelesp aÄhe 

eliquent spo^^enm-iri of the new prenerntio" whope r'nuine derire to 

purticipate in public affaira waa linl^ed with the cert.9lntv of belng 

able to contrlbute to the conii.ion .7ood« 

I^r. J?cquep" y-emorial - the firpt of hif: many .^uri^tic works 
( see belov p. ) - influenced undoubtedly public ooinion and contri- 
buteü considerntly to th« abolltion of the Je^iJ^h dlFabili^ieß . Afjbtrr 
some libera" Innovation^ by the Iinoerial <'«?tent *f Februar-^' 25t I66I, 
the Constitution r^f Decernber 3I , 1867» bv thr proclnmetion of the 
fundamental rights of all Citizens, brourht the Inner pouf^ht legal 
civic equillty to the Jewp. 

Cnfortunat^ly the application of thf Iqts» v/as to be found to 

be in a rharp contra et to the npirit öf theCSoBfetlttt&on. AMhewb 

Äjp^OvirQtffleÄterr.waüer '^nwnrd were entitled to praotne law as l^wyer? as 

well a? Judrrep ^nd publ£^'^S5^antP of all r?ink^., an evident PiecriinÄJl- 

nation tok place to the dladävantgr^e of the Jevd'^h spplic^ntp, whereve: 

appointnientf were le-^t to tlga cciL&ciiPian ^a-r ..^dniinl ptratlve bodies« 

•a^s^ere^iw of tne ao^r: Ini-trative bodies. 


- 8 - 

Thus. the rl;Thtf? of the Jew^ rerralned to a r-rca* extent merely on 
the paper. 

In cpite 0"^ the«e obrt'^cler, the Jewi^h ele!T:en+ b^jc^rre r'^ther 
consplcuou? wlijjdiw the ren"'m of Irw P^nce the Conrtltütlon of 186? 
both numericallv and bv the outPt'andln'^- ouplltleF of f?ome Jewlsh 
Jurist«. Ajort fror, the profepf^lon of nn "Advo'rrit" { (bteffrtfctepr) ) 
to whlch every Citizen wttePtirtttfcaidS red the derree of a doctorotffÜHvr 
wrjp entltled -after the preocrlbed practlce -^nJ aft'rr pas Inr a ape(<?Ö-lpi 
examlnntlon, the Jewp were n6t deterred by the del' berate and verv 
often openly onti-öeniltlc di Pcrlirln-:'tl'-»i from attrCitf? to serve In the 
ÄiapJPe^iiy' of .ludprea and public ®f lclal8.( '^es bcloe m. ), The depire 
to attoln nuoh positlorT^ prompted many .^urlt4canv minded - .ronpc them 
to pave their way? to public Qfifi^ftfelaji b-" eiLbr-'Cln'- Ghri^tlnnlty . 
V/lth a§^-mll?tlon in füll 3v;lnf7tthope who feit no attechment to the 
ikraditional creed c^neldered b^ptisin s inere fffrprcallty* i^lltt'ieee 
circumetnncep, comblned wlth the prorpent? which the activltie? at 
the courtG, in hdiiriinAfttfltlon and at the univer^ities of^ered to young 
Jewc, brourht c?bout vn Influx of neo-Chrintl^nc tn the legral prefesrlon 
which percentuali " orob?blv xcerded the nui:;ber of converts in :mv 
other branch of pocIpI life, The p^^inful contrndictlonp inherent to the 
Jev;lsh exl?tencelwithftn-..theD£airo&e0fte^njci'"ty rr^nlferted thenipelves 
perhaos nowhere ffitre drnptlcally than In the öH^^^Q^'^f^la acoompcn^'lng 
the partlclofitlon of the Austrl^n Jews in the sphere of ilW and 
Juri F prüde nee • 
0^jtß4ÜLl US QiÄ i: E£VAJlllJgtt[S£eHl>PlSBHRJIiflDa:^E£HHDgg?SBSO F A ü ?TR1 A !)^ 


It happened in the first decndej? of the conntttttt6nnil 
lEonarchy that two Jurftptlc genluses, Juliup Gla?er ond Jo€epf^hUnper, 
who almost nt the same tirr.e emerged from the midst of Au^trian Jev/ry, 
made their apparance in Austrian public life. The nimultane^us 

- 9 - 

exlntence of the t>ro ir.en remtndf roiiiewhet of t,h<» T^^t H3bblnlc 
t' Inp of thr. flrst. centur-'' E.O.--., who excelleä throu/^h thelr ^"krlll 
In the in 'erpret'^t.--on of the Tonh. In a trvilv amszlnp ir^rinrier the tv;o 
Aur-triun jurl'ts - ünrer, b^rn in Vienn« in 1826, helmr only three vear 
yearp senior of OlQ^er, bor^ in lostelberr, £>ohei!iia, in I63I - 
Eupplecnenteci eacb other: if ^laser ha? be n co^'^lüered fn»- ftither of 
i'U Strien crirr,intil proce-dln^, Unrrer ^aine(3 the ^sme title wlth P'-prard 
to civil Jurirprudence . Bv a bitter irony even thelR eRtranrr einen t 
froir the Jewi^-h fold i« a common fe-iture of th two lurr.lnnriea".' 
I-^or^over thcir baot sn: to'^''- ^lace In CTirlt^-o^j'seti»^ e rlv vouth, thus 
crettinr»llkteifcritlib6cefle of -onn nfelg, a_f?it ^^cco.^pH , ^■7Wti3;bh:^vcilitit 
f.-^icill^at^ü their apt undinr carec"^«. 

Glaser'? rise ..^iroceeded with extr-^ord : n?ry poeed. .'is "»roctice 
Qp n l^wyer wa? nlrendy in 18S4 - in hir ?3rd ^'eora- c^^irblned Viiljh a 
"•eochin^ activi^^' a«! **i^zent" ( l^^cturer )nt the Unlver'^ltv of Vienna« 
Inli60Q,whr?n he hnd not ^'et reached hi? thirtieti year, he wa" 
appolnted ordi^gry profepp'^r^ In the yenr? 1666 /*^9 he sen'ed as 
Minister in the Cobinet of th'^ Count Csrl v^n 'luerpperr» The ye^^r 
1870 flaw hiir. apciin at the Univerfrity and alpo s? *Veinber of the 
Reichn rr:t in the .uatrian A^^rliament. i.n thr.' next yar f^-tarteu the 
gloriour peri-^d of hif? actlvitier as -ini^ter of Justice .G^iaeerwHa 
first and on' y Jew to hoidinthig office in an /iuptrien Cabinet» tha' 
Cou-^t "dolf von Auperaperpt» Heftervhdvinfrthftr\;(?d there from 1871 t 
I679 t he was lm)?DeS*ti*cly apocintc* •»ttcrne^- General o'' the ?upre 
Crlminal C mrt . The Ifxlnh enteer. in whion he v/as held even outalc 
AuPtrieOikaseBBWjkfeoftedof the mor^t autnt'ndinfT ond mc^t prolific 
authors on law, the bibliocrraphy of hl 5 wor'-^s cociprlsln^ 467 lt€ 
^n a younfr nien of ^C years, öla^er publiahed the pione rinp; boo 
i^ao enrTi r;ch-schot tigch e Strqfve rfa hrei:] .,^ I85C ) which wp.s intf 


. 10 - 

as we-.pon in the f^tru-^p-le for Introducln« th . mrll^h method of 

S!4ff49?f-1 vöf^ce^uEre iT^iitb 1t^<ü^ Äia»'!»!^t¥'4?ti^ l^rlpl-^tlon whlch Glaser was 
destlnecl to accoinpl'sh. One of tBif? Tusi^"» clrri-^ vf^r the rertoratlon nf 
t'-'e Jury svpteiri which h-jcl beeri Intrchjcecl In 1649 after 'esrely's 
report ( se -^.bove p. j, but p^iortlv c-pfterw^^rdr abol'phed« The 
revival of t'-ie .liirief v;afr, ho'-'ever, onl^' one pirt of the pre-it reform 
v/hich Glacer our^ued. m rejectc t^e men^hodp of the e er t, Inouin- 

itive »vid wrlt en /rocedur^ ^nd advocaterlthe prlncipl^-p -^f public, 

Imn^ediate and oral proce dinrr wlt the p^rtle- , the att'-^rnev of the 

rtütepnc -'E?!? th; def e.ndr^nt , c^ntendinp , ^b^vc all, he &imed rat the 


aboli'ion r-^ thr r" rld ruler -^f evldence whlch v/erc to be ruoerseded 

b^' 9 free (rvlu-ition ^f the Judlci- 1 pr'^'^f^. 

Olofier v/on b c^mplete Victor^', ^n J-?nn'^rv i, 18?^ - -^Imopt 

exo.ctT'- one hu'^dr^d venr? -^fte^^ the Abolition o"^ tbftur^- fh'^n^r? to the 

ef^ottn of '-onnTn^elr - c. ne'-; c^de ofcrlrrln^?! procedure war promuTp^'^t 

in :^ustr^5 ^s theooutcorre of Julius Gl--^?er''' untlrln^ endcnvorp. It '/ 
one of 

wae the mort modern le n-i Elution'" of ^^lip iri'--: then In exi^tence,aiCaSI' 
Larrmasch, the rre-t exoe^t of cr'minr'l l-^'^ dcolnred: "Au^tri'', the 

stotethat h::!d be -n a decade earli**»*-cn5?ldered one of the moft b?3Cl^ 


oßes as far ? publ * c ln?tltutlonr? were oonoerned, by one pttroke h 

been pushed in the flrst rank of thope Towers whope IrriPlations 

becapie an exainple -or otiierr/' G^öeer^pCodr rem.'.lned i- force until 

the seizure of Aurtrin. by the H8zl??,but re-inptal ' ed -fter the 

re-ertsbliehffenttof the ?eoubl5o. Sliwaffr-^l^onoürddueddnnnttndd&i^iJerk 

»rorlrri- inal Dr^ceJ!:^^ , th • Hrindbuch de ;? ctraf or->:sep^eg .-•' hirfacpeaiitQdd 

X IpndnnrV o"^ Juri porndence up to date, le dien pre-nturely in the 

year IbLh in hir '^>3rd year ^nd wnr rr.ourned by whole .-suFtria« 

liike Ginner, Joneoh Un.^er olreaOy i^ hir vouth exhibited hip 

extr-^ordininrv -iftp. Ab earl'^' n'^ 185C - in an 'i-e of onl^' 22 - 

- 11 - 

he p-radu'^ted in philo ro oh'" ?5t th^^ Lnlverrlty of 'v-'nlir ber,';'. Three yenrs 

l?ter hrivlnr ^cq^*red the de-rree of o octor of Lgw :^t th« Unlverslzy 

od Vlenna, he Tectured on law at th€ Lnlver'-ltv of i^r^frue to cecome 

In 185""' os^lFotnt profep or nä in lc71 ^u^l rrofepstr "^t the Univf?rslty 

of Vlen r. ror the out^et, hin brllll':'^"! Te^tt:!re?=' ^n'l hl«^ ^aiii6u8 wlt 

attrocted vsfettcprs^^dr'^ipf rttddatts • 

Unrer wa':- only ?C yeorr old v;hen h'» :iubllrh*d th? flrnt volume 

of hlr g y «^ t G r] -^ o n >- 1^ c; r re 1 c h 1 n c h e n P r 1 vn t. re r^ h t r ^^h 1 r^ h \v?f f^lTowed bv 

anot'^er vclvi^^i in 185?. Thl-' wor^c proveri to bc nne n-r the ^'inent find 

morft Infolrl^" jurl^tic wor'':s n:^ those dayr, "hlle civil ls'.\' h^'-'i been 

treoter! in /iu-trin fnr d^cod-?? qp an '^bj^ct ^f r irerely rirooticol 

dl?ci llie, lut n-^t a« a^cob^rettoWhotQ<^^!!^6i-*r-'''l'"ipttö*pf iröt^^Äu t!?fc??ibhe 
f i- «=t Au'^trl'^n 

Pftfet who opolievl the scientific rn6th">dr o:^ Öerrran .^url'-oruden^e to the 

Aurtri?'n el\'ll Inv.-. in bis Syn tep. I-'fe-neprdetüor trrteu thedevelopnent of 
le;-^al Inrt it 'tionf? f^inu,G»^ the enme tlr,e , looVe;: uon the lav; bv a coherent 
wholc • "he doctrlne •■ f cor:x?rnte pcr'^f^nc 'vnF :r:?nteü In Itx ?'" well 
GS that '-f t • e protection of s'-'b.^ect-.ivo ri'^htG, thv:'^ even motters ^'hlch 
belon-^ei^ to 'he nphers of civil orocedure . 

Un er v:- p o "^ollowi^r of the hist&ricil nch^ol o6 -avi-my '^'lOP.e 
Fre9te.?t -llsoiple he h3s been cal"'.ed. -I- ilid the firnt ]urintic sc lolar 
who applied cnvlgny's r!;?thod to the Aurt rlan law« e dld ?lso pioneerlng 
wor^^ on special flelds as the cont?27atts in ^nvor o-^ third per-^ons, 
darra-^ep f-^r --u ltleR?5 octp and actione on on«*E ovrn rin^^. 'dir- work 
^..3ined PO prreot a reco-nition cvon in Gerirony that it vra^Ei'id of him 
that he füll'' repc?id .luptria*r debt to Germnn Jur5:spri-v3enC' .. In the 
Introductor^' letter -^f t. npeciol ^'eet g chrlft c.lited by th law faculty 
of the Univerrity of Vienno on the occarion o"" Un^er'^ '^th hirthday 
In 109B le v.-^^ oraiped a? th:- in'iovrtor of .iu?trl.'nn,1iirl??prtii<jf^r?1i<?<? f./i^ 
"with th'^^v%^''^r of criticlsn:-! phllof=?oph^^ -^nd hl'^tor^,' ■boll'^hed what was 

- ^? - 

lnvetitr':;te nd repinced It by a beautiful new edificc.*' .^e vior likewlpe 
eulosrlzed o« '^n acniemlc te^c'^er. ** ''hou«?3ndn of ^-tiidcnts," r id the 
letter, "for '.vhorr cach 6"^ vour le"'turep wa<^ a rtliM.^luf? have be ai Imbued 

wlth love iTid w^rm Interert for Juri p^njdenci 


Un.'^er 5?erved 0imtti^,%%'^*if«fwqö^ll.''' wit'i Glaser np a i:.lni'ter v/lf-^out 

pn rtfollo 1'^ the Cil^l4ot 'ciff -ount Arlolph i^ösr'^oerp^oerr from 1871 to 

1879. In the ye.-^r 1880, hc? wq<^ aprvu-^ -»-.*, k: Trp'-'ideit o-^ Mis Rel c hngreriohfe« 

the hlrhe?!t i\untrlr.n tribunal dealinr vrith que^tiois! of public law, 

Unprer held thlt^ porltion until hlc deith -.'hlo'i oc ur 3d In 1913» i^ 

the 85th ye:.?r of hi£^ .''-''ae • 

GtiEsrerr^indu "'IL^n^er betKr-eem an lntin':'.^te f-ie ^dr^hip develo x»d were 

collalt«>)'i^^ff^!!^Qon viri'^-K? fieldr. 'helr Sjo-^t lar:tln com on w^r'c wa? 

the cre?tion of the collection of the de-^inioVs of the .'iuntrian uprerae ' 

Court ^nlch v;ere ;»ubliphed in serier of volumc rlnce 18^9 • '^he 

collection bicarie DroverMLM. und ^r the name G Yaser-Un.? , e r ( G3,y )and waa 

to prove an ln7:>^lu'^ble , indeed Indi ■: pen aiüfMl? tool for .juri'-ts all ove r 

Austria. The collection was co-^tlnued even nftcr the <5l^eathR of Ite 

foundorn until 1919» '"ne coTO'?nlo?hip of the t o pioneers founü al^o 

a when 

splendid^ ^Qr^1hll?ldfJ^^^GlRht*^'«Mi*t):^jtliai1um.ri^'-^^ rjtdnlstic 

Scholar, r^udolf v-^n iherin^ > dedicated their Jointly the eecond volurae 

of his famous work De r ^^wec^<: im Heht i calTin^r then "the mo?t coznpetent 

representativec of the new trend of Juri5?prudence in /.uptria," 

Jherin- S worJfi cont.nined a p5!r:|ili'C<fc7/ ^.rhich c.9:ine true • Gloper ond 

Un'^er becam: the founderr? of t^ 3feirtri?n GChonl of law. Itev^iBet'thds of 


the tTvo inasterr have bren pcrpet.ur.tcd in f le worl^s '^f l^ter -'\ustrian 
Jurists sni in the j^ubseouent leprirl^tlon • <"'nly r!orr;e of thet^e effecta 
can be mentuo ed here • it was the npirit of Un^er v;ho prompted Joseph 
Kralnz to compose a new conplete eyateir; of the .4irtrl.*9n Üvil law. 
Unserer* G ideas perme?ted likewin^»':fit?behrauch' s populär coirinintarv on the 



■*fc r'^'*^ '* *^#' 


- 13 - 

Auptrl»:)n civil code. m the ?pher' o*** Ic -Ifglation , a '■•ur'^-eet i^n whlch 
Glaser h9d uiade concernln- the proceGdln.i?? on pett" cl".:mp nas been '"•** 
in3terlali;:ed, find Un^^er'^j Views nn civil proccdure fljnfluenc*«4 ^>nnz Klein. 
the cre-^tör of the aentrtgsl d^'c^tlgrezep --Crcnünr; . 
V . tu::. ?ICi\H..-.Kr OF rCCI '-L L-:GiPT.i\TION; r^XL TT i:-^i3;:CH /jMiJ JULIUS OFNER 

T:'e 01oFcr-UnrerttPd(Stt4Qn w*?r potent pnrt inu'' 3rl'^ In the 
nevv r-eneviti^r) of .^u*^tri'^n .]uri5?tp of Jewirh depcent 'who]e their 
appe^orance In th-. peco'-.d h^lf of tho >^lnetc- ^nth c-^ntur^', ^trrn^el^"' 
enourh» alf=c nm'^n- thcm n pGlr of out^tr^^^din^- Jurl-^tr -nr^pe ^'.'ho , b'^rn 
alciort rlrr.utaneou^l'^' t ourpued '^r^ Vn utmort enerr^' '^it:il.'?r "'^al^ 9nd 
f ctuall'^ be^are the leaürr' re^or^rentstive^ '^■^ o nev,^ trend ^'ithin the 
ephere of Inw. mil Steinb-ich, born in Vlennnin 18h^ , v^^«^ '^nl. '" one yeor 
younr^J^ th^n Juliur Ofner, b^rn in l^*^ti In o •^ir.'sll citv of northern bohe-^ 
Bohemla. ''.'ho, how'^veri r-urvlv^d hin ll~'urtricjr co^^'t'-nioorsr y b^' bv '"«w»^--*' 
seventeen yearr. Mur'h a? th-^ o'->re'rr of the: tv/o iii«r?n were (5if^*rent - that 
of -tei'^loch elcv^ti^-ifr hlm , ll^re Gla?er and 'Cnfrer, to th? hi,a'he5la 
offi"«' 9 of the ptst<f ,^'hile Ofner*? lif lono- pucllc ^ctivltv rem-^ined 

« ■. 

ccnflned olropt entlrely withln the' of l'^i^r^er and 3 member of the 
Parlla:rentT therr- exif?tar:3n jnynteriounlvöanailo^Tons »rclrtlon between thelr 
c :ara"terp q'^d fund-^rrentel viexi^g. ibth were b-'chelorr of annsapitic type 
intued vith ? scittt),'' :^evotio^ to tht'lr ta-'k« which, ac 'ordlnp "0 their 
con::ion convictlon, conslRted in th^ pervice for th« oeopls by creatinp 
a nev;, poci-^lll^ plr-lation. >s cpo^Tenmen of th conterr.porarv trendl tö(i^B^as 
such a leirlotion and an ttt*4f&ag^f ir^hter«^ for it , ►'^."teinbac'^ and Ofner 
hold a uniqu;- plac-^ in the hiPtorv o-^ t*i;strian jarl'^orudence • 

it vf.?'^ TuliiJP '""^.^^er v;ho,api M'ninter o-^ Justice, called ^ 

^teinbach - then af tafter h-^vlnfr r-^c^ived th? Inw derree of the Unlver-""' 
sit\' of Vienne ) tenc^er of the coll.eTe of vomirerce in Vienna - to th e 

. 14 - 

a Step to be follov/e " by hi •" apoo^ ntrr.ent ae he.^d of the Üepgrtment | / b > 7 
In thlp cop'^eit:^, r^teinbö^h vrar bble to become Inptrumr-ntal tor the 
realizatlon of hlp fav'^rite Idr-na h-'^ l?un^hüin^ billR on compulsory 
he:ilth-, Rccldent- amd dlpabllit^ innurance of v?orkers whlch herllded 
the ern of social ler^-i^lntio^ in auntrla. In 1891 -telnbach was node 
I^iinister ofi'inance In the Cnbl^^et of the Count Taafd?e. The Introduction 
of the Kold stRndnrd in the Austrlnn monetary f,yf?tem snd tPethte??CPQ«hi 
6fisthadcüfv;t'Te^lorln wa? hl^ work» '-loreovert « n v/ Inw on t>*9P8ä>n«3jtBta*alil 
tlttl, pv&t&rbrovl ii?3}4nö whlcb?ä5i!ifteäordp'-^ce wltb hlp vlew on the "dutles 
of pos'?e9'^i ^nT' rhlftec3 the trx bürden from t':ef Inir-^olal we.o'^cr to the 
weF»lthy had been drafted by ^"telnbach ov.ä puo'OS ^fullv oreeenl.ed by hlm 
to the ParlVa ent in a splendid Speech on i'ebruary 19f 1692. xt wag also 
he who prep'-eo inost for the roforr of the obPol^^^:'AüfettÄnne4iet(l>^Fll 
System and v;ho wan the main drlvinr force feeöibSlll'aeobtlitlTÖQfiet Taaffe 
flnally introduccd to thi? purpo£?e» Unfcrtunately ,the re Jectio ' of the 
bin bröu^httabott the downfall of Taaffe qnd thua -^ilm the termination 
of 2teinb=ch* f? niinisterlol cctivitief?. Coon af^erv/ards .telnbach was 
appointed ch-^irinan of e divirion of the Suoreme Court, and In 1899 
Vice President both of th?: rTjpremeC:6Dt?tt-aödo6ftthe R eichPg-ericht» 
In the veor 1.904, the Trirre K'lniPter K"rber Fubrittec! to the F-moeror 
the proD^?.?l to m^^^-e ^:teinboch Prenldcnt of th^^ ^uor^reCÖDüttt-^^He 
motivated the ^urre^tl^n wJth the eroec^rtion th-^t ?telnba^h*p 
reoutatflion'^ould , vinder his ruidsnce, recure t^ the ,1udic?ture of the 
SupDemd ^^cuirt-mn innere -^sed ni ni^^ic-^noe -ino ?^ n-w splendor, ThÄa it 
happened thet, for the ^irst c^-d Inrt ti^e, a Juri-^'t of Jewlnh descent 
waalinvef?ted v/ith the hirhent .Hidiciary di^-nit"' of the Au^trian I-^onarchy« 

^^teinbfjch cxpreR,'?ed hin idet^p in a sieriej^ of ?plendld writlnp-a« 
a- -^ie Rechtf?kenntnis^e de?^ PubtilaiTBg (l878 ) , £rwerb und Beruf { 1890 ) 
Rechtff-esch^'fte der wi rtgch?^tlichen C rr^^ni Nati one n ( 1697 )$ T reu und 

- 15 - 

Maub^tt Xm Ver^^etey( 1901 ) , Der Stant und die rrodemen iVlTZ-itroonoDole 
(Kk ( l')^63 ) .'Alltbhehfe vritün^n ar^ nermente'^i hv the iäe? that the ethic^l 

Factor toastto "be mnde cf-^ectlve i'*tlaai2jltrftell?feV"f'l'ftttiln^T£t.h# opofaSiPl&Äal 

,r.ättfiDbtJ^hfe?5ndi**öÄXyö3iö??*?didPirdd rriornlf and s6clal <!tlte?be? ar^ the foundatlon 
of leripl^tion snd ar an Indisp6n;3fel)3ie'^<flerri6nt of jurlrdlction» but he 
ilno denianded that the indlizidual ?:hould be lirited in the use of valld 
rlipfht'^- by moralF, as ©sPtjftcüi^itVv ' he title of '-»ne ^ne nf Stetbbeh'Asa 
w r 1 1 i n ^^ F! , ' ' Jjjg ^ioral alg Schra'^ke dei? Hechtr unci der H ecl:^ t?auprt'bunp'i 
clenrly indiciteR. 

-teinbach* «=- writin-^p had a definite in-^luence on th-? new freneratio/ 


of 1uri*=!tn a' d '^oclal thinker'n, ©fefl^Jtfei'ally^n /^nton iven<^er. .;.-i:!t perhaps 


ft^PB more than froiT »"^teinbach the au hör, and tc"n];ir'?tionlQR!0fcffttfiofirom 


<£it)e49tedhft7he ätQtnß»oh tiSi« rapoöches, hi;^ far?r- inntin ^ conversütlons 

pndlT>9t5Wtflt«ifl3iÄ fro^n hlr deeds. HÖeeecefcij!i^deärT}pt^tetE3Er'jn!gn'^ie|telaiol?^rt *" 

ap Ju'lrre. ÄÄd^'^-^ö^l^ t^^''1?M@i^ not the vrrietv of thep'' rctivitie,«^ , extra- 

ordin^rv an thev wer:, what conf?ti tute^i the rre.-^.no'^r ^f ^'teinbach t'e 

doer., but the de- p ethical andvtetian.'nusnfepllftrriou fev-linr underlaylnp; 

all hls actlonn '-^nd »ntBo^f'« all, hl«' ner^-^nal i?^?|^i|0|. :xirely hap a st-tef- 

ffi-'^n ,??BTidC'~rt'3inl7 no AlbPtrinn stat'?sii: n, "t- inbnch h^n bee*^ tol"^, 

eo erip!T^tical:^ty r jectc-i the Indlviduali'^tlc p^inclpl3- ts h^. And wherii 

:M:Ftt^z Kleinbin h:^fe?^dQcJt2]riibli9!dT^'^tt»»üi<äa3Cfi-ar|ka^iß'^3nl§Qffir.ib'e nemorial 

addres'^ dcclarcfi t'.iat '*in c^ntra«t to porre n:odem ohilof?opher'? loho extnl 

the Inrtinctr, ßtelnbach proclyirr.ed the har&h rro ^el of the Cur^ht»*' 

he ha 9 not onl^' jn s nu?hell chcracterlze J th^ ir.'^.n r^nö hie v/ork, but 

** perhapF! uncnn pcioupl- - alluded to €lbei1bti>dfch * t-^titi^fip^öituble link vith 

the eth'cs of JudaiPiji« 


The .lelrtw r^utep of l^"teinbach * ~ ---ooial o-iiloppphy snd of his 
whole per'-'^nality v;lll, mavbe, ^ne day mors ol rifled whsn the llfe of 
thle e trgordi -jar^' man will be as thor0bl:lT{l7 descrlbed as it hss been 


- 16 . 

done by i^mll :-ieh:ir n loonoeimlnp- Tullur Ofner in anremar^^able comprehen- 
ßive thesiG. I' rorn thln bloTrphiC!^! -tudy, from Ofner* '" oi-m. writinp:a 
and speeciee of v;hlc'n a r- renen^nivr nelGCtlon hne beer publlnhed 
FÖiCh n lucl-i Introductlo'T by V/alter "il^c^^^tf^in , -'nd frcm the rccordo of 
Cfnerfe-^hurt leiTii^l-^tlve ?5Ctlvltle r , Jullur C-^ner emer^er - Mon<ii«ide of 
ttelnbech ^ r;^ the embodi ent of the .'^orct 9 v/hich in thr» ae-ond h»Ifo6f 
the Tiinete nth HTid thr firj=t decndec of the tw.ntieth centujr aimed et 
fu'-'darrentql ch^np-es of lerislntion .?Tid Juduci?! nrnctice« In e Ufe of 
almo'^.t 80 yesrn Ofner took nort virtuall'' in r?!! juri^tiflicpppiDbimBSof 
(bflei^l]lufe17l:J]•M^ Mc^rrchy ?nd Jtepublic,in hi^. C'^:")acity as pro-tltfg^ lawyer, 
p.r lawp'iver nnd echol^^r. Thero in c fervor f-^r In^' ^nd Ju'tice in Julius 
Ofner whloh rerainde of the n-rent »^erjQsa tnoflsct, thouj?h he, fol?16wtfc|^p; 
the trend of th(? liber-l ero, ?lrerdy ap a youth boonrie a freethlnker, hi 
tlhc Jewinh eouc^^tion wwhi ch he recolved from m orthodox f-ithert mani- 
fepted itpelf In hin Jurirtic trÄftwt 'ÄXJ^nd rctivitie?. He never 1 ft 
the JevriPh corr. unitv nnd confer»ped hirnnelf th.-^t the Pir^f /^bo1?, were 
the stourceof hi-^ ethic^l convictlons whS^ AhthetCeutfdatfflotiorlÄ hii? IgtoI 
thinkin,^ derlved frora an cid Hebrew codc v/hifh he rtudied uo to hls 
sixteenth ye?r« 

Of^er'p e'^rliert cnd rre?teRt echol-^rly v;or'c the t orourrh editlon 
of t- e nütfeinnl draft otfdthe ,>urtrirn civil cocl: anJ oftthe pertinent 
conteLnporsry minutea iD er Ureinwurf und die - cr^tun^ ^uorototolle des 
itllpe-^elen ^)^-r^e rlichen Ge^'^-^t^bu chri The ivor": apoesred in succes ive 
inf'tallnientr "'.■^etwe- n 188? ?nd 1689 and noon brcnnie one of f-ie most used 
source booVp f*^r the in' e --DretatioT o*" th'? c^nle. 'fner*s principal 
purp^fe wf3 '^ to derron-^tr.^te the exemn''nry rt^nd^rd of th2 enüp-htended 
iaiffft'^erf t'ne Code, ^Drticu*' /^rly the -^uoerlority of the 3 -herentr? of 
th« n'^ti^ir«.^! Ir^^.v ^ver the ^otCLißwerSr^odTathef lnra:fh^©'^p dayr ;ß3h*döniönä'nt 
hiptor'icnl Rch'^^l . The Urentwurf ol;?o inzendec to becvcieaf an 


- 17 - 

Instrument of the revlHlon of fch*h9~?*<.iiieOtfTieir'{,lioi9-"!W!Sr»!:tiee<ii84R«lItnwna 

Cftviifobffl« firp).t actione v/hen he ws-? elected meisber of the Hou^e of 

Reprepentativer In 1901 to pronone ruch o rev.l.^ion or rnt.her the cre-'^tlo 

of -n entlrel^' new civil code , Thüp he inrurur-'terl n crimoairrn whlch, 

thcu(j:h It diu le ü to the recllantion o"^ thf?t ambitlor.^? ob.lective, bore 

excellent frultn* ^fter ^ thrirüTiJ^: dlscuP'-ion i^ whlcH nlso aeveral Jewlph 

Jurlntn - eppeol^lTv Knrl Adler, Arm'n ü^hrenzv/eir, rionz ■<ra'?nopolflkl'^ 

Rudolf i^olln'r and Joseph von ohey ( oee sb^ut the- beiow po, ) - 

tonk a le.qdin'^ p.?rt, nnd after protncte^l tr^nr^ctlon? in t^e I'-inl^try^ 

of Juf^tic- the thre-': p^rtial novels to the Civil Cod'i hr've be^n ororaul- 

p-nted 1 - 1914, 191S -p-nd 19l6«throu:7h 

The refo^ra of the civil l?-" v;ar!, howe^r.~r, on"'^^ one of th'- 

innmmerable 1 -i^l'^tive .ccoals which ^^fiur pur?uedidut7!ia'^co'jrn'^ of hia 

psrliarsen^-.ary '^ctivity durlnc n^nrl^' tv;o dc-cacier^« The r'tory of Cfner's 

3tru,fT"le for -he a;DO!?oval of all thebillR v/hic-"! h introduced in the 

-Austrietn ParliQ ^nt fonB-felfcutifacicin'^tinr epic« H fou-ht for them and 

worked on them not only in th'^ plennry sesrionr? of th? House, but also 

in many le/rirlntive c^mmir' ionf? whö'^e roember he wos owing to hi« ilimoet 

universnl expert ^cnoweledre in JurlJlcal and rocl?l mattere • The 

Bubjectscf thcE-e bills r-jn^^e from the protection o:" wor^cer? 2?nd chlltfren 

to matterp of the theater -md to the quepti-^n of vaccinatlon, from cri 

crlmSin.^l tcvjmarrlare law, from th>- rlrrhts of omen to the li^bility for 

cyr acicidenta, in one -^in.r^le ses-lon Cfner introdueed no lesp than 

?3 billp. Thu^ Itf? war' by no mean? an eca- -erptflion whe-» It \fs^ srld 

th-st tHth'fhS]fc-tnrar0^1®Todrlot!:vfi!t||%«i.t!lifcb^it^^7ha^l^^tiQaldv^^ 

hiß^tory tf ider!tii:?5l with the historv of Auptrlnn social pclicy eamed 

Ofner the ruTonme '^the c^TiPclence of the Palfli'^m'^nt" . It wap, however, 

hiE oroper mir.e thtit w--ß actuall" ured +0 denote ofie of the nio"t Important 

lawa he has inltiated. Thls law - of i-pril 9> 1914 -, th-- Lex Ofner t 

- 16 . 

1 "i 

conceminKr the level of the n.T.ou'^t relevant fo3^ the clar'^l-ft.i?atl^n 
of tirlmep v al'OTts'rt pro ^ertv adapted the outdate^d cTounts of the o"'d 
Crlrnlnnl Code to the real conteniporarv vnlues of the raonev, /:fter the 
inodel of this l^i-t Geversl others have be'?n creat^d when the lnfl*itlon 
"brourht about a continuous de-'alotiation of the Äustrlan currency. 

'Ino -rr-s a meraber of the Kejubllc'h ^^'^rligni nt, Ofner - gt that 


tliTie a septuareneriin - contlnue:! the\ f tru(Trle for hin rociol end 
political Ideals wlth unrcle^^ted vipor, ^^ut , trnp-lc.^lly , the t^rdent 
purcuance of one lersl reform v;hlch v/as i^^rticulnrlv Ogner'r concern 
bro'jrht sbout the 3?jrupt end of hlc •^Icriour os;rlla:;:ent.'3rv c.?reer. 
He had emb^rked uo^n a p^rllam-^ntor"-' cairpr»i'^n forlslnnifled r.Qrriba«ye 

law valid for all clti.::eng wlth'-^at ?7fe2r4rdttr'\t'ol"41rlrm?itflo'^e tn "be 

perforraed b^^ a ptbt4cn(ßf itfcül . Th* r atteript to aboligh th^ old 

irarrl"-? Is'.v ^hich dlffered ac^ordliT t-^ the r^lipflou'^ creods^f th 

Partner? and thur to bre-al^ wlth a lerrnl tr-adltion ^-r a predom' nnntlv 

Catholic popul tion aroused a rtorm of orotept a'^'=ih*="t Cfner, p-^rtl- 

culsrlv br-C':upe he as e ^ew had dared to enrare In what wap terrred 

" Ehe r •. ^ o rii> ,r 'k:a nd a 1 " ( aiarriare reform FC^nd 1 ) •C^M4)t:JT3l^^-hlÄ c-indldacy f 

for £ rc- in the - onst 1 tutional i^atlonal .see bl^- In 1919 wa^ veheniently 

contertedb" the Chrl ''tlrin-r^ocial part" • ^^ -m hl'^toridi?! irony he wiso 

wer cpposcc b^' a j"re;.t part of the Jewish votera wh^ reacited hl .9 '^t-.ind 

in the queptlcn of the raerriarc law ***v,.u£<e It increared th«i ?nti- 

C'e:!;it:c wav'-^ . Thu? Cfner 1'-^ t the b':!t''.le arainrt ibobert •-'trlc'^er , the 

*-.ionist candidate, in the mortlyodefT'SqhTdÄQäiTdcfltr'tPlc'bfoiP'i^ilen^o . 

in th*- rer.alnln.'T f^ur yeorn of hl-^ ll^e , Ofner n ^verth^les*' 

c^ntlnued to reir.'^in on hlp. pÄct, vhourii it vip.'- nov/ fhi-^ted to the 

Senate and to the newly crerrted //erf ac un.Frnr-erl. cht ^hof yConrtitutlonal 

CourL ) whcre he f?erved aa a per:::anGnt r: porter. / nd theri wa? one 

acfcivity which he continued up to hin laot davs: in fact, "fner*9 llterar 

' - 19 - 

productlon forma an olir^oat unlnterrupted rtresni of ??rtlclej^, es^ay?, 

8S^ ft y ^ II? ^^ G Ket^mer , boo!crrv4t-WBs nnd Independent bonk*^, de'^lln/? wlth 


every anpet of the law and socinl life , fron hir firnt ll^te'l nubllcfi- 

ic ^ 

tions in the jurii^'tc weokl'' G eric 't?ha ll e in 1 71 up to hi-^ la^t book, 

9 Fum;ri3rv of hi? basic ide-ip v/hich he p*^bllphevl inl )P3 under the title 

Ij,a f ^ -^0 ai 3 1€ '. 'e c ht F d e':! '^en « "'vlle -vie -^f hl'- m:3 v >' ^.'or''"--^, the Üre ntwurf * 

has alre'^l^v be ire-it^pfi^f J , Itile liter^^"^' ^^art of f er/'^ vjor> "111 ^ritnl^^c 

rurve ved 
de It 1 '1 c^nn€ction the '€v;l?h contrib'/ti-^'^ tr^ the vnr'.ou'= Vronchc- of 

Juri - Drudence . ' ««« 

Cfner di^d o'^ ^epten.ber ?4, 19?4, Mr^ v.ryhep wer b'^ried on the 

Jev;l^-h ceneta v 1"^ Vienna in on honor9r^' torrib which cear? the in-^crlptlon . 

he hir:s«*lf ha^ c hören.* ^^A l'. .?n w " o p e o n 1 v ^ 1 n T'^ n, p, ^ o _''c)S n K a n « " /. few year ,, 

yearc Inter o iTonur:ent consir.tlnr of hie hc-ad hop be n erected In Vlenna« 


JURIEPEüx^iLNCE FHOK THE ENI; OF Td£ WI:V.-:Tü:F.^T.'-( C iMTUH" TO Tlii .:::X^ Ol' TrIE 

/) U r" T [\1 r, 'V R- P U .. Li C 

Epochin.'^lclnr J'p the v/orkfi ofUn^-er end GTePfrr were in the dornalnB 
of the civil nnd crlmlnal law, the rubeeqi.^ent p-rticii!)r^ttä)ono(5f Juripts 
of 'iewi5?h de:^cent in the<'e fieldf? • ahlte npnrt fr-^r" the. unique worl^s 
an' v-ictlvlfier; of "teinbeoh t^nCi Cfne^ - r- ulte' in renarVnble oroductlon^ 
foine of which r'j>n> ran'c among the '^uore. e fe-^tr of ."U!=!tri3n ond irodern 
Jurisprudence in rcneral. ''ithln the frar:-Hcr> of th* p ?tudy only soir.e 
of the :i!'; jor -.c hieve ircBntG con be ^inp-led out sr ex'^rr'plep» -and not more 
than a scr^nty blbliorrgohical survey o'^ other v'or>" • Ith upTüoidoMeb^e 
asireJtiyQfe table Ions con be preeented. 

i> thourh the first erst con.o^ete conne d!u: ( ru^^driPF ) 
of ti: «'j'trian civil law "»'.'hie ap. '»eored 3ft'::r Cnr^er*?: v.'ork was written 
by JoGeßfXi^^aÄazpnd po^trunouplv eduted b^? Leop-^ld Pfaff, both of whorr: 
wer.- non-Je^'i^';: Fchol^^'s. the third edition of thl^- worv, publls ed in 
18.59 u\' th..- o:;'ti>t' nuin;/ -Jewl^h-born JirlFt Ar ri- Thre^zwei^ ( 1864-1935 ) 

Professor at thellnlverr^lty of Graz» was iireacly to a P^reat extent a new 
creation. Shrenzweirr produced alf?o the next tv'o edltlons which vere 
eepentiplly hlr^ own v/or^-c. The nlsth editlon of the (Siimm d ri s 3 f, publi??hed 
In 19?5/26 9 aerumed flnally nuch on orlr'inal ch racterrthot Ehrenzwelp* 
feit entitled to publleh it a?Tj 6rntg' de*- fjlt grrd jhebicch en ^llp^emdenen 
Pri^^atrechtf] und^;r hl:^ ovm nair.e» HIr worv - ronsicting of thr^ e volumes - 
was dlrtln^lrhe' hy an excn.plarv dlspo'-l tio'-^ , a clear ^nd penetretlng 
Interpretatt&ntj an alniO^t univerral referencc to the pertlnent pchflilarly 
lite:'rturc , n oound crlticlsrr, of the current c^üditlci praetlce and by 
a rare lucidlty of rtyle . Cvjlnv to cTl the Fe meritr, ü^hrenzwel 'n ^yntem 
eerve'j sr the mrt oo^ulor bv.6 et rittwert authnrlt^tive vjor"!- of reference 
on the 6ivll Irw f^r i)<^t Ir»*^ la^r.^er?. The inJlrpennotllty of th'^ work 
han be n proved b"'^ the fa(c:1ttltihötnlfce-rG-%dlJt(i6»,rirranTed by .idolf 
i^-hrenzwei^ , /.rmln S reT^w^i -' '^ r^on» ha.« bocn i^^nuf^ürnted nfter the 
re-conrtitution of th^- Aljrtrinn Hepublic» 

/.not'^.er outPcttndlnr theppttfcifcn^ o-^ t'.e rlvll. l^v! v/rjn Hor oee 
Kraanooolr'^^1 ( lc4"-190c ) '-/ho bec ne the ruccecEor of o ■pc:ß •'^flnz at 
the Univer?ity of ^'rnp:ue where he taU:Orht fr'^^ IcTP until hl o death« -^ 
was thrice ele-t^."^ l^ e''9n ( d-en ) of the L^w l'ncu'tv -^f «-^ra-^^ue. ^part 
frei rcviv-l rronorriiphlc v/'r^r , '"ra ^no oolr'^l left a manijpcrlpt of a 
complttt tixtbock rf the /. .strlr.n civil Inv which v^ar oubllf^'jed in three 
volUTer; i^r^^n^ "^^f^a? profea-or at the irlver-ity ^f Prngue, v;ho lil^e 
xi^rarrnopolf':! iva'"^ a .>'e!v« 

^Qoiiii-ifM Vlenne::;e Je^-,^ieh Juriritr, ü o'-efi rghev v^^n -Cororln 
( lv!;53 ~ )> öroferror rt the ün'ver^ity of Vlennai p.ained such a 

reputstion that he became a menVer of the Houpe of Lcrdc. There he Strved 
as the re potter of th Comrnlttftonotff JtJQttfce« .In thl? caoacity as well as 
a member of the Cor/ i'^^-ion for th-: Fevirlon of th -Ivil Code, fchey haa 
p^reijtly contribute:! to the final formulation of the novels to the Civil 
Code ( BQ-: r-jbove p. ) . ? an anthor he hold? an horh rank cuc to hls 

- 21 - 

nun.erou« r^olld putlic.itlo'^o , ^bJfrt^tentir'by "^t^irtwcr^f ^hithir»v^jkt9r5if edition 

of the Civil Code, v;hich became o ver* tnble tnni 6^rAu<^trian Juri' 1 8 and 

a rarc'el of ? rnl"^ar editlons of other laws. Tifientetj-'k'Ji'töon f the ?4th(i951; 

]Iior.bfeeftilD6M(äPbeuthe 8'")th ( l^S"- ) - h.ofi be n DubllEheu ?a'teftti?e end of ' 

the iVazt rule. :.'r^ .Inn? K^pf-ir, Au-^'rlnn •i'^i'^tLr of ^'u'-tice, bec^n^e tho 

eJltor of the ' ook whic-^ on itf^ title ono-e rtill bear^ the nar,c n-*" 

Jcset)f V. -che 7» 

/^nother Ftnndnrd wörk on the AvPtri?^ civil lav;, '^ommcntor z;urD _ 

411re !r.el" :e>i Bf5r^erllchen G e retzbuch » v/a^-^ edited .;urln^ the l^pt vears of 

the Aurtri--^ Republlftc( 1931-193'^ ) bv Heinrlhh Klnn<? vi^h the Gooperatli||i 

of g^^Bpuasf ^ToSäaborntar'^'j'e^t'ödotoitran-BiljriCön^lf^tinpi 3if Jcwlsh born -^ 

Jurlntr* j."^niiel Adler t » n 5» t r q t "" ■? 1 h e ' m . x> rtur I-.enhof "« Orc^r Pinlco> 

i\ c hl 1 le '^ R"» pp<^ 0^ rt » Josef ^^hell,, -. llhelir . r chl eä3:nrer t £>on tfeirPi 

J oref V , r^chey . Kl^riff ( b. in Vlenna 16'^'''> > v/n-^ an actlve Judre '^nd 

tnu'-ht civil low -it the üniverr/itv of Vlen-'^i . .t th tirx o:^ /\ustrla*s 

selj:ur€ t" the vo^ip, ^li^n^ i'»>:^ aippeetfllT^ Judpe ^.t th'- !^u :>orior Court 

of Vien-n. M wsrln 193'.* deorived o-^ hir of ice md tQtih94§'''dtonrted to 

the co>-»c-:ntr<'3tion cnrrp ^f Thrreeien ct.-^dt . '!(? purvived the ordfr.l and 

retur^eä to Vir^nns i>^ JiJ"'y, 194~. In the ppttic ye^r he wa^ ap ^olnted 

Prepidcnt of ;» Rennte of the "uoreme Court, ie al!=o w^« elected Prenident 

<^f ^he Wiener Juri rt lach" Ge pell r;ch3ft and experl nc d the rattafnotion 

of hav'rrf* bcen ?ab^ e to rtiiirt the oublicMtion oT a newly edited iComrr.entor> 

iieinr.'. c'n -Inn«-^ died in 1854 und wa?^ buried In ^'^ h^^nrar^' prnvg -^f t'^e 

Jcv.'iRh ce;T,et?"'"y "^ V^'ienna« 

Jurirtp of Jevirh de-'oent 'toyerrs^/ft; «FimTv^li'-^ 'nttütori!b^^ik<tl?iot^^^^ 
nionop,fTr:i ohlc 

liter t rf o>) th^ Civil lan. T-eir pioneerinr \Jov^\'= appe^rea in culcV: 
succeHf?ife^n*, in^ne of "tii^iieiVii nav be llnted er'.:. In 169C) ^JQifeEsff V . Öbfeyy 
p u :: ^. i f! h ed h i p Jie oblirrgl^ p ri ge hen '^e rh^'l tn i s e d e ^ • ^ ster ei h irchen 
l{i 1 rerr^ ji^n g^ >' riv a t re c ht s i t w^en -ihrl ichw ho soop war t^ becoine the 

- ?2 - 

chamolo- o^ r\ nev; Jurlrtfcc dl-^olQllne, the ßoft^^sajrprvoÄflhww, { neu bclow p 
p« ), d^f'ilt it'i ona o-^ th : mofjttlntricate problenir? of th^-^ civil law 
in hl ff otudy Die rtlll ge'iwei fyencl e 'lll l ^jagr^^il'y ütin^l 1893 ).iatthe J?3m»? v 
yeor Julius Ofner cnrlched the /^ust^ftnnle^sl liter-iturr bv a svf^temntic 
v;ork on the la^^ ofppüperty, P .^ri , ^n c'"ie n recht . in 169^ i^riiiin -'-hrenzv^elpr 
^ubli ched ,o fundam-rntal book ^n the lav/ of contractu, l^:e^. ro gena nn ten 
zwe i -1 1 ^ C r i en l /caybl: ^.'? e > in ^.he sondere die ve rtr ''^'^e zu rr • s ten i^ri tter* . 

( - l:>Vl /' " 

•ipref HuTD^ia v;ho b'-:C--n;e o 'e of the 'üOPt erteeiw; te^' ehern öt the 
übiverrlty of "io-ia prwdüaeddttöottibroüuj'i'iF'tudlcf .nbout aut.ior' z-^tl'^nt 

iJle Vol lmsoht ^ 190 ) öo " tell ve rtrotur] un ' Voll n:3cht.( 190^ ). 

In the ppheic of civil orocedi;re :e rr P e^ ?c-^.e'^ ^ ) wha riiftrdiriill? ' ' 1 

tsurht t'.iüo'ht ^n t'ie ünlverFitiG'^ of Fr^fue nu C;zernowltz, but after 
•Vorld kV'or 1 becrme honor^rv profee-or of civil proce(fIure it th« 
Univer^lty of Vienrifi , ('esTt alrer^dy in hls in^unurv^l therls '<^lfahgsvoll- 
s>trt Il^-Lirir>flR .i'\)r(fiaL(Pu r penc rvrlth feoptb**'*fc.ÄV.'ornexo^utiori ncc^rdini? the 
nev.'ly crep.teC lav;. 


?rlor to the • bpve .ricntloned n:onor-r' ph«^ the plmoot cuthoritatlv? 
\fntik on the u^tran !!;•■' frlfiae law, Ja- Oe g ter^eiclisic'^;- Umher geht „hod be-=n 
published in 1875 by ^ duard Rittner ( born In ^ur^ztvn, 0; liclr. i- I8A5, 
d. ), a sciiol-ir of Jewlnh derccrit .''^0 hv.ä ei:br-c^d Cnth^licisrr ond 

taurr'it QanoniSotlf tew at the un vercity of Lv/ow • p ? :■ rfinnl nots may 
bc reordeJ here- the pnradoxiciil f-'ct th?t beriJe-- uittner two other 
bnptized Jewf3 bea.T.e expert? of the Cnnon law: ricinr' c ■ i'-i -gy ( 1855- 
193^ ) who rl'-^ce 1£96 until 192S t?u^-ht this dincipline p« füll orofes'or 
ot Vrie l'niver'^ity of X'ra^ue, and t_-!>^'^> v> 'ir,l?-.?n (oyt£:l-!)n!ilt"M"^!eiqQTitil)ott^ 
dI 1Ö6'"), d. l^P^S, rctiv. flret at the l'nlver<-lty of CB.-rnowitz nnd later 
9t the l^n verr'lty of L^'ow wherb he t**?vi3t Oerrn.«?'^ l^w and conipnr: tlve 
Juri s prüden ce . 

- ?3 - ■■' 

Due to the i^urtrlr^n poclnl 1*"*.U l'^tloh ^^hich hod be: n lnltlate< 
bj^ ■:telnb9C •mö devcloped by Inter lav/^^, the l-l;or l^w beccme a far^ 
favorlte subjec" of Auptrirn Invyerr, nri'r^^ c'ü;l3r''.y trotfeoel' Jevdfih 
depcent. Juliur Ofner too^r tTC lead, /i-^ e^irly a-^ 1885 he pub*^lshed 
hl 8 Iccture on DaF^ Hecht auf :Vrbei^-. In crjrm'ection ^'ith idear he had 
dev^lopedin tv.'o pr-vlou? l-'Ctures, .^qp He6ht ?: U leben ^nd Ueb e r d af 
Hecht -prliLuip de/ Arbeit r^lohneg ( both publlchc in 1804 ) C frier 
por.tul;-tGc; th'^ duty oT Roci^ity to ß.ecurc the l^i.rrhtc of the Indlvldurals 
to live LiriLl to wor'':. The new pro re5?p.inf" lerri^.lation v/as suicniad up In 

'N ■' 's. 

connection with th^i l^bor law of the CiT?il Code\by '.";i nund Or^^nberg 
{ I863- ) in '3 comprohen^ive an lotnteü '• 'ition ,of the Statute?? 

concer-ilnr 1 bor of all catc "■rier .( 19? 5 ) . C'r'*nb^r^?:^ro^v.^rT?5^a^ 
sp-.cliil co:;,K...ntr-r'['^n the lav; of cc^-trclal emnlveeB . gi'^nuel Adler 

( I873 - )t profeß'or ot the Unlve^<-lt' ^f Vi-^n^n, thourh hie 

prima. •■ spherc- of interr-t w-re trade mar^rr, n' r:>^d p?itents 

( '-.vstcir der "pterre i chlpchen I'H?rk':nrcch' f* ( 190 9 ) » -Dj^- i^' liTi 

d eutrch e n und "ster^eichi RC^^e'^^ Hschtf ( 19?1 ) j n prlze winnin(T workf 

^Qs •*' ttcr^xichifeehbeP?tentreFctz *( 19"^ r hccürre lnvo''ved in atudles 

öbout the then crerted Auetri-'^n v/or^er'? co'-ncil '^ . . ;'!•= publicafons 

about this rubjec^ rroused Intei'^natlon^l ?^t" 'r'^tion . it wsf also 

i-msniel i^cler v;ho proätedc^tthe nort cororehc '^rte ■'//orV on the low of 

e pl c y e ■ r and w o r ^ : e r g : Dar /nrert..-"' iten- und -.A r beiterrcc ht . . »erl'^utert« 

( 193^ )• ^''i the Same year Artur bsnhoff, b^^r^i^^ter and profes'^or sx th 

the Lnivcrpitv of ^'"lonnß \ ^e alro below n. ) nub"" '^heo li^ev/ire a 

book on l.>bor l^-^w, the oririn.-il b tt?^ v , l^^I^ i e ''<'o -: 1, 1 1 i - '^ \^ ^ rund 1 a p-e 

d € - u r be i t r re r h t r « 

.p rt froiii the juet quoted works, the thr laf:t ten fateful yer^rs 

of the iiu^tri.^n e public oaw the apoe^rance of m3r^v remarkable publica* 

tions on t'.ic- civil lav; by Jurist? of /ewifh nri^in. 'ieinrlch Klang 

vrho $ a? alreaJy rr;entionecl , editeO bI that tlnre hir corrnent rv on the 

j^^ Civil Code, aBrlBtecl by « ph,?lrnx of 'j0;^ri^h Jurrtri publir'ied alone 

between 19^9 and 1936 four studier two of which de -It wlth t -le tben 

bumlnr quefjtion of the low of Icaeae. The gairie probier! was alno the 

6uib.'ect of fntrk2:clllent lect^ii^e. Gerec ht Irr ^ceit icle e un-.- IlleteY i?.rep e-tz^ 

^ebu f , , 19??7>b-v the Vienner bnrrlrter J onef "' che^l nnd of the studv 

. ^ntoch • ' dunrTe>'] zu m '^^ie% er]f terjetz th^' Heniric'i ^jv/e , who li^^^ewlse wan 

a practiFlnr lowver of ViöTtHa^ininother outf^tfindin^ Vlenn<f!e lawyer, 
R ud pXt ijt^.^g'^^^l^ ■ oubllfhed in 193^^ h pioneerinr rtud^' on the 
llatllltiea ^vithout fnult, H q f t un r e n. o hn e Ve r g c '^. u 1 d e n , g maeterpiece 

Vfefcc'-^ won the awnrd of the Dlerl endnwniment» nnri^h/^i? '-^utPtandinp' book 

In Vi nnv. clioo 
?bout liehllltle? ap^eared in 193^ und-^r the title Di' 'ChuldhMf bunv 

in ^ohadc> ne rPat7.recht » Its author war Albert /ir:!n Ehren zwei ffm then 

lectvirer at thr Unive^-rlty of '-'ienns, a eon of _lbert__2hrenj£wei£ 

( IbTS-'^IS*^ )$ the y^vmrer brother of Arm" n ■>^enz^^rcir nnd , by hip 

ovm raerltv^ ?r\ eouii of the nutlior of th SjlZl£M* Albert ü^hrenzv/elrr, 

9t th.9t tirr.'- profea or st the univ- rr^ity o^ Vienna, wa«- gn Ruthority 

in the Pohe?'M: o'^thc lav; o"^ innur^nce« When he in tho y€rrl913 w^a 

called to the idnistrvof Interior he soon bec^ire the he od of the 

Cepnrtr.ent for orivate inpur.-nce. itvuas he v/hr drrfteö the bill'kfeatt 

priv^t'3 i""pur,?ncc, '-/ho intr-^duced in ^ u%. r^oj-xir,- cnt ^nd •9chi6vr:d itc 

approv?!. The ferit ermed hirc one of tho hl^he^rt decor^tions r^f Imperial 
Aurtris. ■'±n D9?9:^hicpflblftlafcätiÄihW4?*nniar3'-3un]ifjrib!' of cfatate-^otfcpl? xr^jetpact 
oonther;t]Ctt^r>>rl tetfeiea;htap gda Q(r\-^er Vertt3rpve ricfa eyu tiprQ,t Thotöur&ntfelO 
f2»rr-twJP^':tlabii3orl2b«iflf:.:-faE^ni3Ty'il>iflr hf r^töt^si^teil in^tStttitöoti r^nd in the 
lerirllitiiä'Q^ hißetibit3irtQdww|ig faAdapab3:ji.t 1edi^^ntVinntP^Jiji- intfücMt^^' 
.^^dr\j^rld«ri¥etgy.p8g a;clynic!^otbpg:n ev.' sociü inrtltuti'^n of private 
in^urance • 

- 'PS - 

vgs foroeu t"-. erril'-rst" to t.he ü.T.ii. whterF'h^!^ '^on Alh^rt Armin 
t^hrenzv/elr h^^d settlcT' and b-opme ^rofcs ^^r '^■f l.?^'r' pt the 'Jn iver'^lt''.' 
of Cr;iiforni? 1^ x.>er^eley«/:^ter th». w«Tr, iV'bert Ehrenzw^?!'- t»etnrned 
to iiuctrla 3n v/ßc ap >ointed-IäDia .■^"l*(rj'd?!Pe8 0T^r -^"^ ei^'l! law and civil 
procGGure nt th^ üniver"i^y of Vi^'^nr'. Th-'-re foll%v7edtwoo»^ei*ii!Ce@n;- 
p re h e ' ■ '^ i V e w 6 r '': r : i^eu tr c''. s ( Oe r terre lchl E g'.'ie ?? ) Ve r plc ' ior nip;sr<?c?ht „ 
( 19^3 / rncl ^^1? rvechtnlehr'- dg?? V r ? " cherun-*«v e^'trareg und die 
klog ^ie bhe j'^or i^r ( 1}^>4 ). In the next ve :r Albert ii.hrt*nz'.-/eir died 
in Vienna . 

A9. ii tov;erln fi.Ture nf i\ustri^n Jurir orudence and Au^trlan 
Jgwr^^ X nrl ' ".rr.uel Ctr^^nhut ( 1844-1??? ), orofca-or o-^ l-iv.' of con 
commerce at tae Univernity of 'i*-*^««» gnd member -^f the .loupe of Lords 
linVed the cl?fi^lc a^e of ülaser-Unrer wlth that of the modern 
Juristr. ie '--ap the crsttar of the urtrl-'^^ ^atv^te on bill;? of exchan 
exchanpe ?n corapoEed the Standard v.'or^" 4n thl«^ brnnch of the lav; 
o"*" cocrerc : Lehrbuch de^- ''ec'!£€ ' recht:- . '^ v-^lu' •" 1901# A phortened 
edlti^n ^f thl'' v^orV bcome one of t c 1 •' j '^p'^n*='flbl« tooln of 
/u'tri.^n l?wverf, C-^nnhut , thon-b a r,pecthli:lT^^ «yo-ert In a pertieu 
cular br?T^ch '^f law, per:^'^rrri6C , hovev^-r, nlro the hi^'toric t-a?'^'' of 
foundin'- in 1874 the Jurlrtlc oeri-^dic^l Z^ lt?^chrift f'r Privat ♦ und 
^^ f ^'^■ntUc'^e''? Heo'it der Gerg^nwgrt Which dev'-loo,ed into on^ of the 
leadinr ^lerrri'^n le'f!;al orr'"n!? ^m^' bec^me the mouthpiece of ths new 
/jur-trl^n Inw school. It waä ec'ited f'-r ir-ore th.'?n f'^rty ye rs - until 
1916 - by >'*nhut hir-elf ^f^ho mI«-» wöf v^ prolific c^ntri'^'Utor to it« 

An-^ther pione^^r in the fi^^d of th^ "' sw of com-'.eroe wqp Chwiah 
^oriFh born pR k'-^r Pjg l ^o (c"l-, 7^-1939 ), o-ofeppor ,->t »-he ^'niverpity 
of Vienna. -Ie u^-'de ^too^ the ^-re t tr^pr of adsotin- the famööB 
^tand-;rd orlt •Coin m ent a r zum deutsch en ■if^ndeplrepetzbn ch Iv thd 

- 26 - 

in -. clgg.^e \ nheitl lohe -ver^'i ^^^lrecht a d dp - r e ' in 193"'« 

A "Jion'T' r In t'ne r'oeher o"^ the Ipvj o*^ cotrn'<?rce v.'af' the Jevl^h 
born Ooicnr ^'If^ko ( lb?'^-l93^'^n nrnfec-or '^t the rniver>~lty of Vlenna. 

/lUfftris t-'^t the /iuptrlrn ver^'o'^ e qu al WdT^'T^To ro • -t '^ e 9 nnc! lucidltv the 

lled In th'-^rou^hnea3 cnd lucldlty 
orirln«! . Th'-p " " t;Mi'b»Plr l ro" . hocn'^C; n univorpnll •' re^^nized refer^ence 
the ' recop-'^led re'errnce 

boo-< for '^u'^trlan h^U'^'^e?» .gnd nr'^ et Irin l.^vfyerr '-■^i>e. .''ipko vrar also 

the guth^.r of hi?^ W Ce^ ^. tmc n " J e'n ' 1 .• : ■ - c^ e 1. r r e c ' 1 ^ r i l'^r^^ ) nn-^ '^f vr^rlouf? 

ir!(*5n^'^r nhp, n3rticn"nrlv nf th • orl^.?»''. ^t'^^^^-u' ^p (>'>terreh''^^n a l*^ ^.^ 

ptu-'y Day^ Unterneh men al.8>. . 

/il^o vt the univcrr-itlef! of Pr'ipue önd 'JzernoT-.'itz the Ipw nf 
comL-erce wpp trnv-ht by Je;v3. rrbnebholar^ . Ctiho^''i'Vf?nfe; ^tlöSP^piQT^Ii ( 165S- 

1923 ) h-.lQ th^v ch-^lr r^-f- a füll profea Ir of thnt di^ci^line, v^iTe 

K^jrl Ailcr \ XE^h^ - } , r^ut-y^r of .-üa*^ '"'rtcrrei chnj c he L^r^erh'^.ur^rgcht 

( 189^^ ) 5nci ..,-5 p ''rterreichi ?che .ech''elrc "ht v 1 r)04 ) bec^rrie nrofespor 

at the Vriverfitv r-.f zernov/itz fjnd w.a ? ele tcd Hectod ^f thlR '^nivenit». 

in 1910. 

The ^roblei: of le'^^l liir.ltrttAn'^c of C'^rrnctlti-^n wa*^ tre.qted 

pe r t, 1 c u ^ .T r I '• by t o Vi e nn o p 1 a w y e r ? •' ^_ln r loh /vlv;e ( « c e also p "^ ) 

edlted the u-^trinn low Gprninr^t unf- Ir compctiibtiäi'^n with a coffi:':entary 

in 193^» whern-^ .-rieh ^axl ( - Vl^ir-^ f^*'^^-i§"n"-.^n4ro'1^35' ($^5?tr(§>-^:i9f?.^^3P^ 

, ettbcvrerbf^recht "und G epinn unr« ^axl rol-ed ru h an inte^n'^tionol 
reputation thst he .it ran exil-3 ::lrcnd7 in 1139 in co'^per.-'tion with 
. ■igrry T ^ rrziner v'3 nbl'- tn nubli rh [ in ' re^eh ) thp ho'*^v 'j otioi^ 
de^ u °n<Tep '^■önn cte r en ^^-^ti^'^rc co::'Tr;erci'-;''e .. ' e c hc rch e en ör^ !. t compn r^ 
in Bru.s^elr. 

''Jone-^^rin- ■'^'or'' vif 81*^0 den? conccrnin^ co'oyr' '-^h" r , n^tent? 
and trnder-firVr hv yiirMT^t r^ttelheir^ ( nee on. ) -'ho i'^ 1901 publirhed 


- 97 - 
Pas £a t'atr!rjt!bnarri'-^gel7gc1y3( i.>i^t erratl!ich d-irr^'^tslX^t , hv r-ma nn afl dl e r 

""" "~ ' ^ 

.'- I . 

^Ü!5ier 'dlreB-'V rien'ioned wor> on trademnr'^'rn ^ f€ p, ) rermined the 
bsRlQ te t boo''^ r>-^ th?^ rriptter, by th?'"'^!' nnc -e lawyrr Poul Abet)I 

vrrl73 o"" ie^'l '^h . .l'jrirtp hold t/ic flr.':! r-^ni-:« Thev pub.^ected the law 

to ^? penetr:itinr cnnlv^i? nd interDretüonv'hlC!"! revetlQd th:- hidd :n 

qua"'.lt e*^ r^f th-? re"^orrr and preatlv ae^.Didntd develop the modern 

neth-^d bf Ibrocoöapec^ (C-(^etty p'^'t''^ ^tohfatek( ee -^ t^love p. • ; lectured on 

- ^r^ o:3j e , Cz^e nov.'ltz ind ^»'iennr; - 
three i3infctrtof:tDolvor'"ltlep ^ .-^bo^ t the -"e- ptotute snd conipoeed a 

Rerler of r::ono|Traphf? and art41:iönrtbout the sublect • The rr.ost pooular 

KoiEir.en tnr zur Zl'^? llorozGa"'ordnun^ wa*^ componeü bv Georcr Ncurcann 

i ) chpirnan o^^ a eenste o-^ the uoerl-^r Court -^■f '-^ienn^, 

while Hudoa^f X'Ql la^<: ( l^'^^ ) who nri-rinnllv n rved aa 

counclllcr • t thf- ':uprtirr Court '^f Vienn?^ ^^nd I-^ter b^-c^me profee^or 

of civil proc<: dln- --^t th^ üniverr^lty of Viennn, in hif cloa Ic 

^ . ygtefln di ^ " Ftcrreic'ijpGhen i vilnrozcr" rcc^'>' ■" ,^nt o -Iv offe red mo'^t 

upefnl intor-^retatlonp of th^i lfetw*^nt(? but i'^cic^e*^t^n v illuningted 

itn Inne- rtructuro» and the urderlvin'- orlncioles, 

2. CRi:.XNAL JURX'-PRU DdNiCi'; ^__ 

hlle thnnlrs tc the effortp of 'Juliuf^ cn^per • n^w irod«rn 

crlr:inül proccfJurc wa?^ introduceö in .'.u^tr-'n { r,c sbo^'e p. ), the 

the obrclste /nj^'-rinn crlrtna^ code ren«ine>" unoh-^n^-ed . The refo^ ^f 

tbe crlnlnal la'vj bcc^n^e therc-^^re one of Juliur Ofner/r r^ain conoems- 

i'erhocf^ in no f? ^here of hin neliysided nctivitle.^ O^ner'n r\Q2p huicanenet 

rnsnlfertd itPclf ?o ntr'n^rlv rn in hi «^ tireler, ' ©ffopfelc for the 

sbolltic:* cf of of-fenplve ineamrep onr; for the Introductioi of modern 

inrtitutlon^ i it'-^ the AuE^trln*^^l lerif^lation. The Lex Ofner 

- PB - 

i See above o. ) vrs? nnlv ^ne of thc vlt-;! in-^'^v^tlonf« for wh'ch 
Ofner f^u-^bt --^n the ?nrli«ment nnd b^^ hifi ever re^äy nen . The cre^^itlon 
nf 4'J'^'G'^il^' QoTirt nn-l the introduction cf ^rob'^tio'^t the i . )rove ent 
of pripon'-, the f^v relepcied conviotr;, th-- admip-ion nf woi^en 
to jurier; v.^ere fehEemQfntnfcnw ifchioüh he'-?pürh.utia T'it'i relentless teri'TClty. 

about cri'^innl l^w cind itn re^orr.i. On of Jbii"- eorlier't pamphletSf 
piibli^thc'J in lu9C , K fcrpvnrso'il^'p' e zirp -'tr^af rrf.Betzentwurf v;??r devoted 
to thif:: rubjec* -^»^d jt Ir evmboll. oni thnt the verv Tar^t liner- v;h.lch he 
write for public -tion nnd v/hich octij.l^|^Yl,v^ werc publi'-h(rcj only post^iumour; 
huniouPlTr under the title Ppychoan alys^e und Htr- f recht 3n?- C-trafvolT zug 
In the dnil' oviper i>er Kor'^en ofl 138 and 29 epterr.ber 1924 de:(^-fe,^lth 
Problems of crirrin-il law and its reform. 

A:p.onr the untrian cr'.nilnolopints of Jewlh decent, Alex-^)nder 
boeffler t 166^-1929 ;, profesor st the univer^it^^ of Vienna, ran^red 

ver;,' hirh. lls Incu^urp.!, theris, ■'-. ch nid formen df*- r-tynfreohtn ( 1895 ) 

wae the firrt corr.pnr t: ve rnC t eoretic^l urvov of forrs of r'u"lt 

ever undert^^Ten und oroved of Ir-Rtinr in'^l.uence • nnf-r-r "fir-^t" v/'inh 

owes Itp ori|Tln to Loeffler i^ the .)oum.9l Oeriterr eichit r che ^itsr^hrift 

ft^r ■ti tri^fg'cbtt» :t \-is^ founded b^' Loef-'ler in 1890 nnd eclited by hlin 

untll 1918. No mrrDZi^^ne of thin kinu exlrted in Airtrin revlousl''-' . 

Loeffler was sn nrdent proinoter of o r^:"^orm.-!torv trentment o^ Juvonlle 

delinvjirrnts. j-le devoted tä> thi'- quejf^i^-^- hiP book i> ir ntrafrc ertliche 

lieh findl unr ...'iU£:e ndli c he r ♦ 

••■r n'^t Lo'-ipinr i 18741.94-;), a brllli?nt Vicnnese fearri^ter, 


bec^ne s epecialliitton crimiinilor<z7oeeddlÄn:'. ua nubli^hed in 1912 hif' 

coirprehenpive C-er' t erre lohisghes --traf P roz eß pre chti r; recond edltlon of 

which 9p'r^e?Teö tv/ent7 yearp Intcr, '/hen, H^^^^A}''* ^^ -^^ vetirr nftenfarda, 
the ÄüntiTtcn ^tvtutG of r-rocerdint? - Gl.a<5r*r^ viov^ - \-iar aboli'^hed hy 

I ; 


.' . I 

l • 


. 29 - 

the iVazl replrre, Lnhsin^, th-^- acute annlyst of lepul proceedlnp*, was 
%o become a tratic victira of lawlcp^nepp llke l'^nunerable other Jewe. 
He wQf? depi5lt?t«d snd oerlphed In a concentration c?5nip orobäbly in I942, 

TStfh onlv Professor of mllltarv crlminal lav -^t the Unlverrltv 
of Vlenna Qeorslhö l efe^ eifi 8h orip^D'WFa also of Je-lsh oripln. He had 
served in the armv a*' "öutffer??! i\uditoi?'\ the hlc^hert ran^^ of a rrilltary 
law off leer j and become a member of the t'upreme Coi;rt, e wa^ the 
edltor of the /iu«trlan ^dli^a^v Crinlnal Code -^nd the S^thor of j^everal 
worka obout thlp pub.ject. 

^ rlmlnoloo-y, p^rticularly the proMemf of crlminal Inveftlt^otlon 
an :' crirrinal psycho-path^^lopy , were the domalne of the Vlenne«^e lawyer 
^ierfried Türkei ( ) . His bo^k'^', Die T^ rimlnelle Gej p te?» 

l ^r a nkheit { 1905 ) and je Znrechnungg-^yhi<7Veit bel'-n/r to th latter 
Bpherc, whlle Studie p liVe Da fl Aupre a l? Identlf iz ierunfy^p-rundl^cre 
( 19P7 ) were ooirtributiona t^ the development of crlrrinolopricol 

No branch of .lurifdlctio-^ i'' po expofed to crlticisn-; as that 

of the criminal court». ThiP war the cfif:e ep leclpll^' ■ in Aust^l' where 

an antiquated crirclnal code and a conser"ative traditio-! rave time 

and affiftnripe to diF'-aM. '-faction nnd bitternes^, It w??« not th- smallept 

merit of Jewi^^h Juriptn tha + from th^ir ronk^ came manv fiirhterp ap-^inst 

"the law*p deiav, the inf^olence of of^lce." ^n thlf! sphere, t^o < Juliua 

Ofner has to be m ntioned at the first place, iie n^ver pnt tlred to criti 

crltloize the Judicial System and mi^carrlaf^e of Ju'^tice. i'srticulr>tlv 

a<enior3ble ia Cfner*» c?^moaifrn fnr the rehnbilit^^ti'^n of L opold Hilsner, 

the vlctirr of th- rltual rnurder puoerrtition whoj»e de^th penalt^' hnd 

been comrr.ute'; in lif-^ imprisonn^-^nt . Ofner pursue J thip ntrufp^^l in 

Parliarrient and by publication? for 18 yearp. It war finally the requesr 

a d-%>>utntion of 

prepe ^ted b^"' ÖJ^raeK at the head of t ^e Austri^n Jewlrh Union to the 

io . 

Kiniffter of Ju.'^tlce, v. Bohaijer, on Kfärch 19, 1918 tha^ preceded 

Hilsner'f? amnePtv jrranted bv the mperor Charles?. 

Cne of CfnerS last artlcle? - publi?hed in Der K cTfren 

•"n uecer^^er 24, 19P3, was a rhar^^ denunol'^tlon o^ the inhurnan In^-titu- 

tlo "der 'ichiA«Äit<5SI entitlödtbhe Police to expel vho werf, found 


pul'tv of ven pettv offenceF frorr coTTrunltlef^ wh<?r': the'^ hod r^'^lded 
for mony yearsi lut >?ere not lep-allv dnmlelled Cfner f'tronp'ly adv^cated 
the abol-itlon of thlp arbiträr''^ praotlce - 9 demond whlch the ore^ent 
author rr^lterr^tcd In hls n mph^il-tt Recht und Unrecht d er Pneweigunr?' 
( 1931 ) devoted to the que«^tlon of exna"* ?lon In frenersl. 

A s'^eclal «'tudv would be needed to purve"^ the numb rle«'^ 
artlcle«^ whl H -icwl^h l^v/ver'- oubll^hed In oerl^dlcnls to the ourDo«e 
of •crutlnlz'np' lurlPdictlon 6n epcclnl cnfef' and apkln^ remedv or 
outrlpht reformation of the atatutep. Cne of the most -Tormldable pena 
In thlff reepect was wielded bv '^' alter ^^'^hde ( ) a dvnamlc 

Vlennc^e crimftnal lawyer. Hls devastatlntr paitiphletr Gericht ^^ber de m 
Ober?gten Gerichstho f ( ) and eterre i ch» Fr'^hllc he Aron ie v 19^7 ) 

were ^^atlrep In the -^t^le of H nrl Uaumler« . par^^ -cul'^r pl-ice of 
honor qm^n^ the critlcs of crlrr^lnel .^uri«"dlctlon ond lep^lpTstlon l*- due 
to H tligo Spar er [ - 1939*^ ), perhaos the wlttle^^t and one '^f the 

mopt popu 3r ^^U'^trlnn crlm^nal lawvers. A lebend ha^ be n wovenaffwiciTid 
hlm fully Just fled by his fenexhauntible humor whlch proved often the 
moat ef-^eotive iveapon» m hi p pnmphlet Di e Z''(re in Strr?f recht ,( 19?? ) 


perberuntiBfeliäd the c ntradictlonp and hypocrl'-lep of the prerftQ^eAt 

r perber' r 
criminnl pvoteT'« '^'either hJCÄ ^opu''arltTr n-r tSie dlparmincr charin of hi p 

hllgrlou?? nj^ture were, however, able to pave hl p life when the f?inJ:!5ter 

Pow . r that proclr>4rred wlthout fh^me the reirn of lle- PTna?»hed the 

iillstrlfin Republic. xt tooV not lonp* th-^t the br'ive firrhter puccu'-bed 

to the brutal" tleo he h-^d to 'ndure in the concentartion camp in Dachau 

- 31 - 

ivot n l8'"ver but Austria's ^reatept sntlript, '?^rl„ jv r sur 

^ 1074-19.;^ > ,broucrht Austrian crlmftnal Jurisdiction In the focu? of 
fie rroet p^net ?3tlncr li-lit. »ie enviffg ea the fr^llt'e^ -nn deflcienc4«a 
of Austrlan Judic^i-^l prs^tlc"- qp a oart of a penernl decr-', connplec ncy 
and moral 'ejaV^ies" . The courts and the Jud'-^eji, but no lep" th' lawyers 
and, above all t the pre«? as the pllant Irirtrun-nt of .^udlclol publ' '^it^' 
became the tnr^etp of hl? firaltotthlfttfloibd rel€ntlef?«,attacl^s. HIf flrst 
bo^k, : It tllchlcelt und KrlninalitU ■ (g coiUf^tlonl^l^'-fet^jfccaif -ptttlep 
publlfbed In hlp '^wn TPflpr^z'ne, Die Fackel. ha«=^ beeb c^l^'ed a flam!nr 
defen^'C ple-? fo>' the wexual crlrr'n^l '"ho bec^me a vlctlm ^f crlTrlnal 
mor-^llt"'" . /<'r3ft3 oc'^uned a llfele«'- ludlci'^rv, a »ensptlongllft pres» 
and a hvpncrltlc.'>l nocletv of a conpolr^^cv for the protection of a 
mendncious morgiitv and asked fnr a cter^rcut fepsrntlon of rrnr-^lltv 
and crirrinalltv , f«?«? the abs^ention of the courti from the nrlvnte, 
esötejiri^^lrlrlx* the sexual llfe of Indlvidual«. 


The hlptorlc?^! p hool ha« been founded bv the erm-in J-rlrt 
Knrt V« S'^'g'rrnv . but it was Joscf!fUünepraBd'''Juil3ltii''G^|»epr'''*ibop9ved the 
way for an hiPtorio?! tre-^tment o^ the Au^trlsn law. "Tiil^ »hhww^cey, 
the hißtorlcal appec* of the liw wa^- Incorporf^ted in U^p-er' 5» Syst em 
and in Glaser' f St^^gf prozeg ' »iDHnriTi Jewi«'h Jurlrtr made hlptor^' of la'v 
Itrelf ^n Indeoendent and »ometlme^ erclu Ive pub.)e'"^t of th^lr ptudftes« 

One of th-: luoFt out«tandinpr Romanl frtr; wa?» Kupr en E hrlich ( "ee 
above p. ) . Altho p^h hM €paaa3ttö*ngfc«t>fitrfcbot610fT;^ooJutfcwpv«[äetoe 
beeotop Mencooch making contrlbutlon to Jurlpprudence,( se b'low po. ) 
It wa«^ Jurt his profound ToT^wl'^dp^e of the Ro-sn law whlr«h heloed hlm 
to demonstr'>te the aocioloplcnl method on the In'^titutl-^nF! n-^ the ront 
perfect oncient lerr.1l gviuter. ii^hrliclh^g Hom^nlftic rtu-ilep onmprlpe 

- 3? - 

Bej^tr'Ve .zja.r_Theorle der Rech^gQuell en ( 190^ ) nncl Lie HB(g»fih^f "a^feeit 

tef^terrentum per «es? et llbram ( 1903 ) f Ai1[lii|>0«pi||^^ 

wori^ '^nd the stu^iv D ieRKebtt^ffHlifcfetefttt publ'y^'^ed in 1909 bp the openinp; 

vol^ire 0-^ the collectlonR of monorraph'^ edl'ed hv the prcf? nt wuttior 

abound in hi rtoriG-'l observ^t'on^ of the i^orrfiin and other la\vp. 

LVkc i^hrlich -mother h^Fitnrian of the Rorran la'.v, d ol*^ ber^er. 

hnilred from thetene^crirvjewrvwoj? bhpnAüiBtMow ionJfebÖfi'i.r.iiöiwd^' born 

in iöow in 1862, atudied there and t the Unlver^^it^ of i-er"» in» soecii- 

lizinpr, eorly in stucies on homon ani Graeco^ii^^ Option pnpyri .HHepjiiilAtÄfed 

iitfccn£tJ7tffeaife1bgQ^ft frnoäfentPapYrugur künden in 191? ?n'l become Profespor 

ofRc^sn lo'' 

at the UnAver'^ity of Home 1914-15. ^e perved fronn 1916 to 1^37 ar 

Secretar^^to the Polish Cepation in Vienno und wa?^ decornted with the 

Golden Ked-^l of Dipti^ctfton bf the Au-tri?3n Reoublic i" 1937» Htwvlrtue 

ä^mfei<hJfeJ?E6o?nflit?3ißier Studie rhe w««^ apnointe^ Profo^for o^" Rorran Law nt the 

French Univer'it^' in New YnrV in 194^^ f\r\r. vipltinn" proff^p'^or of Roman 

Law-QtttheCCttyCgJiliÄirel "^ i^iew Ysrvk. "er^er c^ntrlbbttea 100 Articlei? 

to i'auly-Wif flowa * s Realenzv^lopa^^^ le der kl a ssi schen Ale rtunsVunde . 

and publiphed in 19'"^ hip own £ncv<^lopedic i^T'^tionery of So r>n Law> 

etcoha n jjratloff Cbb in Vienns Ib^s, d •iai9*3erffien9tndt I9h2 ) 

taucht Roman Lew at the Univerritv of Vietona fro^ 1703 until 1936. 

He produced a serie«? of oriprinal hiptorical werk?. The ent^pk^tö^ixm 

social aspect.r- ir g ch-^racte^i stic fenture of sorre ~f th^rr: 4'-^ K er^t tthifl 

de 9 Vol k prechtea 'n den rorrnnl vierten Cgt g eovinc de r r^^m i pchen 

Kqjserrei c hgC 190 3 ) : £t tdienn zur r^inl'iior**Dg*n] l^e c ht-^g^^fchi^ht e ( 19?^ ) ; 

i^er r^mi f?h e t^t-"-:t , und «'Hin? internationalen b ezlehunrcn ( 1 9 P8 ) 

t'Qg^eggi on in den ^'ehrift e n de r _ r"rri riehen Juri'-ten ( 19^6 ) : 

^' ta-^t und Ge Seilschaf t in d r römisc hen Knipergeit vi 933 )* 

^-'o^i alo"'litl seh e Ko tive 'n d er r^ cn .• n He r> h t '^e n t v/ i c kl un ^ ( 1933 ) 

iiran; loffwa" alro ler'turer '^n the Collepeof Comrerc^ of Vienna. 


- 33 - 

Hlp worltp on the sfcbje-^t.« whlch he t'^u^ht there r'^mprlü'e Le ' tffiden 

der H4it.fri*.miCfir- 

ci er o : '•Irr^-eiclgcheri -^erfaflun?y^kunde { 1 -j^OSi ) seoond edl I9l4 ); 

Re^prien \m . ünte h-^lt'^recht unc Vormu •^gcha'^t'^r ec ht ( 1 9 SS ) t 

Beforrrien und Hefortr VQr8 c'>l^>e nuf dem Gebiet de- Priv-itr e cht^ und 

^ivllprozeg'^rechtn ) 193^^ ) Thu«^ Br-isrloff- a tlrle'^r au* hör whos'3 

eapaye nd tre-^tle-^e cn be found In hor^t of Ic-rood mnfazftne'^ - 

1 even In the ver" l't ve-^rsoof the Re public w?3r anxijous to contributr= 

^- of 

to the reforin/OflPtttntlJiwt^But when the N':iz!- '^elze'' power in ustrln, 

he wap forced to ret're. In Knrch 1939 he wis» fleprlved o'' hlp ppn elor, 

In Aupru't 194'^ followed the deoortfitlon to Therenlen?itridt . There he 

draftdd alre:3dy on Februarv ?6, 1943. 

rt^mlrlaup ^Inel??? 1(11 ), li^cewi'^e profe^ßor of Roman 

law at the Unlver^it'' of ^lenn-^, foundecl the periodlcal Galug whlch 
war ecluslvely de'^^tlne^i to the ref?eqrch on thlfl dlpclpline, 

T'-ie hlstnrv of Germon law, too , ar prreatly enrlched bv 

i§i»iiÄ?'iQ&*lA«§t^-ii'ewigh o1>rJrtÄT3 ^Irmund Adler ( 16^3 - 1920 ), 

aabbrttbjpro^f Victor Adler, the fnther of the Austrlan Roclal-democrtAlc 

partVf waQcpr(bfetedrtifctnt)aeoö*"ttJerhttto«?rcV3jenn8 and concentrated malnlv 

on the hl 9t rlcol development of Au^^trlan law« '^^e of hl? rl*?clplJk 

workgt deitlpO JP'Qnisatlon der e ntralvei?waltu>^g K-l^er Ka 'Imilan" 1 

auf urku ndl'ch er Gru^'dlnfye da ro^estelll; ( "'68'^ ) deii&t wlth ndmliilf^tratlv 

ireaff'.irep of thsLl^tl>t9ryr ^ axlmiilan , the -^ounder of Aurstrian unlt^'. öf 

ÄdTlteri rother weok;^ irav be nnentloned Zur Kechlg^eg chl^^ hte dea odellpren 

Grundbe sitze p in Oe^te r7^e 1 ch ( ( 1 )K) P ) nn d i^le Unterrlr> h" ?ver fa ? ^ »m f_ 

Leopold« II ( 191? ) 

L^n-^^jV^'Eull aoldimann ( n._JLn_Kirlfbad 18.72, d. In Cambridff^ 1942 ) was 

Vof International reput^^tlo-^ in manv flrlddf. Me delved deenl-'^ 'n the 

mo?*t controveplal or'^b''em8 of Gerrran law h'stor' -^nd often arr^ive ' at 

and llnirul-^tle 
p?urorl5lnf^ renultp bv tbix ethnol^TicatViw'-rtiftndtidJn of the pouroep. 

h';?! he fpr Inetnnce d 1 f coie^yreii elet^entf? of mp.^ic in varlol'^ -^or'^ s of 

. 34 - 

medle^.vol oatAilfe- The Italian sch^^lar Devoto has r^Ied Gol imann 
"ll maffp^'or reroepientnnte del rrlurlatldel mctodo Tln<yul ' t^co." 
Gold'ran ' f5 mlnate f^oe-^i^alizcrtion leci to numer'^up orl'^lnal nubllc^tlorr^ , 
llke als Beitr^/ye zur Oegchl^hte d eg fr'-'rn^^l^chen Kenhfeep ( 19^4 ) gnd 
ChrenechrudaC 1931 J, dealln^r wlth the rnv <ier!nur> Chr-nr^chrudi cerem« 
monv -'hl oh tue man who comnltted e ni'^^elsu^'iter ^a ' to perfoas'ip^ 
Ooldmenn contrlbuted olao nuirier'^us' srtlcle^ t^ the t»ork of r-ferecne 
abo'^Jt (Jerma'n superptitlon , Hnnd^ ort erbu ch de*" deut^c h^n Aber.y louben si > 
üoldma n, o man of rrvat. p rronsl ch^^rn^, b<?cnme one nf the ir.ort 
belnverl rind pnpulnl? profesrors of the l«w faculty nf the Unlver^ltv 
of Vienna v.'her- he tavrbt fr'^.m 1903 to 1938. It vrap lue to hlp Jewloh 
orlp;ln that he hnd to w«>lt :^or the st" tue of -^n ordlnarlu«? ur»tll 19J2 
whenhe reached hlp aixtle+') ye^r» Llke i3ra.Sf=loff and hip other 
Jewlch collengfe«? Col-mann waa depr Ived of hlr» profesrorphlp b.y the 
iMazl {rovernrrent in 1936. li'Ut he received'n the rnme yeor r. rndlorram 
ff^om -r. ij.i\. Selp, Hector of the Unlverlrtv o-^ OpIo, Invltl^-ig bim 

to lecture -t thi^ flr^t Norve;:?lan •nlv^r'^ltv on th-- hl''tor" o-^ German 


and trurc-^lo^y In ••hlch sclence (roldm nn h-d llVewl^'e excelled -•^'nd 

be-orre ron^wned hv n serler of publlc^t^ onn . Alth-urh aoldnn m thron-h 
fetieblBffierventlo^ of Lord Cecil vras err^ble ' to comr , In companv wlt'i hlf? 
wife and cowor>er, Rosn Goldman^, tJCXTJWorsc to Enrlnnd, he wr^r prp^^ntfedd 
by ttte outhre k of the war In whloh '^'orwa^becfiTio Invol^'ed to procerd to 
CeTnö. ie fäwnd refup^e In <)Mte?4<äQ&^ jrti*^dlhd:i e!fe?#^n thp ptret bv a#l 
hefirt attac'^ on i-^-^y ^, IM?* MIp l-t-'-r^rT; herlta^^e hap been ocrulrei 
by the_Mor^lr Fpii^rmugeij^m in Jy^doy nearOelo, ^"<^here 1 ' 3 h-^^ be-^n »^ade 
ac-esslble in 3 ^^oecial ronm t ac'^olars and to the public. 

/km4ng the livinp* h*storia v^ of uerman law,_Guido Ci-o' ( b'-rn 
in Pra^ue 1869 ) belon/rs by hie blrth and by hip e61!sett^nn\.A J^rmue 
where such eminent Beiff&ah3^8caolaes;-;ly , , Krap«noptol«ki , r^n^lfrc^^tobete 

- 3^> - 

and Bruno Kaf^.ta h-ve taucht to tht; nrblt of /iUstro-JewI, ^^h Jurl'^ts» 
Guido :vl8cht the non of i^iej^ende^" ^Isch, - dii^tinruipehed rabti of 
Prn|Jtfte , has become eru-gllv prod'.'otlve in the reolir" of both ^i^ri'^prudencf 
ond Hebrew lore, a r-^re, Inderd, a unlquc ca®? in tho hl"t'-r^' of 
modern 413**^*^'^^^^®*^^®* ''^^»^'^ t^^'ir'ht hir>'orv -^f t'ie GerTir3n l^w a^ 
Professor -^t the univerpitier n-^ Leipzi^i K^nicsber-r an' H^lle until 
1933. ' ince he le"^t UerrT^an* he hse b' f:n ß'^tive ar q T^ipltln^ orofessor 
of Ihr- Jewiph Institute of Kelifrlon, i'^ew Yor^c, -nd from 1 )'=^P t<^ 195'" 
a« orofesaor of l«w at the bniver^^itv of i3?^el. :il? nur-eroup bo^T^-s 
compripe Ptudier about the v'err»an law andJewi?h hi'^trv. ^n one of them 
ouido Kisch haF, Rtr.'3n,ffel^' eno c^h , ?uc'?eeded in wßWnff '^t th-'-: ffarne tlme 
a n) Jor contribution to the hi'^t'-^rv of the German la- iri wel^ gh^ to th-^t 
of Jud!?i8ni. Thlf=- studv, lÜY^ e Saohgengpienrel ?? n d the Bible. wsp an 
attemptto draw th a' ention of Anerlcan Bcholar-' to +he rro^t out- 
ptsndin^ Cerrnan le^al work of the MM'le Arrep and to hir -^^Jthor, E-ike 
von Hepprowf and inc^d ntallv the firrt inoutrv ^. »^to the relntion o^ 
thrt Gerran law bo^k to the ßible. heren? th'^ Gcr^'^n hi''torinn«=? '^f law 
had denle^i to ^^ik anv knowled^e of the Blbl-f Klf?r»h wa« nble t*-^ prove 
that -'ike wxx hap be-n orofoundl^' conver'^-^nt wlt'^ th« ^crloture^, that 
he even empl^^c'doral »^ewlPh traditi^n aanone of hip ^ouroe^' ^nd that 
he mopt prob' bl^' wa^ In personal cont'u't with Jewi?»h s'^hol^r«. The 
fitud^' MB"^ publir-he ". in i^otre i^aine, indlnn'?!!^ in 1941, t'^w »h^rw^w^ 
Just in the ve r when the "final Solution r>f the 'Jewiiph que'^tlon" wa« 
resolved in th.' heart o^ ^eriany the crentive «=vnth?i8 ••''-»ich wae 
e??tabli'^ae'j betwen Gern.^n law an^.; *^udöirffi bv the rreatept {^erman Jurist 
in t'ie thirte ^th centurv. 

in the sphere of thu hi'tor' of moocrn civil law tne mo'^t 
important wnr'? >?a' perf^rF;ed bv Ju l .up Of er ' ^ edi + i^n of the Urentwurf j 
( Be abovs p J , xn the fi*ld of criminal law, Ale xander Lo e f ff^r rin his 

."^.ch ulci formen der Straf recht '^ ( eef above p. ))tracecl nl'^o the Ti'^^tr* col 
orlfrivi - -r the Tl^rms of crT.n!^^^\ <rullt, Incluclinr' thore of the blbMc^l 


A iv rtlcul-'^r Pklll. -md oriri^nlVtv wa'^ ex-ill)3tec] bv /^ij-^trinn 

Buthovp of <^ewi'^h oriprln who cultivnt^' tho hirtorv of oub'^lc law snd 
of the ohlloEophv nf l.qiw, Rötere-'ler ijoethe^e rtudler ^vll*' bp marie In 
connectlon wlth Ihc- sun^ev 0:^* the BcholnrTv actlvlt.!er reinted to the 



?f}i fii?l^l§^flth centür- aav/ the emero-^ence of a new acicnce: 
aocioloi^iy, . Ithoup-h Auruat Comte rrave the PtronicFett, Impulr!© t'^ m?tb dlcal 
»Studie!? on s^clt?tv and ev'-n orf? ted tho naT.e ^oclo"'orv, th^ tr^deteShdett 
dif? of goclo-ocrv wn^ born onlv äf tt'ffeCoratc ' 1 d'slifhofhöh^^f? to th^ 

ploneerinrr worV^ o-^' Herbert ^"o-^noer \n 'i^nrrTnndj^ ?nuT jüur^thnim In France. 


of th<: man sr»hoTar« Kerldlmnd Tö^-^nie«?, l-'n-- W^b«? ind the Germ-in- 

Jevlsh Dhllo'^obher nenr?» '"'Irrnel. It war, howe-'er, l*:^t t«^ .Arutrlan Jurlt 
Jurl''t» of «^ewi'^h orl/r.ln not on^v to Intr^duoeth^ new doctrlne to Au'^'trl 
tut to apolv It to the eoflrnltl'-»n of Law. T ett ef'^rtr orÄcrede ' In two 
dl ''fer'^nt ilrectlon'^; On the one hamd , th- orlcrln nn'^ '"unctlon*^ of th-^ 
?t%titev;«rr€!Taölce?Bno^]j^e^-tof eoecial studier, .u dwjo- Gunploweic ^^ ( see 
below p. ) p-ived the wav In this? resoect. On th- other hand, the frenesl« 
of^lrfral preceptp and the nue'^tl^n w'-» t 'er ^ff repre^^ent the onlv nurce 
o-^ law bccare a iratter of Inveptl—itlona . -t vrap in puTEuance of fh se 
Problems tF\e the Focio''orTy of löw--Bft-r fr XG cll-^»-cc, wn'- trrnted . 


it Reen:n plouribei thnt «Julius Oi*^ner, the fl^hter for a soclally 

orlentfiified leplrlatlon, becarae th? 'ir-ccurror o' t'i-^ new sofcinif- pclence of 

law. He avoided, to l.e pure , th*- term "aociol.offtÖalindlietJiJTodrerred 4^olndthea 

veln of the the»^ prcv-^llinp- oredilectlo 1>^ npturnl science - to advoc-^te , 

• 1 
the "in uctlve n^-tnod" In .^urlporudenoc . Ofner c^nFiderfd the .^urlrpridenc. 

- 37 - 

whloh llmlts its^^lf to the Inter^lJrttttlnno^ t'ie law '^nlv as aopöribf 

^f Jutt'PtdiC sei Cr*.* dlfferlnr 'rom the In^erpre ^tlv«« lurl^prudence , 

an f^th( r kln.] of Jvlt't'i^^^^^^^ccifcnce had, accrrtfln^ to Of-er, ihr ta^k 

to inve^tl'-ate those meons of "a^clal mechanicr" v/hic', Wke recompe^^se, 

reward, pevipcnt, puniph^ient t ere able to p^r'^lvf?? ?otl-'n9 impairln|ä^ 

pocial peace. Thi? klnd of Ji^rl ?prudence '»^ould c^ntcr^jct the gb^olutl^m 

of the pc^itlt l3v pnci promote it? re'^orrr. ^ts tapk wne actually that of 

leggl polltlcf' ( "ueoht ^'Politik" ) » but Of^er endeaverrd to trQnsfppm thla 

political TCtlvity into a ocienMflc preparfet*nn '^n-T forrr.ulatlon of new 

lawr 9.nd to Incorr^oratc such g diaclpline - the "'"^oclal Techfcol-^f '^''^^ 

f s^iaalÄÜI^ÖJÜÄtÜ } an he terTed It - Into the bov ^-^ lurl ^ ^rudencp . 

iie fls^red there-^ore nlro to loclude It intf-^e ptudv plip of 15hpl jpr&(§**?(2'=» . 

Of-er de"* l'^e-^ted In a aerlep nf ep'-flv«- the p*oalr whloh wou1.d ha 
YiBve to ^6 re.gched 
hsve to be ree "he<J bv the ^eoci??! Techno! oervV" A*- ßlir*"r»ta'^ 1688, he 

developeci in hls £t udie n ^n^jg ler Ju rl °orudenz hii' d mnnds for thrcp 

bofilo rWhtp: to live ( ün ? R eblet 'M3 l eben ) . to '\"-r»^' ( Jn*^ Hecht ^uf 

Ar belt ) -'nd to oltaln the füll anount ^*^ ir'>»^ **^oroduoe ^ 4^ r Hecht '^uf 

d en vollen Arb itpertra •) . In thp er)'^ch of rlrin«:' r^noialism ind social 

od''^'^ cnt 
oolltlc?, '^^ner thue became the mopt c^nsequent of whot he hi^'clf 

called "r-oclal law" ( i>ng sozi ale Recht ). -t the f^jire tlme -^ner 

c-^nceivecl ?nd - 1-^ n le^ture - RribcTottJigdthe ideg '-^ n univerpal law. 

After the pattemorf ilillel*?? fqmou? dir-tn^, Cfoer forrrulated hin on 

cnncent of ruch a law a? 'ol'ow9:"Ac+ fnithfullv, hnve oo-ifldence and 

juntifv confidence: this is the aumnia of law/* it wrjs not only in this 

lecture that the ^ewi^'h bac^^prou d of üfner' f? per^onnl:tv nnd the 

inepirrjtion he hp.d received fror: JudalR-r beere m-nifert. lthoU"-h ■ 

ph.^rplv opppsed to tlionien , he declared tn ffeiettprttiotUie prtd.e.^ tMtq *** 

§ *ia]a i^gr9C,l 3lwrtt<fi^Qrohetfae-bo??n':Bi4:Ta«ofeWi?;h7l^thiblPt!hda^w':i '^ f'^.v above 

Buv other snclent le^lf^l?tion bv the lac'r '^f :^i ecri!r.i^''tion bctwc n 



- 38 - 

bebM^iby nnl corr.non me-', between rloh an(l oc-r. 'iriDlly, Ir» an nrtirle 

oubllnhe.i onlv t'\re ve^^r^ h-^fore hl'^ vie-^th, fnr;>" Je^ned hin cre-lo 

In the aenten^e: "Lo^i? n t'iout luat.loe turnn e^^r^il"^' int§ aenti ent^llt'^', 

nor is there m true Justice wlthout love." 'Vhw^ Cfner nn co^"P5c1oij*=1v 

proolalrrecl t;e bar^lo t-:nets of «Judol *- aTmort llterallv 1'^ the a-ime way 

ac cnly rTi-^^t reeentlv H'obert O ordi s ha'" 'lone In -n pafl«n-e of hlp book, 

The .ivQot o ncl the A:Tan^-'i: " . ■ > Jurt\cc- ••'If.out Inv^ ^ -^ v ^n^e ' ulneg^ , love 

wlt;jout Ju^t ce rp'tlinent^illty ." 

'"^Ith t-^e fe'vor cf o Hn.l:'5<£fcc«..tiri^i^', C^ner ->^^r^ued hlf? se-rch :^or 

a ^nclnl In:;, uf^ln«? r,ll t,h^; rrc-anr -^t hl? dloop^l 'indj^in llvr; bv cre.gtln.T 

- In 1916 - 

^^'^ Oeee],Xpc aftf yrr^^oli' ^ le^eBhtht. y in co^')er'^tir>'^ wlth th nrer nt 

wrlter --hr • t the f-undln'^rV.3iktftfTed(?t!l4ve^er1lth^O eotnteg-NioBtäee^iyilnyrt^ 

Ke chts'otTtur ^n:\ bec^-^.e the :Io ^ . Sccrrtarv of the ^"Clety. ^'h ""cclety 

for s^clnl law wa? actual/'v afücce? -or <^^ t^e Fre i »^^ Jil rt*^ 1 1 fe cTote ^„, 

V ereinl'^tjn pr f hiit!J^f-»J?9 9bi^4tJ^''te ' bv the orr^ent r^uth^r f«foPv*?t5tlhtA»or^r.ntc " 

a contsot of .'urlf- prüden ce wlth eccloloo-v, ppycholo'-y '^nd phllcoph^'. , 

"Itilln th- fra r;ev.'or^«' '""^ th^ ip"^c?l'»tic $ thev-^uthor nrr'^n^ed ^. oeriep o"^ > 

psyc 'olor" cnl experinentf wlt^ the ouiv)opp ^-^ ifi^^^tl^'3+ln' i'^to ^he 

aenpr of law end 'jurtloe. Oheeof fttb^e^ exner lytif^.t*^ w?ir c^mblned wl'h 

an exoerin.ent on the depop^ti^np of v.ltne'per. An exorrlmcntril doul le 

oth r rf leri^etd gi- Jüdere^iÄ ) - war Gr^Binire^^. et thrw^ffv^'^X Ik ©tf?vlVl?5nna 
ÖHnüaWöfir^ Ihf M^uo^rl^v ifl^ierr^n 

The roclnloric«! trcn^' in Jurir-prucüence f^und it'= moot outrtandlnp; 
exponeT>t in mF,^r^. Ehr lich > one of the bricht '^t^rr In the <^rld of 
Aur^trlan .jurlsoruaence. -orn in 18^>'^ in Czern'^wlt^, Lhrlich beo-gn hin 
un.:""errity cnreer -t the Univer?*t^^ of Vienng. ..n IC 7? he wnf? called to 
the Univerpity of CzemoT^'itta a*^ profocnor rf H^^ nn Inv. •''^(•'^e he did hl? 

- 39 - 

ploneerlnr «tndiep on thf- socinlofry of Isw »Jhlch n-ninecl hlm lnter>iatlon*^!l 
repiiit' tlon. 

ii'hrllc'''/ ^ e-irlv works dcHt -vlth civil ond Ro^-m law ( nee above 
p. ) 'j but 'ilre-^' y in 1,303 hc publi «^'hed hlr r t ud ^- Fr e i c ■ \e c in t r ^ i " d un g 
u n d 1' r-g 1 " ' ^e o h t ^ h' .1. • " ^ e n g c h -i f t> # the battle cr.y of the Free Law i'^over^-ent. 
in quick «u;?ces'^ion followecj In the ve-r«? 1906 t? 1911 ?? j=^erles of 
£-hrllp^'r wt'ifiln^r on the Free Lav; gn on the new sor^ioloric-^1 rrethod 
0"^ Juri F prüde ce, porticulnr"' y ^ die ;.^l^gte e^unö Juri '^ orud^nz ( 19C'^ ). 
DX e Tan^ch'-n c : r C e ohnhcitare-'h'^^r ( nn ar'areTr dellvere.i bv Ehrlich 
on the OCR Ion of hl^ In^ju.crur'^tio'^ ?n*5 Hectot? o^ the Unlver^ltv of 
Czern-wltz 1*^ 1)07 ) ind ^ie :-. rfo rschun-~ de- l^-be nd^n Hechtf- ^ 1911 ), 
un 1 1 1 In 1 9 1 3 h rl 1 c ' ' f^ ^ t '^ n d n r d wo r i^ » f, Grw^.cXerun r- der ^oz'. ol'^'?r ' e der 
Hechte'- npnenred ,t(tjnbt)'^foll^we ' in 1916 by an'-^ther ir^Jor worV, 

iihrllch'? Grund leyunff w ar po^n rGcornlzedraJ^ the clap'*lc oregenta- 
tl'-n of pocio'.orlcr::! jurleprudence rir).cl sroureJ th niopt vivld intere»t 
In hnr'and and eFpecjhally in the U.r-,. « Hrrdly an-^' f^reiir»^ out hör in the 
aphere of Isw h9F been Hientioned pp öftere -^nd wi'h preaterr adirdr tion 
in the hir-torlc c^rrepr^ndenc of f'rprCme Court Jui^tice Oliver »'^ende'l 
rio^. :ep and ^.'rofes'or »^ntrold J. Laski t-i^n ü-uren ::hrlich, : peaVinj? of 
French and Cerrran lep-^il orkc, HoliTies doufctr "if any of therr. have the 
Quality of iJ^hrlich^Jg;- not without ad in<i "but hc Ip an /ustrian" 
i letter of Sep* . 4, 1916 ), while L'°kl, in hlr l-^^ter o^ Ja^u-rv 13, 
191c, reportp that when he dipcu'^'^ed wlth i.o'^c^«^ i'ound pl^ns of the 
f)cw EGhooihQtlHprvar--^ , he plscedf -?iiionp th^"- lepol philo po phers , 
t-hrll ch at the firrt clace. — 

r'hortly fcefore t'^e o^'tbreek o^" "'brld 'v?r I, E^hrli^h hsd besn 
Invlted to eome to the U,:r\ . in order to dellver n oourpe of leoture» 
at the Lowell Cn«tit'Jte and to .-iddrear the aj^-oclntion o*" ^rce'lcan 

- 40 - 

Law r:chool'-. But 'he war frur-tryted thip pla^. .«and a nv^vcT'^ attac^ of 

^t di-ibetes leö tn z^hrlich^ p prerature de-t'-' on /iprll 1, 19?- 1 In the 

same yeer one of hl? Inr-t werk'*, a brllliant summnr-" of hlp f'oclolcp'v 

of Lpv;, wr^F pubÜPhed In the Harvard La'^v Heviev wlth e iTi6vinpr, 

apprerlotion <^f i'hrlic i's perennalitv nnd v/ork b"^' Kos! oe P'^undornitttRg 

ii^hrllch ag**one of the leoderp in contenioorarv sclerr^fof lov/.*' i-t wa^- 

alFo Rnscoe V'ound wh- wrote th' i "'tr- uctloti to the P-nrllPh edltio'i 

of the- Grunälerun- whlch opoesred 'n 193^ under the tltlie: Fn^d qrpr:'n t8 l 

PrlncJDler of 'he r ^ c i^l">gv of Law 

in the fcraword to t'i"- *^o -JLol o<rv 'hrlloh hlr^ael-^ deflne^i 

the substnnce of hie d'^ctr'ne 1-^ the sentenor- th^t 'it nresent q'^ well 

ae In nn^ ot^er tir:e the center -^f n-^'nV't'/ ^f l'^.'^l d«velop7;'-nt llen 

n^t In le islvtlon, n^t In Jurl'^tl? nclenoe, nor In Jud.^cl"! decl-^lon, 

but In societv lt?elf. -lihrl'ch wa?» th ■ flr'^t jurlrt wh<^ not nnl" 

pro^lalned thtr prin?lple, but d-veloped it Into r"'-totmtlc t enrv. 

The tfu'^d.i'L .ntr^l dlntlncton underl"lnr thl'^ t' ~or" !« 'hat brtv;e n 

instructionn framed In worda rind nor-n" v/hlc^ jgctUDl"' ' conr»tltute 

aoclnl order for whlch 5:hrl'ch hno ooinen th^-^ ter*^ "ll^'ln'^ l'^w." 

vV'nlle the modern Jurist undprttnrl^s b^' thf? vford law src-ner.qll"^ onlv 

the le^al nrovl?l-n«i F^hrllch dercon'-trgte's thot t^<= poci'^l or'-ler 1° 

not onl.v older thnn the lepr,:^! provi-^lon^- but that It ^ontlnuen to 

functlo'^ nd eve^ iT.aintalnF Itfi •is^-^tlve "1"* nf Ictnoe .^loncr««ide of 

the le«^al provirirns, 

ii-vcn the le^'-al provlrions ar*', sccrdinc- to thrllh^, onlv 

partl" crc'jted V"*' the Ipc^lnlatl'^n " ' the f^t^^te, bu rnther by 

Judlclsl dec' rlons whlch pfter the renoval o-^ the^oo^^eefipentlnlp 

throurh the actl^.'itieF of thr: Jur' pt" a^ un;c th« chorpr^ter o"^ leral 

provirionn . -he rreat marr of th^^e prcvielor^ ov/e t^^r^tv.rfx: thelr 

orie^in to dicputec to whlch nlrea y exlptlnfT- In'-titvitlonF have rdven r 


- 41 - 

r) ne . lo It ip b\9o today. Even now IhrolefTpl pp^tttidjnB^ sre rarilitlrv 

crent.ea by Judiclal nnd Juri et Ic law. T-cy ar^- ^^ct frülte »^"^ flrpt 
thoufsy'it« but e'^terthofe-iitf . Khrllrn po'nt« to the gapliftittr' nophlf-tr" 
which trie'*' tn orerent the'-e nev; le-rnl provi^i nr -i'^ 1 Tr^rr an •. nt r-ontents 
pf the Ftr«tutj?rY law. 

Thibi '-•ciolo^lCc?! spoect of the l.^--.- l'.:d t^^ irrnortnnt con«e- 
quence«^ in t'ie ?pher-^5 t&^ttjupf'^i^üryfi?*^?"- •^ndl*?'^'-'! nraofctte ;Th<ß"^öldi?fv^ry 
tbütr^htfeh^-f^v 1« bg^lc'lll^-' a fu^ctlon nf «ociet^' Involved t-'e de^nnrl 
to ipverti '.ete t'^? or'^cer'i ^^ «-n^h func^tl'^nin'^, thy of the 11 Irr^ I'?''; 
In f amll^' jCcmmiml «rrounln -| ,r)<?p«?ant llfe« etc. -'Ehrlich founried f^r 
thlp ouroorc q rp'^??!^! peirln'ir pt th*^ U'^iver'-I, t v of Cz<»rno'AM tz • ^^^ 
ctre sred n'^ le^p the Im-onrtf^rK^f* tr> gr?nulre ^"nowledr^e of th^ u'-j^ffe«* 
re!t- ted to c^ntract«?, prtlcler of 9«®oclöt3o'^, decl^r-^tion^ b^' In-t 
wliln, to the (?n'>rfflc?ai!'^nur^be^ '^■'' n^'-' formr cre*^ted bv mod'^'m co^'^eroe 
and tho"Sc9nc;r other nhenomen.« of rooIq! life# 

The sool'^"' orlcsl reth^d rnrinhed "n'-.l , to f'ome derre , trnnp- 
forf^ed ^url't'c educatlonu'^ttö^Q'^t'^of la^» becoir-e obllflred to Ptudv 
cu'"tor^ ^n r u^T^ce«^, gbove .•311. Ju51?l°l r'-port- -ml ^r'lv^t?^ documents» 
The rA.ronrrr^^t iFTip?3ct war, hopver, ?.rerted bv the ffoololocv of law on 
the Judlcl^ry prn'^tlce. It wog bv no teesn" a ir.ere colnr^ld^nce thst 
the fou^^der of the roclolo«rY of law V7a? '^t th'? pnrre fme the l'^qder 
of the "free law mover.ent ,** in ^nct, th« vlew that thr wrltte»"> law, 
the stntutee, renrcrcnted onlv p, ^^fr^^er)^ o-^ th Irr^ led bv Irrplicatlon 
to the perception of the inndequ'^c;'? of ir^er'^ pt?tiitnrv low for 'u^lclal 
dec -loTip, ; hrlich n!?lntalnecl thet the Jud^^e PhovOd ha^'e the rlr-'-^t 
to reco'^nlze thnt there ?5re In the r-trtute Ipcunre vrhich connot? be 
fllled by conf^'truotion.Htfe derrmded thot "^ le'^ol ru''e vrs'^ +<^ be treibttdd 
not l'^^e " rirld d'^'-'^o but IVre a li^'lnr en^^r""^', nnd ^mphnplzed p^rti«» 
culyrlv the oerronal elc-rent of lerrl declPl/^r"^. in one of the mo'^t 

- 4P - 

ppleniid p-^P^apep of hlp n ocloio^v ehrlich hne dep nribe.' the actlvlt'^ rit 
x^cxkttdtxyVdhjrxk '-'hlnh he deeiuecl necefs^nrv to rn-^Vf: Juf^tlc^ effective iJk^^äa 
novk of art w cht thouffh «hnoed out of pocial rrnter^olp» neverth^-lej^s 
receiv5f? fron; the «^rtl^t th*'^ ??tf}[; '^ of hi? whole per«onnlitv , " 

r.hrlioh'n' imoact on Jurl^oruden^'e wa'^ crreat ??nd laftirr^. in thö 
H'ibtÄsuljÄPltdtnntfiell OBprolally on a "'er fe^tlle j^oll. r'r^rtiou' arl 
Karl V. L^F'-ellynln hlf? Pr^' ^ludjzlenrechtr ^rer'bun- in Amerilry^ ( 1933 ) 

oubllpheci in Genien, cre^ted a work in the fashton of -hrlich's doctrine. 

1 ) 

m .'iupt^'i?? PT\ Ceor«y »urzel, a oron^inebt VtSf^h<?^^lisrvepr9Rnd Juriitlc 

'^f Jevlnh orl ■^i'? 
aDthor,'^ •^'-»'^rtly pfter the apoear^nce of ü-hrlich'p l^reie Reoh tr»f j.n duny 

und Freie i-y. er*ht "'-^i^^eng^ oh nf t o ublinhe:; h'' r vorV c^0Ta-^^p M^tii5? o^e,JÜp^]?feti^i;Q 
which too beonne n rruch di^cuj^ed d-^cu-^e'^i- 4f the "free Inw movemeit." 
ItPtsec^nd edition npoeared in 19'^4. in the anne yenr urzel nubÜR'^ed 
another "•'•"udv, jJic ^ ^ozinldynannjir dep ^ e cht r^^ '^ ^i^rn'^d to of^e^^ q llrj^ 

betwfC'^ the oontrndi^' ■' in'~ th'^orien r-f* ^.g^'. In Ce^Tr^nn'^' H u'-o in z hein^er 

outrtandin • law^er n'^d or^fer or of the Un'verjc^ltv nf F'rnnVfijrt, TlVe-» 
wi'^e o^ Jev'l.p*'^ de«"0'nt, welcorred enthupin'^tlcn"' "^ v 'hrllcn*'^ new sp^ro^ch 
to law. Ine '-^tltimTp^ ^n th? found-^ti^np l^id b^; hrl'ch in hin own 
ptudiep ?>nd Dnid trlbute to 'hrlich by includln- hi in hlp remerkbllie 
wo r k f J'Vlie c'^e K l ojt'eiVer der deutr^'hen Hechtr^'irren^ ^h^'^t i w he re 
.'Utren iihrlich, ^lon^side <^f Joeef ünrer, Juliup Cr! aper and Georp; 
Jeliinek ^ ree below p-). ) appear?; ac one of tht? 1 UTlnnr' " r od 
^iUPtri.?.nn JiJri n.ori;d ence . 

IX. VI I^-M;^Hy L .G.."L/>'rOK:-' 
CJlvii rl-hts and libertv rerr ined -^or fy l^nr tirne the orimar^' 
concern o"^ of /i!-atro--^ewlf?h oolitlcianr ancJ j- rirtr. it wop Josef Un^er 
•who decl red that he wns« born in 18^8, but that he x '-nv; the 11 '^ht of 
the World n"^ l-'te ^j? 18''^6. Two men of •'ewl'^h ^rirri^, i^r » ^dol-^ jg c hho/^ 
8na A>r. Jo aeof Goldm n rl^ t both physicinno, were the lena^dre of thee 

■v . >. 

revolutlon whlch rr.ade Ker-h 1848 s 1 ndmnrV In the hlrtorv of Aujütrl«. 1 

Koreover, FiBC'nhof'e prop-^salp "^'^r ^hn'it4(Fn8r!lr'pötnnoaf ^f-^ti^nol rlr'htp ««^ 

were the fist at' empt to eolve the cruclal probleni of t^e Au'^trian 

€fflpj)l»pe -«the ipatl-n- I quePtlon^>r ^-Y le':^l'-l'^tive n^.eans?, 

Th 4ninet\er of the n'neteenth ce-:turv e^'A' t'^e ri«?e o"^ the 

Auetrlr^n 5oci=!T-i)€n;ncratlc ü'^rt^'. i sny of Ite leaderr were <^ewo. iU.n 

-Althoutrh t e rro^t out?? tändln nmon/': therr, Dr * Victor .dlert who wa^ t^- 

l^yp*ö6«ni/:ed a^ th- frither of ^he- •v^cinliot m^-ve-rent in »viPtrln, wap 

a r)hys\c\n he: v/ar f'ollewed bv a Innrr of Jewisi ,lurti:ts v;ho plnyed 

a dec'^lve role in the pnrtv, it wa^ '.nde d the^', -^bove -.11 Ot to br^uer 

to r» rr-p^pt extent hnve 
( Icc2-"*93C ; ond Mag Adler ^ ■1g?3-193" ). who cre?te.i the soe-lfic tvpe 

of i-ocMisn., calV-ed Au-^tro-I^-^rxlsm. in hlf» rsln v/^r^r. D l^ t<at l 'n-!litaten « 

frs.<re und die ' r^ zialdeiiioVrot ie ^ ), Otto b-^ue^-, In the veln of 

iicolf Kischhof , ffiade con^truct ve sugr-estl'^n?' for th- Constitution 

of multlnotlonsl statee. 

-^'Iso l-ndependent Austria-^ Jewlr»h thl^^'-er'^ --itte oted In the 
eec ^d half of th : nlnete nth ijeirtur- to '="lv t ^hurnlnc- cooigl and 
!3oll*lcal pr-^bler o"" the a^^e bv le«»*!! ce?--«. T eo do r IJet t^k a C l'^4S- 
19P4 j 1 Viennepf» ecnnoTnlst, in hi-^ novel Ire ilo nd { 1£ X) , e^-« l«ed'tlon 
1891 ) ^utl'ned a or^Ject "^^^r the s»t:^bli ^h- ent in Afrlc of n flti*e 
f^undedon t'ie orlnciple '^f oubllc land owner-^hio. Dtf "^erin^- fr'^rr; thls 
utopian eche-'-e, thcideas and ef 'ort? of t'-'o rrmat rnen Vv-er^ dir cted 
towar «^ imr^edi^t" f'uridfijKvntal c'na^'^ep« Althou"h one of t'^er wa- no Jurtt 
8t all, law '.var th^ir coir.on in-^tru- nt. 

1, 3rQ; ag.^:E[in^PER^EKAIKviiv-, u8 

L'V ' h« unlver r^llt-'-^f hip «TiftP, J^sef ^^'<Di?oe yr( b. \n 'iolin, 
i>oheiria, I036, d. in Vlenn-^ 19P1 ) rescnible-; f'^e r'^:niuf=e-'^ of the 
Henais'ance. lie excelled lo ohv^lcp an- t chn " op- ' , r:ide Äarly inventlon 
In aeronnt tio? an-i compo?3e fofci-^-itlMirf phlloc-ophlcnl ^hort ptorlefi. 


i 44 1 

And yet -ni the^e a(jhi ^ve.ent . werj^ e^J^.^ bv^ r^ 

ftTHffe '?/T2«^'d^it--en (5^^ f ^r^ '^iH^^ ^^ 'all 1 1 "uc e . 

In contrsst to other uto^inn'-, Pooner dld not dreqm of a new 
fiociet^'. -11 r «ur e Prions slniec3 nt law« whi. c*^, •'ille to 9 <*rra*- extent 
comp.'^tlble ".»It fne exi^tin- er' 11 order» wer? to b^- auperpo^ec"' bv 
p:::rceful dem^cptlfc orocedure on the v^llri lern!, p^- ^ te'i^t-'ooner viüp forty 
yenrR 61d w'-'en he pu'bll^^'hed hp booir, i)^9 Ke^ht zu leb^n ij^^d die Pflicht 
zu Pterben { Porth ed • 19P4 ). T-^ere followe^i Jn 19C5 the pr3mnhlet 
-"'und?:^! -nt el-K-"" ri'-U'rn ^tat'^rgcht"' and In l-?!*^ the BilnT:;r'rDte work { of 
813 P^^ipfen ), Die nll ffemelne '^^^hrp fll cht al^ l"?-urn- <] - r f? ozI-:^Ien Fra/?^« 
The tltler their^^elver^ InUlcate thi? lekt^llp'ic ch^rMC'er of Popper* s th 
thin^rlnr» '^e conpicTered qp <3r) e!»eentl?l taric of lefri'-''. 'tic to f?e^'ure the 
phvploTl exletencc of ever' per?on, v»ho 'jrrd ho'^'/ever he or «he may be, 
by provi^lons for his; or her llv Tlh'^,>u ^n-1 Inviolnbi'' Itv ♦ '^ for tKee 
latter, "thcrirh' to live" hsr, to be f-eoured ifnln^t ^^he dutv to ^ie" 
vhlch Popper founä inher^nt "n th«^ con-^orlptl'^n for wr-^nre Ini^olvlnr the 
v"rtu9l c-^irpul-^lon to 31«. Popper vi •-unllz'^ * the rrolocerren of con- 
poriptlo»! bv voluntc'^rv enll^tment for wnr dut^'« Th^ cgII of the State ^or 
volunte rj? rho 1' be 'he on^v irr-i^np fn** recrultln- "^or y-m^y 

A'? r^:f-Br(l9 the brösle reoulro-^mtr f^r llx'rllhood, ?opoer* p plrtn 
embodled the ler'^l '"U'^r^antee of a mlnimuir for r;nbrif?tence and the eß^entlal 
culturoi need?? to euch member of the pociet^', frori the erhelle to the irmve , 
Thie !DÄ}*nl!:um vjhlch v/ould seoure ever-on sr^i^ft the viclprltudep of V 
life rho'.'ld be oroduced nnd pdy^vlde^^ b7 -^n obllrntorv 'uboirtence Corps • 
After the corLpletlon of one ' s ter?!] of pe'VlC'?, evcr" Citizen wou~d be 
fre^ to p'irtlc'ioote in oc up-^tlon^ niu orofeFcions chooen bv hirasüf in 
free enterpri^e, in order to orocur^.; the better a;nenit*es of life« 

- 4^ - '^ , 

Popper' f! schrrr.e fa^clnj^ted rran'''' ?;nd Ted tn an or^"^lzef3 Ra|rVi!^f)i>ti?fnt 
for Ite regxi^-tiori . 0-n th'^ other hp,nd the d'^rln^^- pro Ject vlth ^h-^rp 
crlt Icj p m^Uthouf^h It^ f-^iled to becon:e D.nterlßl^ ze^l , it helped, however, 
to promote the iden that eocial in.]u tice hp f to be 'net b"' le^irl^tlve 
nieano# voooer'p ino'^ct on the oocl*5l l--,rlr\ßtlnn In the direction t^ 
a welfore rt'^te irey be co p'jred wlth the inf^lu n<"'e ^f the "re^t testhers 
of natural lew on the c vll Tew.ii«nooihtrtf«^t to F.'^rxl'^n noclv-^Tism ^nd lin 
Ofirreeir.ent with the philo '^ophv of enliR-htenment ( h-"*?*» /^reitest repre^en- 
totlvei Volt"lre, bec?2rre fnr Pooper, hip enthi)^. nptic od 'r(?r,the s- bject 
of a ppeciRl bic-^rpohical Ptu<iv ) Por^^oer made the Indivldunl hu-^an belnir 
the Center '^'f hif^ le^gi p^an?* ^■■»^oTr th1.p indlir1.:'iU''5llP'''lo vie-v, he derlvedf 
however, ic^oB^petol deflnltlon ^-f" hl- le^ipl^itive nirrf?. Thun In the h*ntorv 
of the n'^tural lav;, Josef i-*opoer*p avstem rril'Thlj 'y 11 be described a? a 
systerr of the n")turnl la^-/ whlch würpuep the hnrr^onlzntlon of the 
soverel^-'nty of the Indivl.dua' aid social Justice» 

»v'hen iheodor in 1695 published hl«^ hiptorie onniohlet 

i>er Juden g^^r.t « he added to hl £ name on the title p fr« the denotntlon 

"-oct?or der Kechte" ( woot^r of law )• The adUtlon nu'^'^epte that Herzl 

WaR gnx'ious to e^3';h2Slze^hl profeF^longMefritlnntlon to deal with the 

probl^anmo^f pur lic Iw ind the lepal ohordcter of thr: work. hut apt^rt 

froiu the prorr.ln nee (7lvent''U9 to hl o Jurlrtlc defrree, -ierzl left no 

doui:t that he oonniderecl the lef!:al strueture of hir- project-ia^ one of ht\t 

ita mo^t l!T;port.'^nt, fenturer. 

The Inst but one cha )ter of L)er Juden ^ <ti^'t „v^hich Ip entltled 

"-oclety of Jew^ an:: Jenlrh "^tpte: Nerotioru Geptlo," ooen^ an followst 

T ^ 1 *^ OQiT'Dh et 
Thle pimpnlet in not intenc'et'' for law^^er'^. I c-^nntherew- 

fore touch onlv curporllv, ??p on rrnnv oV^'T thln'^r, upon mv 

theory of the lesr.?! bnrla of a St<^te • i punt, never^th' les^ , lay 

some ntrer ^' on mv nevr theor^», whlc^» c^uld be r'-' Intal ned , I 

i beli»i?e, ev»-! In dlscus'^lon with men well verned in 

Juris prüde noe. 



- A6 - 

There follows nn explanntlon of thlr theorv whlch Herzl pharplv 
dlatlnfTuiFhes from ot er cur ent theor'. en. Ihccorönrr to ^erzl a Ptate 

1^ forved by b nimber ^f roennüji^lteci uncler pover^i^-'n rule . i'l.thoup-h h ■ 
rec p-nize« sl^o thc ter Itorv nr f3 "fnundntlnn nf th^: ^.tste'y^ thls 
ireteripl bp. pIp of the. st^te se rr« to hlir ir^t of deoi^lv? Irnportnnce. 
lie referr ' nrly to the soverefepnty o"^ the Pop«, "perhrjop the mo 
moft reeoected in the world," as to an exnm'^le o"" a poverei nty which 
hap no ob.K--"tlv^ baslfi et all» 1 -..:*, n^ thr unlfx^lnp ^^overel-n rule 
only a Ithnl'-'iriet'apQrtf rfoeo1?ft1re<!8ij|ln^Ier^*f al eopcfct>1i'<nftfea.e,c©Aot^^ of 
4iheli!fto(it(tfe"tTan:nrrret4'x^^^fe ptire^fde#nrtnt4c\lwhtlbbi tSontl^Ülle'ß liise 
•ADtftdwtfehst'-^.fe iul'tiblreelbfelffwr^ent fcrTüilh« croittfit'-^rtB^Ifelftkewlse 
In the Ideas whlch Herzl put fovward rcf-^rcirr" th-^ or^^Gtion o"^ thae^^; 
Äcwlsh ^'t-te. 

/: purelv 5^jrl?"tic lir^ti tutlon, the "ne-^- tl'>ri3r^ c-e^tlo," apperired 
to Herzl ?^ the Inptruinert by whlch p oe':lrh rtnt«^ -^onld be cclled ' nto 
exl5:tence. The conceTi>tt'^tfft'bllitrlftptltutlon b^lrnrr ^o the cl'''!'' law« 
"The Krrrranp, .wi't'^ ''thilr •-fflcHvifi"loüj5roönoe'.Vthf1t^t&bl(?''ridet35rpl-«cä«rzl , 
**prodLicod thnt noble msteroieoe. 'hTn prooertv of nn op^rrfed perron 
Ip in dsTT-er, ony nan m^-y steo forvrnr" to savr it." A oernon ßctlnrr 
In thir- mnnner w-p5 deplpr-^nted r "«i:«.tor" - th: direotor of the affilrp 
not "trictl'' hl« ovm. This Institution of f-e r>mnr Invr v/hlch bv itR 
Incorporntion In th ? modern codes contlnuec t^ b^: 2 positive law, was 
Gp'^lled by Herzl to the public law« Llpperred 'h-»^ou-hout th world, 
the Jewr,wdrczl rfilntciined , v/ere prcvented fr^.z conduotln'* their 
a^'^'^ivü theri rilve »^^ , bepl-ier, thf?y were in n concl'.tion ^^f morr. or lesp 
dintrep- in rrany part*^ of th worJv3, They nceded thcre:^ore ,cj reptor, 
This pe^tor, Herzl erp-ued , could not be r. rinp*le indlvidual. ^uc'^ a 
onc would elther ir^a^e hiraelf rl(^icuTour or - v. ncc he mirht "ppe-'^r 
workln- f^r hin ^^n pain - cnntomptibTe • The /re'^tor of the Jew^ vrap 


- 47 - 

tnerefore to be a corporate per^on aueh bs the "Honletv of Jew?'," 
anoth^r c^ncept of Herzl. 

■Ve knn\f th'^t Herzl n-^t onl.y co^^ceive-3 thip Jurl^tlc fhorre, 
but that he, in fnct, put It Initt) oractice. -t i'^ onlv wlth rsferende 
to the theorv o^ t'-^e n'^oH'^rte pr ef^tjo thnt 'lerzl * ^ '^'^rrour prophetlo 
e '^tr"' in hir L'inrler? of September 3» 1796 cnn be or^-nerlv underptoodt 

"'er-'^ I t^ pum up the- Bgsel '"onTer'^ In .<3 Word - whlch 
1 pholi r'u^rd afninrt omnoCincinr publ'ol^' - It woulc] be tiil^J 
in base^ i founde-J t^- Jewlsh fate« If 1 nald thl? out loud 
t<"dr}-", 1 T\'oul'> be anpwerfd by univerp^l l-iu^-hter. i'er'-^npc in 
fl^»e year?', nnd certRlnlv in fift^', everv-^ne will ^cnow lt. 
The found-^tion of e ':'tatep.ic r in th >'ill of the ptrople Tt a *■**" 
ßt-^te, 7er, ev~n In tho^ will of -^ne suf-'icientlv nowerful 
Indivj.dunl^ T'i^t'^t c'««"^ moi - LodIp IV j. Territorv I0 onlv 
the m-terifBl b.^"l '^»t^bef^ttte ,even when It pos'^es^es territory' , 
ip rlwnvf? rnrrethirl • abrtroct« T-U: Churc'i tateexlr-tr even 
wlthout it; otberwine th Pope •••oul 3 not be «i^overei-n. '****' 

I'-^ Das^l, th'~n, I crerte ' thin obrtr^ntion which, gs Bucht """ 
1° invirlble to the vn^t m.o.^'-^rit^' of p*rople •..1 rrrndul^ll'/ 
wor>c'.l the n'?nple in th'.' irio-^d f-^r a rto*e g^d made therr, fec?l 
that the^' were|l.tf5 i^'atlonal j'^spe'ibl"" • 

Herzl even nften^r^rd'^ did n-^t ce-qpe to cnrid-^r hin theory n,f 

thg ng'-^tlor u rn r e r tio d-^ the ba«lc not Ion of hir activltien, Ina letter 

to Lud wir Crun Ol o w 1 c z 1 1 hte e c e 1 br a t e d Jurüt -ind g-oiolorriöt ( 930 bf-loe "^* 

np. ) ^^ ^erer\jer 11, lfc!)9, ier ,1 not onl"" exorensly pointed to the 

theory, but er.phatlcally rtrerj-ed it'^ differono?? fr^m other the-riep 

of tof: stnte nn<?^ proudlv pU'-.'^ested a scholnrlv dif?cu{?rion of it. 

Gumplowicz' n rc.:)ly )lhilenÄ»o«n:tin^Gltoto n utter r: J-^ctin^ of the 

^ionlQt inov^ccnt; XMt threw a füll load of c^nteTot on Merzl^s 

theoretio-^l viev;^. "Yo'^ want to create Ft?te v:itho t blo--^' f?he ' V" 

Gur.plowxz nfVed. "Vhere h?ve vnu ever peen vun s th'^^- '"/ithout force 

fir)c^ vrithout cunnin-^'. Po verv oncrilv nrifi hone-tl"' - on rh*-'res7" " f to 

f^e n e-^ti' -' n;ift ^'^^tio . G-urolo-ricz did not re-^er t^ it ot all. Thun the 

exchnn^e o** ther^e Tierorplile lottern r-i-nlfief^ l.x>tb-Ktx the clnsh 

bet^«'e n the ^loni'^t -^nc the appiirilrftt^^nirt jnrpect of the Jevrish 

quentl'^n tod i 'cldenta^ ly ßlro the enoounter o-^ the lefroi] 

4<f4| • 

- 48 - 

emplrlc??! Interoret^tlon o-^ the «»täte, sonn to «com*» r^flecte/i In th'"» 
the .lurlppruaence of ""hlp pohere ofläww, 

iierzl up to hir en;3. 'hen he, on ^'^)9v 19» 19' 3» - nbout one venr be ''ore 
his de'^th - in -^ le'ter to i.r. v. r"'rber, tnc. /iu/^tri-'H ^■'rlme i»*inl'^ter, 
af='-:ed for -n Int^oductlon tn the *-'ortun-i)ep.e .■ni-'a'^' ' c3?5r , 'i^^ re-echoed hir 
favorlte the-^" 1:.7 c^:>T''lnT hlT^'^ If ''a fort ^f tt rr'in ' p l'-wr^er for the 
UT^ortu ^9te ^>eAV55.'* It wr" bv Te-^Ql re^Ron nr^ t/n-Tt ^erzl enciervored to 
virnilCcM'-e 'ilP '^t^ina fr-^r^' tho anpolcion he fe^^red niort - that of belnr 
ö utoolan. ""-ilr re.T'^on'^n'^ wo« bfiped on the oopit^ve Tnv'. -Iet*xl ovoidecl 
in fart onriurlf t^ hsre 'b^« clnirrip of the- e 'i'^h '^ opl:- -^n the 
natural l??v' or on hirt^rl^^'^l rirhtp to l'^e .]u?tif' ^-d bv the Iswlea 
depojs^eGFl'^n o^ iprn'^1 frorr Itp lamj. -erzl''^ concent —^ the if^e^dire-^ti-^'n 
o the Jev.'irh ^tote rcvct^lF hl® 1 rprlrlative f^c^nlur: thnt abllit"v ^f 
"plün'inp^ -^ut ^f th-^ oresent d«v," whlch, acorJ'nr to ^r-'^nz rvoFenzv/elf^i 
con^tltutr'' "'lerzT'^ ^re-^tneP"." 

Initi'it pernpective '-^f l^te:" ev-ntg, .ier:3l ' ^ iden thn+ , u'^Oer 
Bpeclnl cnnultionr. nn nrrin^z**- mlnnrlt'' of -} nntion v;erc rrntltled t^ 
e.yGrc*.re thfr r'^h' ^f '^otlri"- e** a tru tee of th-. entlrj oeople f^»re- 
rhfjdowei .?.ll t -e or'^vl'^ionnl fTove^^nentr w'nio l-^ the c-^ur?e of t e 
two w^^Td w"5r9 and aftervnr'd'- forr^.d the nuclei o-^ Ftatep in the 
rnnklriT or rc-TiaVln^T, 

''■^err w;^'', bo^-^e'"'?^, in '.ierzl ' p un.lver ?T rrind,9'^F'^ roo'*' for 
3 bro.nd vi-'i^mr^' de'^if^n '^f n new pocIc. t^'.- i" the '^urpu'inoe nf ihepe 
plünr? 'vhlchhe r-'t fnrth o-irt I eu" wrlv in hl^ l.^ neulincl t -^erzT wan 
pi'ided b'^' th' i':^en of pocial ,1u tic* no le'^ th.'in hl? .iUPtri-;n-Jewl^h 
cor\tei:(^r':r^^^^^^'^^.^r\hB^.'^ , QdÖne^' and ^opoer-liV^^^cup . and w lile hf^ , 
thG well trnined ^^l^^trr. had^draw hi? thenr^- for th? cre-itinn of the 
JewiFh St te ^r- rr: the dar ic ik^mnn l?r', he war well a'vsre of the 


49 - 

Intemr'tlon«! lov: 

i (in not holli>»e thn*: the i.-'eop''. e f t'i^ ."i'^ol^ hnve Irept 
r^llve '-1 lonfy =«nd under so much RU^""e'^ln'' in ordcr t? brln<' 
h"^me t.-^- new m**,?'r)?^ of t'^-^tn -^portntion nnd co ' '■unicntlon . 'Äai»ltiba?r 
rr^- ^nlnpr rr'UPt be qttnched to th' anF'ul*='h of cur ir.uch torinented 
r)er\p^e* A vearnin^ f-^r .justice», for huTa^**!!^' rcu^t be In up and 

we niu^' Betlsfy it i'erh^'or in doln,^ "o wc rhall 'Iscover 

f^rya'"late Into re-^lltv t,h*^ o '■'ibilitv pf r'^ci^T iKijrwflre- 
ifien'-'' whlo'i can be o*^ value a*' ^o to ■ hf-' tnilinp nt"! hard pre **^ 
preapeo of other n^^tons, Only t'ien rhall we be true laraelitea. 

In th - re ^lii; of Au^trlan Jurlnprudenc^- publ ' c law becniTie a 
favorlte cUsclpllne of luany outr-tandin.^ Jurlp"";;? of «Je'.i' <=h dencent 
whose worV^; on thi^- f bject not only prnved nf utrro^t Irrxjrtance but 
also beoame onrtf? of a coherent rae-.nlncful. devcl.ooe^t. The't produc41 n 
t^ons for-:. nn uninter^'uoted llne^ ntretcnin^- over rmre than slx decades 
up to the pr-pent dav. ^oreover t!ic t-ie-^rle'^ the expo- »^d cnorl^'e the 
wldef't dlver'^ltv o"^ viewr from one exttre^nee po-^ltion t»^ rl-t'f? exact 
dD;y)pf fCi^ cmxxil&mjf^ rt , 

irerchsnt /Voraharr, Gurrnlnwlczi a Tr.ember ocf^ o-^ n f'-r.iT'/ o*^ Je'\'i«^h 8Cho''ar8. 
i^ et'clv about the lesral st-^tu'" o^ the Jevr in Pt5"' ">'^ ' > written In the 
i'ollflh Inntruefre f was, apart form a stu(3v cn thi'e iatt -liill, CuTplnwlcz* s 
flr''^t public--^. tirn < 166? ;, Alien thr^e writiii'-s were not acceoted bv 
theut>flli?4rrnlt)paelr'>rakow op a rufficient bs'-i-^ for the hablllfettAon , 
Guinplov;icz ,who h'^ö becoire an attnrne^' 1^'. th'.- .ne^.ntl.T.e , en^^ra^e'^ In a 
struf-'le for a r»t3icr<l and llber?! i'ollFh nsitionalipm. lut he tuirwed 

later to the wept anü eucceeded In beln;-^ adrritted a«? laoturer at the 



üniverrity of Grr.z in 18*?6 , ^le wa^ appointe'. g'^slnt'-nt orof-^'^sor i 


166^ and füll profeo or In Vödj* ,§Üir. -^lowicz ••h'- ercbracbd C-.rlst,lanlty 
and reir.a'ned attachsd to the • ollsi j;;::tion "Lndul/re'] In a Pharp 

- so - 


j»-<»» mmM 

fnriT'ntion of the inb^burr ionnrchv Int.o -^ .fe<c^?rrte'i t';u1Jj.o^-^ tion-'^l '^*::»te 
a>^dcorreotlv f'^rep^w ^p the unav - Id'-^bTe al'''er»^,9t. Ive ^-h er^rlf^nc-' of 

i'ranciera, ne- Go''dn]n^'i, wh' hnd lo.ct her '^l'^ti ^n Au^n-^tl^, 190;9. 

Our:p^owlez hnr the r;erlt of h^>vln^ be.--n one r>f the flr^t f?rhn1.'!re 
who have extrlo*- ted pf^nfcÄÖjlory fror kld^rdr^ ^ ttüSier. ile endenvoreJ to 

9re u?ed l.v the n'^'t^.T'^'' «»rlenc^" nndsoti)«!:!'' n'^rert?»;! tha' *-h^r Inv 1p 
ldentlC'l-'-' the I^qr^'lnlgr In'«' '^^rfofyr'p^irvVtrn'j of t^e fit-f-entf the 
8nt.^'«*öni«^t^.c '"^Ubl^öt'tp of +hi r ^truf*^-le ^^"^ p\)rv\vn\ beinr T^u'^Df^otot 
Inälvldunlr . tirnMwI.oz oon^ir^er'^ +he hl^t^r^' nf the ^tr»-»- , JndC'-.vd of 
the vrhole clvlH 2Pt.lo>^ , ?ir n^ utlf^^^M n*" '^tru'^le bc^twe-rt c!l''ferent rrounp 
whir'i hr c"'"'*^ rr'pff, « ter^' upp''« b^' hl*^» hnw i»pr, not in n bio.l.orlc«)]. 
8enf?e. The ptüt«= c^re Into bcln' vhen'^f herrlrren '^UDorepred 
popia'atlonr r-r oer^ü^ntp 'nd np' pmed rel-n rver ther. it l'^ the- enpuinp: 
contentlor bctwe n the rulliT" r.nd '^ e ^^ubjnrr'te clnrr v/hich lesdp to 
the crentlnn of law vith the nurpope to deterrine thc; bar^'ierr of the 
dor.'ln- tlor^nf ^r)(- prcsup bv the other'^ . -u^ v^hlie ^^uTplowicz re^-n^cls the 
State 2'= ttibeon^i -ouroc- of lav| he d 'ev'l'u denlc:? ^ny ^^ijrirtlc -^uall^lt 
tlep tn thc rta^.e Itrelf« "Thr? pt't? Ir no Ic^f^r»! i^-^t Itntlon '•'" C-umoIowic, 

declyres crite^orically,! bi r Gepch* ^ht- d^-r t -^t r;t->enrj^gy^ ( 190s )♦ 

"it Ir ■ mpo-'-lbl^^ to '^et arrv irr^'l^ht Into the ohenorrenon of the stnte 
hv Jurtitte iriethod^.":!© d-flnep the r^tot in hl^^ /^llfyemj&infg Sta^t^re^ht 
( 1907 ) ^r "3 nntur>«Tl"^ -ro'n ( Jjr^'^ohrlo-^ ) -^r-^nn ; n;itlon of dorfilnlon 
intended to TJilntnin n certnln loc'nl ord«r *'*^'"^^t ^he pt=jte doe«^ not me^p-e 
In ths Ic'^^l ordert b^iw nnö len-r^l '^rd^■^r» .^re for th^-; '^t','»-,e onTv niennn« 
Gunplowlcz ött,9ct* and ridlcuTe^ the Jurirt'^ w^o are tryiriF to 


»■«*►■»-.•«•»-. •••« 

to revevpe thlr: pmce? bv vlev;lnp' V^e ?tr:te — n pr^^duct. of tne l^w. 
T>e iT^tlon of fiuch a rtwte bullt -^nd rsintainec] b^' ""he low, of ^he 
il£rlii£.Pl9''.L-l'' sccirdln^r to Cm-l'-wic^ - utl5re con-tru:^tlon . ^ie 
ll>ene:j th^: edfoTtt of t'no^e vho tre^t the Ptate Juri pti««llytto -^n 
unclerti'^i^^ • of -ne v'io v uld trv to ''eat a Beethoven eönatß wltn a pdo- 
spoon." ^;:t n-^t:iwit:;»tandin^* hl^ ne/r^ti^''^ '^f 9 Jurist' c dlsclplne 
of the publ'c law, .'urDOlowicz dmpcrlbecl hi? own «^-ociolor cal f^tudv 
about the ptnte In the fl Pt ed^tl-^n i Ic?"' ) with Poilopophlscher 
Staatsrecht --ndil^"^ the fsec^nd edlti^n, publip'ied thirtv ye«r«^ later, 
even wlth B llr-e jikIt ine p :::tg -it pre ch t-» -'monsr h'i r num^r-^u? ^rk«, al.po a 
volucninouF tex^ho^-1^ sbout th^^ A|>strlMn oubl 1 o i.q-v, J?^^, Oepterrelchfe!?che 
Staa t ?reo ♦• { lb9T ) oan be f ou'^d , of v'hic qn e Inr^^ed edition was 
publis'^ed in co-per?^tinn v/3th R. Dif?choff ( 190? ). 

Gurrplow ■ cz * ° theorv becaine a t-"oic ^f 9 worldwide dipcup^lorl 
In v'hlci t'ie <^re te^t Fociolofrlcal thin^er'^, qf x>ur>helni, Tarde and 
-Iminel , pprrttci pated . dir 'vor'rp were tr-^npl.'jteü in m■^n^• Innf^UR'^ep, 

In iimerie:^, 1^6 i-^ ter K> iarö bocaiiie hin üevo^ecl fol"' ower .Fr gnB z O<t^ g»gti^itey 

the outntanJinff- erifan-oew: sh ec'toTnr, Jev^lo ^ed hi'^ own '•xxtj «ocloloprlco» 
s.YSte.L on the b«slp of Gur.plowicz' -^ iue-^B ann foooer.ited wlth a y Ad Ter 
< v^ienna ; An ^\ invorfrn- Uk Home ) in the- edition of a rel^ction of 
^•lJmplowicz* ^- Works in -four volunes • ;ic:i 17 ve/^rr ."fter the «la^ter's 
aenth v/ap srv-nped bv G, >olo)non ( i ■ ankfort >. in Auatria the theorv 
of Ciuriiplo'"; et n^.t en ambl-^ucup "Tgte. hilc the roololo^iPt Ougtav 

Katzenhofe r erc ^ted äonew w:; Foololr.cricil rvrteir r^r) the foundTtion? 

• uptr ^ nn 
laved bv Gu'plowiczf the Ir.t'er foun;3 no -^ollow n* ^-r.on^ the JurirtF, 

to'.i-h, SB alreqyv m-^nMoned, L^JL-ML^IJC recorrnic'edhhtr p : srnif icnnce by 

port^iP^t-'i'öin'tin thc^ edit4nn of Gu.iolov/icz ' n '7ork<'. ..ii)t thonclte of the 

Opposition wn'c'i Guinplo^i-z theorv inet a^^n- th ' Au^tr'.an and oer vin 
juriltSi "li" i riu^mcc. on the th^or^' or oubl ' c law Toved -trorp- ad 

- 5 


Guirplowicz' s count.erpnrt on the ch-'Ur of public Inv -it the 
linlverlrty of Vienn-i vr^^ ( pince \bU\- ) the öKl^riehtbo^nich böm 
schol?3r, .Ado'' .f >-cnzel i b. In r^elch' nber^lc"?! t3 • 1928 ). '-ie wnp 
Kector of t'i^^ Univerni^v in the ye.-ir 1915/ 1''^» aorv«''*'"7^'? ca?!iffnfeiin:ef 
feheh ntgg!bgJ^piKun'^p-KoiDiiiigt-itori "'BrV3 In the era of th^^: AiirtrlanTvCi^eoubllc 
8 3 Vice -^^e fielen t of the Ve rf ^g, spto >;? ^erlchtsghof .^ x^eiazel ' a first nifijor 
sndhi«^ inaln wor^c in the rohere of tho popitiv^a l'm w?=ir iif'jde rbelter«» 
X erpJ che^un^' nnch oept'-" rrelchlnchem Hecht ( 1893 ^» the mof^t cOiTprehen- 
pive preoentation of the obllrrator" Inpurnnct. €^ the wcr^erf, Lgtcr-o 
on pu-.l'c lov, oclrdniFtrntion snd philorophv of liiv; becnme his 
orinclpal aphereg of interept« ^Ip th-^rou'^h icnowlcVe of Gre< k hhifetcy 
and liternt'jre en-nble Kezel nsrticularl.v to de've deeply into ancient 
legiorl order an thou.'^ht« /inother fav'-rlte pubjc-ct of .'.onscl'n vtt^teva: 
wac? Splnfizg'n dnct^lne of the nuM'^c Inw« lie cnn^ldered thls doctrine 
of the -^^'e^^'lBh phllopphbrrnef?"one n-^ th^^ mc^t orl-inal phenorrieno in the 
hlnt^r?y9? hur-nnltiep ( Gel rt(^ v;l'^peri PG'^.9-rtcn K^cnzc^l s'JQblt«-h!:flha 
Serie r of rr'^nofrnphn bnfi7T©rf»p$8^6dnftf1 \910 U'-^der the modet^t title 
I)eitr'">e z ur '"^cpchöhto <^qv ^^^-^t^id ire 8 hir^tor-- ff th3 f-^ecrv o^^ the 
State ,a?^tuall.v a hiptor- of the Ide-^p otI? t^übltt-^lev; from antiquity 
to his ov/n dav. K'fenzeaofl&faonolirDl}&r1o»nr'tlr>u' arly the deci.r-ive infli;enc(;, 
which r.:pino5is'r Idenp on public law, gb -ve all those about t'if^ frer^dom 
of thou,<^ht 'oxerted on Inter thinkern .?nd pubseouent leSinl-^tlon« 

-enzel -.-ar r"" so n Ptudent of pociolocrv. ^n hin ixgt ur recht und 
^^ofei^ ' o ^le ( 191^ ), he exoounde tne thetir thnt roci^''o,'7y , thourh 
Its e:r. ^iric'^"' rrethod dlf^ers fron^ the deduktive rearonlnf 0*" n^turol 
Igw, is no lefT nfcrrrested by polific 1 and mor^l ideas tha- the 
theorler of nrtural \b • Thip in itpeif involvcd nn cppopltion to 
GuiEplowicz, Dot^ebis^er I^'-e^izcl en^a'^e in 'i:\rect ool* rnic^ afraln^t h.lm 
( al*^ in the Jcr itr^'re ). :{e decl?irer! that n^ C- '•-•iit^'^Soncluolonn could 
be drciwn (Ifroni t'ne orlj^in of the st^te fe«?? to ita Inner structure. 


- 53 - 

At the end of hl!=' life, lienzel hlinrelf was ab^^orted in p«ociolop:lcal 
stu.iiea. alD Cir4ech! pchc ■nzl'^loFr^e ( 193'^ ) öO'.; ^.:T*ür)(3 , rlFp der 
'v^git&lourle'. ,V 1J36 > belon^^ tn the laf?t xvor'ii^ publi'^hed In i»uptrl by 
,]urlpt:i of Jü'^inh rief^c^^nt br^ore the ^(^i^-'.ure nf the Heo\jbllc bv the 

.tn the ch^vter '^f hlr 3'^ltr''<tc which i'-: Jevoted to /uj-^trißn 
philo r-icoherr on publ ' c l'ivr, i'len zel , cftsr hnVn- de^/rt ''^Ith ~onnenfel9 
v;hofn he chf3rT^tc-rl ze? ae the Itipt (bno 45 t i- linc of fe!?9<it4i?e wrlterp 
in thlF f leid , d^c'ara'- that a i^ti'-not *.on n t ii nfterv/affdg to be 
inter^upted onlv in the laec^nd hnlf o:" the IHh c ntury b^' the 
appe'?r.*ince of - orr 'Jelline'r. l.Tdlarlv .nbert ^'ilotv , ooe of th' 
mont outr't n-in- conterr.pArnrv GerrTa-^ .^urtpt' , -i^r oeid , .v/lrtlb-irpference 
to one cf jel" '.ne'T' - workT - ta:)t 11 "h^^F brou-ht nov blood into the 
st-^'T^natinp" dlscloline of «reneri^l pu" lic lov;," 

de or^ Jellinelc i^ the only one nmoön^ t-e ^reat *:Uf=^trian 

.]url~tF o^ Jewiph dercent whope fnther b^lon^-p hy hin o\m Lnerltr. to 

uiodern oe^^iPh hi^-torv, Adolf i''£l"'ine'c i h. in i>r'-l "^v.'lt.-. , *'.oryvi.3, 

ai^iöCK, , d. 1^ Vienna 1593 )» ^ pro?5aadd and ::)roll^ic Jewing scholar, 

e<=.rned a^ .)reacher r>f +he Jewlrh com unlt ^ of Vienna «^uch a f.Mine 

thst he 'V'" s c^lle i the inn!='t ^i-^ted pre^cvcr iju iipm ha? pmduoed. 

Hin IhdstlaEPnd ir.^rt ^Tdcnt dc3 r-ire war the tranf^f oritation of «Judaif^rn 

Into a relii^ion "^f univer ?3l Fip-nlf 1 cance . Th^^ cre-itlvlt' and rr.nnv- 

öidedne'"^ ^f ^ftlllri'i^T-Ti, hl^ '^trivinp- for univer^^a-^llt'" and rynthesia 

reappe-ar d in th oerpo-'^al'btv nf ÜfccrftoiicCS'^'trß:'-« 'e wn^ b^^rn tw 

in I65I in Le4ozir v^het":: hialf -iSh^Mne'^ wa*^ xinx actlve as robbi. 

^ut }ti--\en hl'- f'-rther a«" epted the call to Vi-?nm In 1646 an ' th 

fami'y rri'-'Ved tc the imoeri'^1 caoital, Auptrio h-c^.re al^o ^e^rj^'p 

truc- fnf'ierlnnd . ileie^esti the; for' ative yenrr i-^ th? Viennee 

envirrn.'ient o"^ hlr- fe^ 'er one inado r:o quic\5 a orp^res'-^ th^t he, 

- 54 « 

alreadv at the are of 16, wap able to enter the Unlverf^ltv of Vlenna» 

. fter hgvinp*, h'wever, flrst ob'-alned the derre- of nhilonophv nt th' 

Unlverplty of Lelprip, he became D'^ctor of i^^w nt the Unlverpitv of 

Vienna In 1874. Töw J8 rp Ifiter» Georp* Je^llneV nrepented to Law Fqculty " 

of thlp unfljver-^ltv hl^ thesls for the admlttance ar» leoturer, th'; '^tudy 

i>ie 8o/.inlethleche Bedeutunir von Recht, Unrecht und Strafe t a brllllant 

work of puch a lastlnr vakue that It had to be re-edited thlrtv veare 

later. ^^everf'^el^pr tbePf«ÄoMy "could not wln the convlctlon that he 

Nevertheless a ^ 

poaseses already the amount of maturltv and er dltlon w whlch 1r belnr 

conelderdd a? the lndlppen«^able conditlnn of lecturlnpr nt the Law 

I-aculty/ "*• 

Althourh Jelllnek on the bapis of another paper puc^eeded In belng 

admltted ap lerturer ( Priv^td- zent ) In phlloronh'" of law in l879f 

the enpulnp j^enryenr^ of hlp connectlon wlth tne uhi verölt y of Vionna "i 

were bound to brlnji hlm more verv palnful dlpapoolntment«^ . The^^^ wap no 


Chance for the ron nf 

Chance for the pon of the local Jewlsh presche- to ^ret o fair treotrrent 
by the Unlverslty of Vienna in thope days of riPlnir antl-SemitlFm. 
/athou^h Jellinek rince bis apx)intment has publi-he.i an excel^ent new 
^^^^^» gug rechtliche Nntu r der ^^tantrvertr^^Ve . hlP ap^llcatlnn for an 
extenrlonof hlp venia legendi fn-nnh^^fro law r Jected in June 1880^ 
^>ut Wh n iBKR in 18c P JelUnev'p booi^-, .^ie Lehrewodeden ^ta ten verb 
irert;)lP';unn'q ap eared , JdoefejihUTbhtTirgr wap ^o impr p ed by it that he 
exeroiped hin whole influence In order to overcome the opnn-u,inn whlch.... 
clerry put up ?)(rain^t the aon of the rabbi of Kienna . TelUnek wan 
finally appointed "ausserordentlich er orofea^-or for public law, Flnce 
teUlKM^^ehr«r,niari^ied in the meantire and the income nf a "profeppor 
extraordin-^rv" was by no meanp puf^iclent fco cover the liveliho'-d of 
a famllv, hip Situation rcmained er tical. Vhen, in additlon, the 
Intripuep o.crainpt him did not end , Jellinek decided, thourh very 

- 55 - 

reluctantlv to nu';t the Unlversitv of Vienna. Fortunatii'^r hlp reputazlon 

wasalread^? so wellestabllphed abroad that he almopt elmultaefloualy 

obtalned calln to the unlverBitleo of Basel and Berlin, Jellinek'fl f?tay 

In Basel, where he arrlved In ßprln^ 1869 wa , howeveri rf^ther phort, 

for in the next year the profes orehlp at the celebnted Unlverpity of 

Heidelberg was of ered to hlm at the personal wish of Frederic » Archduke 

o"^ Baden -tlthesaaeBemonarch who only a few yeare "'nter waf^ to becorre the 

first crowned patron of The'-dor ^rzl • 

Thijs In April 1891 f Jelllnek eettled tt Heidelberg, Ther^ he ppent 

the next twentv - the la^t ye^rarp of hie llfe» HIr le^^turef? bec^me 

famou^ and attffa^feddeven students from fr>reirrn cou trlen. In Heidelberg 

he alpo produced - ap^^rt froir. numerous monoprnphp and ep^ayp- th*? nrent 

three works on whlch Jellinek'g renown qp the le'^dinr authorltv ondpubllc 

tht^e • - 

l)la4rl«Äd|3[triit'a«fo|jli«t8. It wa? the flrst one of thep- ^okg. System der 

eub.lektiven öffent l ichen Rechte (lfi?9)* which Robert ^ilotv chamcterlzed 

in the above ( p. ) mentioned way. -i-t waPt as ^'lloty declnred on the 

same ocoasion ,"rree*ved ao the "resurrection o-^ the human riirhts which 

so often had beun declared dead." Jellined hod indeei for the firat time 

eluclda + ed th ,^uript!c character ofthe subjectlve ri'^htn an indißpolubly 

linked with themodem State inwhlch the com^'ia\}nity has become o ^^ta^ts- 

pers"nlichkeit # The volidity of these rip-hts Ip, ac ordinr to Jel^'nek, 

baeed on the ie^l^ebblijKÄt&on" of the State, The earre will of the ptate 

whlch cre. es lepal Statute p jn-nlfestp itpelf ^Iso in the subjectlon 

to the law. Th foundation of this theory has been layed alrTady In the 

x-te rechtliche ^atur der Sta* te n vertr^>e where Jelllnek declared: 

M in 

"Sovcel nty of the State 1'^ the p-^wer to prescr oe rerulr^tiojp to its 

own will, the abil'ty to create law oblifyin<^ the etote Itself/' AH ourh 
thip tneorv hap be -n ph^mlv contepted, Jel^lne^'p Syptem^ hap rem'^ined t 
the bapic inquiry inibt the problem of the eub^ective public ricrhtp» 

X^tf. -qj.wv»— .*».*<>^ 

r '•■ 

'IM Mriv4M« 4 «^ 

Jelllnel^' j next fund.nmentol wÄr^r 4^ 

n^ Die Erkl>^»unrr der 

Menpcher]! ur^d Bnrp:errechte C 1695' forth edltlo'^ 1927 ) wa^ a 

masterplece of hlptorl al repearch, uevintlnp from the accepted 

oplnlon that Rousseau' p Contrat ^o^ial has /rlven the declslve 

splrltual Impulse to the rlse of hur.qn rights and thet the French 

declaration of human rlp^hts of i^Uf^ust 26, 17^9 constituted thelr 

firr't formulation, Jelllnek proved that the puritan convlctlonsotff 

the faeirdlfcQix toth^trafr fathers were the formative elerrents of the 

human rights, "the rellprious motives,'* he declaredt "have friven 

the hist riCQl impact to the bell f in original rii^ht of man." 

It happened hardly by Chance that such words were uttered bv the 

son of a Jewlsh relipious leader. The book c used a crrent Sensation 

and was translated into i^np^lish» French, Rusrian and J^'panish.Ittinia 


also on ac ount of thifts work tha* the Unlverrity of Prlnceton, N.J^. 

OT the occasion of its 150th Jubllee beetowed upon Jelllnek the 

WM|t r> 

•M«^*^ 'f'/ff 

honorary Doctrrdöflf^peo. 

Jelllnek/ f' thlrd inaprnum opus» A l l gerreine i^^taatslehre 
( 1^0; third edltion 1914 ), an allemtracinr system of irener^l 
public law, was the crowning plece of bis entire ech61arly work, 
it is based on th' dlstinction between the State aa a social 
phenomenon and the state a? a Juristic conc pt. As a social object 
of conceptlon the State Is a real'tv rel-^ted to a territory»! to 
a people and to power to rei/rnn ( Herrschenracht ) . The ^tato wh- n 
viewed Juristicallyhas becn defined by Jelllnek as acorporation 

• ■•• t*f- 


of a§8%tled people endowed with orip-inal poer to rei-n.** Only by 


a conibin:^tion of the two asoects a true , compTete Cognition of the 
State can be ach'eved ac^ordinrv to Jelllnek. Thushhe refuses to 
clnsuder the State as erelv an ob.lect of Jurirprudence and uses 
also the aociolocrical method for its explor tion, but - in Sharp 

- 57 - 

contrast to Gumplowlcz - he rejects socloloprv qp the onlv In^^trument 
of a Bclenceoontthe statte , and Impllclte Gumolowlcz* e fund'imental 
theslB that the law Ik only a means of the State but doep not belonp* 
to Its espence« The formative procepp of the Ptate, Jelllnek mnlntalnr' , 
waF at the sarBBetlfcaea formative proc-fls of the law so that also 
hlstorlcally ptate and law were froin the very beplnnlng In a close 
connectlon.^From the earTleat unlt - whatever It milcht have been> 
famllv or horde - onward, law, mountlni? hierher nnä hlp-her, abporbed 
the hlprier unlto whlch rlse over the orlTT-ry onep and flnallv the 
hl^hest unlt, that con^titutes the concluplon of thie chalnithe 
Unit of the State.** 

Jelllnek vlsuallzed In an analooaoQpr:uall*^tlc perspective 
alFO the law Iteelf. Xt l0»ap an abptract demand, «?n **ouffht',"* but It 
has to be vlewed too as ae motlvatiofr force worklng wlthln man and 
thus as a re-^^llty. '^he same du^^llsm reapoeors flnallv In Jelllnek' n 
theory of the '^normative force of the factual.'* it p rports that real 
happenfcngs c n asrume the character of norms by recornltloni w'^ether 
theee happenlnsrs are a contlnuoue practlce ( cust^m ) or revolutlons. 

'Haj^ in the verv formal structure of Jelllnek* s phllopop^y of 
the State and law the strlfe after a synthefcls brcorrep vervwhere 
manifest, ills uilnd , llke th t of hlr fnther 'A'ap a-^- allembracl-^p aa It 
was unlfylnp". He gras^ed the real facts and was able to penetrate 
Into thelpaeeBence but he welded them at the same tlme wl+h the world 
of norme Into an Indlsroluble unlt. Hlp theor^' ^f the ntatr , - the 
twoslded svstem nf the State - wa s develoned and expounded bv Jelllnek 
so lucidly and In a so compre'-enslve manner tha' It becarae ^he 
prevalent theorv of the stete« 

T ,ere was a de^p ethlc^l meanlnp* hld en In thls inai3"^lf icent 

. 58 - 

attempt tp bTend the nb^tract realcByrodJfla" wlth the emplrlcal theor". 

It eornnr^ from the belief In the ever poreodünr relcrn of la '• The 

rellfrloue, in ecd the Jewlsh, orlfrln of thls belief wa'^ evident. 

It ma^ifepted Itself particu"^ arlv a'' so In Jelllnelc's hl'-torlc'^l olrBer- 

vntions. Thuß, when deallng wlth the anclent szaze of Israel, Jellinek 

pnlnted to the subjectlve personal rlrhtp whlch werc hldden be'alnd the 

Imper- tlves of the Dec^lo^e ^nd to th- covenant between JHW and the 

HefelȤW peopleas 
the people, as to Important factors In the emerpre-^ce of demecratlc 


deamnds. Oeorcr Jel^lnek has neverthelea embraced Chrletlanltv • But Jig 
preat non-Jewlsh frlend and admlrer, ^iax V/eber, clearly percelved the 

source from whlch the f=on of IBlenn^'s !nf^pired preacher has drawn hlp 

doepesti Y he hjBd 

depest Inglghtß: rFfom hlr orlp;ln and the tradltlon of h!he famllyh naoT , 

percelved a tinp^e of that oure froprance that emanate^ from the pentle 

and mature orlentral world of fe llngf?/* 


When Gumplowlcz and Jelllnek dled slroost it the same tlme 

before the outbrea'c of of the First World Wart other Au'-trlan scholars ■* 

of Jewlsh descent wcre at v/otk in the cpherc of public law. Three of 

theni held plde by aide of Adolf Wenzel 'chalrg of the public law et the 

UnlverFity of Vlenna. ^^ 

o y 

Administrative law wap the prlncipal ^bject Friedrich Tezner 

( I856 - 19?5 )• One of hlP earllest works v/a'* a textbook of the law 

adiiJlnlFtratlve lav/, HHadaa>bQhhde 8 ?5gterrelchlnchen ^dTrlni ptratlonp- 

v erfahreng ( lö9o ;» "hlle hte last nomopr-ohlc Ptudlep dealt crl Ically 

wlth the free JudniPBAtof adrri^^e"^^'^^'!-'^^ bodie? sradt nnd v;lth the Impact 

iiS'iiPifttdve ure \/ of 

of Himinl tarive Judlcatlre on develooment "-r ^he law t DMa pf^e^feeEftnaessB 

der Verwaltunf^-^befyh^rden; krltjgch gypteiTiatlPch erörter t auf Grund der 

verwaltun- richt l lche Hechtcorechung; ( 19P4 ) ond Die rechtsbildende 
i-unvtlon der .terrcl chl l ^E4ia^^ l^^ "'^^^^^^' ^^^Uche>. RecH.prechung 

- 59 - 

- 59 • 

( P volurre' , 19c>^ )• Tezner wnp,hhowver, alFo a profound and prollflc 

( 2 voluiTie - , 19?5 ). Tezner wan, hov/ever, nlpnoH PFor^afUHdd.'an*o<5(!Ta3i(3^1c 
gcho'ar in the fleld of the conntitutlotlal law. ile devöted comprehenslv - 

Scholar In the fleld of conntltutlonal law. Me devoted 

r'tudieF! to both baG^lc ele-rents of the Au r tri an lonarchy. The part of 

the Crown was pre?ented and dl'^cusRed In the nionogroph Der Kaiser 

( 1X)9 ). Thrce v?*-'rB later a 'oeRred h vclumtnour ■ ork on the represen- 


tstion of the oeople, iJle \^olkFve rt retunp; ( 191^ i. ezner xcelled 11 
llkewlpe B?: hlrtorlan of the |)ublic la..-. Hlr earl'^ studv. Tech nik thnd 
Geigt de 8 st^'n dlp-^ h -momrcl^lpchen St.qatgrechtg ( 1901 ) annlvrcd the 
medle'Biailf'.udal eyrteiT: anöjddemonrtroted , in opoaettön to the pre- 
domlnant olnlon, the fundnrr.ontnl dlfferencep betwe n ^he feudal p'^tera 

and th' con-titutlon^ 1 monarchy. -n Hiie r -norm oh i^ie '.'^^pdlunpren de r 

^ Pt€rrel c hlPCh"Un'"o rl rächen HeichrlOe ( 190s ) Tezner depcttijiddtltihe 
evolutlon nnd Ri<~nlf Ic^nce of ttfe oolltlcT oonceot +he anublan 

tmnlre Ptood -^or. 

._. ,^- 
Leo ' '/itt maver ( 1976-1936 ) war IntcrettddinirftfeftliniTfOffeigham 

Auptrian Br\':\ üerman conetltutional law, in t hl r t loe ' nv ' ■ Ün ae r Be 1 ch p r m 1 8* \ 

W ahlrecht und die Tr'^ffe' ^pohe '..■^hloi'dnunr ( l^'^l ) Wlttna'er analvped 

Ahd *efeÄded the feefornifr of the electcral evpten "hich rime linrter 

Taoffe and Steinbach have trled to Introduor . It'maver'p princ'ioal 

work.w äledef^iibei^et'oRechgcerfaS'-ung Vai922 ) wa devote:; t6 ^he * 

conPtiti'tion of the newly crcate' Gernnan Heoublic. t war follwed bv 

lowed by 

the monop-rnphp figj^fch^^verfa^'^un'- '^nd ■-' , ^-^ ( 19''3 ) and uemokrotie 

und i^arlan; ntaripmua ; 19?6 ). 'Ve owe to Vit • 'ver rlpo a ooncire 

bioff aphic?! atucW on Erntl Stelnbaeh '-/hose enthur^inrtic adinirer he was» 

L eo trisower ( 1657 - ) ppecialliedd' »i the law of notion • 

nationaanclQÄBtäfnfeiftowalföfMö. -'i» I93i§ ^Hbl)ilib2ifcd:i(fcdcfchno]b©o^^ Der Krieg *" 
und die V*-^3.k errech t Pordunfr in which h deilt wlth th- problem of 
securinp a iFting. ■)eace, an ideal to which -triro^.ver var zenlouplv 
devoted« In 19P'^ he wa? appointel füll profesror. He alpo was a merriber 
of the Inst i tut :1e droit internatiotial «^nd of the Acaderry of ^nter- 

. 60 - 

^t the Unlvercltv of Prague, Lu dwjt? T' oje gel ( 16(^4^1926 ) 
held the cholr of public law.HIfe tbejfettftQlletud^^ on the a<5lb4nfcetrf- 
feam^nlatynt/ltgeV^gw. Die Verwgltun<-^rreohtewl^?^en , PChn ft( 1909 ) veo 
a contrlbution to the rrethoclolon-y of Jurlpprvidence • The laf^tlrif? 
slfynlflcance of thlp worV Ij? Ph^^wn by the oubllc-tlon Ibiff lf31t4?3fnÄt9 
IffftAoihntlon 'nto Soflni nh, A collectlon of Splep^el'p lecturen and 
esrays apoeared In 1913 under the title Gesetz un d I^echt . Af^ o 
hlstorln of publtelaw, J'-piep-el published In 190^^ s b^ok nbout the 
hlntorv of 'he Aublrlan PUbKhctaVt Ple grenchiehtll c he Entvic^rlung 
dep »frter re ichfepchen Sta^'^tsrecht?« but he also bec-me the itith^r of \ 

the firrt hlstorv of the Czechonlovak HS^pbbllbcln the Gern. an lanp-uare? 
i;ie iintstehunp dep t8C'iccho"lov9klschen Sta^teg ( 19P1 ) ^ 

Spiei^el \^ar- for a time a Oeara^Qr of the Czechollovak Watlonol 
Aescmbly, in nplte of hl 9 belnp a confeeainpr. Jew and ^lfietl§at€atJtathot 
the elcctlon of ihe Jewl-^h profesaor -airuel i'^teihfapa fiv Rector of the 
Unlve^^tty hnü been fructr':ited bv deoonrtrm Ion of anÄl^Semltic \ 

Student 9, ^»^Mce^ was made Rectcfr, but he dted :>befope€(ßaR4irp: thfelofficei , 
theof fÄccoijtensporatrytaffd doutlttpyman of Ludwig ^oierel was Alfre d 
ü'^ejPFner (b. In lilada i^oleplav [ Junp-bunzlau In 1871 ) who aerved 
under Prerldent I^^asaryk ae Ml 'Irter of JuPtice from 19?0 to 19?9> 
and In 193^ an LinlPter of ^roclal V'elfare. Hl^ Jurl^'lc ptudlep were 
devoted r.t:lnlv to probier,? of social securit^'t of theccultnral 
rights of irlnoritierand of the induptrlal law, A H andbok of thlr law 
la cne of hie maln worVp. After the occupatlon of Czechoplovak' a bv 
the 'Aszlr iMelsFiner reir^alned In thel^nd n wh se reblrth he had 
p^rtlclp'ted so Intcnaely but he ha? hardly rurvlved th. moPB murder 
of 1942. 

- 61 - 

Frorr thc Ko-nvlan citv 'lodonln ( B'-^fUn«"' \ h^^lled 
Jppef Redlich ( 18^9-183^ )» equally O'^lPt^ndim? b th a? Jurist rmd 
hlFtorlan, m^reover an unpurpsseöd wltty convernnti-naliPt In hlp 
d9y. He pta^^ted hl? polendld Cßr-er a% a member of thel b^rirtlinn 
LabdtQf? { dlet ) ,b^e»«jiemelBfe«r of the iSsütrlan R€ Ichrat ( Moune of 
RepreBentnlvep ), wap apn Inted Hon-^r-ry x'rofespor "or public law 
ot the UnlverFltv of Vienna an?^ served In the ph6rtlivei last Au' tru 
Auetrlan Oablnet o' the Prlme ^iin3^r'er -Carl Lann asch sr . Inl^'ter 
of Flnance. MOol^ettpa^tttyOPdlinarv actlvltie? "ollv^wed after the fall 
of the 'iUftrlan ^m dre outalde of itp b-rder?. in 1925 H dllch wan 
Invltcd to Joln the Law chool of the iiarvnrd ünl"'^6r'it' sr ^rofeano 
of Con DaratittvPubllc Lnw ^nd beran to lecturc therc, rlnallv he was 
electedideoutv Judfre of the Perrranent Coart of ^.nternHtlonal Jurtlce. 
Ked"^lch*Q BcQiofiifetlVc produc^-lon war^ equnlly e?tonirhlnc- . illn nu; erou 
workp coni rl^e Jurlrtlc anü hlrtorical r tudic?^ about the nuptrlan 
and inplleh con' tltutlonol law, a comblnotlon -/hlch reülfilfeedfffrt^m 
Kecllch'r personal attachment to the two with thclr hiPtoriftI and 
tradltloBP Ftretchl'^r over inanyc«Bttiflrl®s:iaiidt<)oIilil:EboumdleBS -^ 

admltatl n of the np^llph Parlan-ent. 

it wnr f.lue to "^hlr ^fiihtj||<$ß!^ifi; affect^nn for the GubJectPotff 
iiedllch'f? Studie P Iftdked wlth a r^ire insipht and scientific maptery 

that an Au^trlan acholar of Jev^lph dercent becarrie the Intermtionall^j, 

•T*e CO fnl 5*ed e*xper*t of 
■ r cofenirecl eMt)e»M1i?i 'bhethBP'lAirÄl^txnebÄittttotlon« The inpres^lon 

made by )j^i^§^ flrst bookfl on tUnt-^e rieldt Theorie und Recht der 

enryllBChen Lokaltrerwaltunp- ( 1903 ) and Recht und Technik flBB 

enryllg jhen l^j^f^g^'^fi^j^^y^ft ^^ 1^5 ) was so ^reat that the ®fj^l3p$?h 

translatlpn of the latterblK>4rlc publlshed In London In 190? was 

preföced by tftir Charles Courtenay ibert, Clek of the Houee of 

Corrrr.ons. Thln work hap, accordinp- to •-) Ft'iterrient Chnrlep C. 




. 62 . 

burlinpham, a dlPtlnp;ußhed American lawver, rrede after Redlich 's dcqth, 

"held Ita place for the lant thlrty year^ as indlpoeneable to the 

Btudents of i-nfflleh parllamentary InBtltutlonst 

LJven TDcfore Redlich waa called totHarvard 'ie publl'-hed the book 

The CoiTPon Law and the Ca^e Kethod on Arn erl cnn t^niverf^ltv Lav; '"choo l r . 

Br, a report to the öomegie found^tlon for the Advance ent o-^ teachin«|^., 

l wew 'orl^r 1914 )« ut th^up-h the U.r.ii. were to bec^me the j=5phere of 

hls tear;hinfT and aocial actlvltlepf hl? scientific in^erest durlnr the 

decades followlnf^ tbr« the war wa? xlcoeor^t^ ebsorbed bv the nroblema whlch 

teethe hiptory of the gboli^hed Austrian ^-mpire inpoired up^n i^p falthfu 

?üi Fön ahci a'düi^rinff Ptudent. He feit the calHnr to vind<lßfefee It? 

exiFtenoe evcn th "U'rh It.j^ belo'rfred to t e oa'^t . Thus, whll?: he once 

had concG-ntrate'l on a rinfrle p^rt of Aurt^la'^ leo-nl Rtruotur'* in hin boo 

book, ^p9 ^'/eeeQ iddrr ö^terr elchl^'C '-en ' 'r^tTMun^Averf p ü/'iy er , no'f the oolltl- 

^m col hlrtoiy of ^^^ Aunt.'-lqn -rrolrr becaire t'-r-? ^ri cl-^nl t^p> o« . 

^ f Jonef 

Hedllc • In the cloolnrr perlod of hir Vife. 

The boo^-rp whlch Hedl ch prcduced In th^-- purpult of t ir plan, 
i>9P ^g terre Ich gjr^hc ^t atP- un' Re i ch g pr^H^rr •■--''' §e p b% t b!til lion e 
i^arstellunfy der Innern i"'olltllr der Hfibnbur'^pchen '-o^ff^chle v^n 1648 
bis zurr ünter-anr dep Helchen ( P volurres, 19'X^'-^6 ), i ^le ^?t e rrelchirch^ 
hecrierunof Im vett^^rlG^ 19P^, Enrl. tran^l. 1 9'^9 ) nnd Ko1p>--. r -'rfin?, 
Joseoh vo n C cpt er reic" ( l^*^"") ) dealt '.'Ith thr vnrl^ur asoectp of the 
complic'ite i SU' je ct. Crtlvhfehmdtftirerttöl flrpt noe ^f the c wor!^« onl" 
three voluirjer tßt^ltoeeTthpubllPhedtlllnc- the 'i-tcr^' uot&ll^ö^?. '^fter 
the perueale/of the firpt two vr^lume^ -InrO'd J. Lp'^-I vr^te to 'iolmep 
on ivofl^ terlA, 19?0: "i havc read with profound ndr'r'tlon Hedlich' p 
twpeFüperb volun^iep on Austria eince *46. The^' are reallv m-mnlflc^nt - 
of the Ptuff o ^w ich perir.anence in mnde . He cnn draw pirtur^n ond 
analyse iTioti§e h«rlll lepr well than he ip ':b"'e to d plct institutlons . 
i.t Ip a maptcrpie-ice." Thu? it Is perhopp not an exa^rfrer- tion t-- F-tate 

. 63 - 

that thc worthi ept epilorue ^f thc- ."untri*-n trnplrc CKre frrrr: the pcn o '' 
Jopef Redlich. 

But the clo«^lnfT ve-^rs of the i^snubian > onarchy ar\ ' of the rinlri'-r 
/utrinn r<ep';bllo a^ po f^w the emcr^-*ence of 3 nz" crcneratlon of «Tevrl^h 
born ^LirlPlr '<ho, In thi. ^ nerlod '-^f tr.^n^^'^r . .Ttlon , wert, well av,'??re of 
t e necefjpitv to re-exflmine the bseic prtoblicm.'^oöf oublic l^w and of the 
phllo^ooh^^ o' löv.Tliiearv j^^ned the r-inV? of the I^rag Law r.ovement, led bv 
^uren ^^hrllch and rc pr- f^ented bv puch flrhtlrlr/ ppirlt;' l^cc jCar]^ O eörgg 
'A^urz ^el & se- ab ^-e pp. ), or choro their inflT^ldu 1 v;avr. Thus 
Fried rich iCnb' In hlf? -'ble r-tudv, iiüI^UechMßLllM ^ l^^ ^ anal^^zed 
the sentlr^en'. of .luf^tlce end Inventicrated Itp tranlfe-t tlon up to the 
re^lon of In'ernntional relctlonn. V/ a\ter -c'rrtcin . In q book of 
1 a e 1 1 '-^ gv ra 1 ue , I^ nr an ty^e ^m vt u rj:ec ht i n rr itii-x philo ror>hir e he r >^el eu chtung 
^ 19?6 ) combined skilfully the pre^entrtion of -reck phllosophy 
concernin|T the natur*il law with a re-apprisal of thö^rcombtüwerniiäil 
branch of lav.», xn ac ordance wit a thepie of the Auctrirn Jewi'ala, V/ühelir Jerupa en , d- rr.pnctr^tcd co^vlncirirTly, tha"*- the 
indlvldu*3li -tic te*^dencie^ of the nr'tural law whic* -'re orirlnf^ll^' 
directed rrr-^ inst eoclnl authnrl tnrla i'^m ure to p3VQ the wav to the 
rlpe of Tnlverjpal an coninooolltan trendn. "-he fundamen*-al oroblcir«^ 
of law wcrc r^lno dlpcu-^sed bv ftobe r t Laznrrfc ldrn in Jnn ^"'ro b lcn der 
Jurisprudenz ( 190*;^ j and bv I <yn ;.: z ^o n "e 1 d 1 n hl? wor>, ^"^I Lcretre ine 
Hecht plehrc un-^, Ju rle.or udenz ( 19^0 ) . 

The mornentoup event o^ thln pj-riod in ta epherv.-^ o'' public Iriw 
and ohilono;)hv of law, an echi^'emtnt whlch r- n'*r the "re-i-ert 
fes;te of *\u-v:rl'.' • jiirip:^ruden.'?e ,c6"erve -^ , h' ever, a ch^pter of 
hin own • 

^ 6h ^ 

^. HAtJg K©l§^fj.;M<X>S PURE TH-.ORY OF LAliT? AND H^L3 Lit.Gl^7^ATIVE V/ORK 

The lonprer the pp*. rltual 'var» rn/orlnp- gince the bcrinnlnj? of 

thetwentleth Century vlthin the reslm of .lurimrudcnce , drap'-e^i orif 

the flercer the battlep on the vnrloup ffrontp p-rew, the iF^re ?.t bec^me 

apparent that the ver^' exl'-tence of Jurlporudencf-^ o? r pclcnce of 

poplti'e law v^b- at stsklE. Xt awtheb!ir<7eandnt)t?l3T;ti-fct werFllöces^Tititty 

exposed to Atit-ackp by the comblned forces of the vounf^i vlprorou? 

v^cencer, noclolofry nri'l psycholopyt a? well a?? by the fiprhters of the 

Froe Lav/ -over.ient« Thu? the whole of 'jurlrorudence secmed to be doomed 

to become a pre ' of external powerp. The ptnte of a'^'alrp' v^ae Ibhremore 

confusüftp; F the advancinr for-.'ep cl^^lired thnt onW bv thelr vtctor^' 

Jurir^rud nee ccula be rave^l frora utter rtcrPltv and comolBbe down^all. 

C'n the b-'.ckp-round of thl. s devrlooir.ent th apoe-irance of 

Han? Kelren «hbnrn to -'e^-'lrh parentr In Pr^r-ue In 1881, hhart^obfeeff^ced . 

Endo'we"] wlth --■' lof^lcal mlnd of a phnrpncra nnd lucldltv whl^h f^rmed a 

«xtXÄoraoc a unl^ue ohon4m-non even arronT the brll''1.nnt "eririan anO Aurtrlan 

loprlcl iriP, <'elr^n ret out '^Inp-le-h^-nded to ntem the tl(?e of the ho'-tlle 

force'=!. iil'^ orlncloal alrr wa? to ^febobiteh Ulrt'torirödiFjnee: fror the 

Intrudlnf^ "n)et:i- 'url- ' Ic'' fethod^, whlc»-» in hr vlevr Infected the 

aclence of law wlth a danperour svncrcfpnri Br\r to reubu'ld .V rl Fonjdence 

on itp own unphiJ>:able foundatlonr. Hlr und ert-^ "kl nr hnr be n comp.cired 

wlth that of irninanuel -^^ant vho t the eddoffttheefetVititenttohTj^nttrrv 

aiTild^t the rtruc-^lc of the rrctnohvF^lclynr and th€ ratlonallrts , depiprned 

hiP critlor'l Dhllc'-phv of pure reapon a- a crulde of phllo^ophic^l nod 

scientific thln^^inr-. In fact, Keleen himaelf oolnte to the annlo^v' of 

hlr teachlnp wlth that of -^^anti thoupn in Itf^ nec^-üntttioiff «'gübljnnaa?! 

devGlooerj b^' th? uerT:c?n-Jewl ph philosopher lermann Cohen. T'-'e ne'^-»Ksntia: 

ori^ln of ."Celpen'r doctrine i? h\^o ref^^ct^d^^ in \t? name, Pure Theor^' 

of law. 

. 65 - 

Kelf=en ?£t for h hlp thtor^' v;hen hc war, Pince 1911, lecturcr 
( r'^rtltuttäggn?!^ ^ ine! l.?ter, f^ince 191 ^i or<^f error of oublic law nt th-. 
thlve^sltv of Vlennra ( untlT 19?9 ). It hin ? ^^h^^rt, tlme h- roine' so 
manv pupllF ano follov/erf tha" a nev; school of lav;, the "VlenriR ^'choolf'* 
wa? b^r'. i-mo^Tp" Kelpen*? odherentp the /• ut^ian- Jevlf^h ir^rlrtr, Kllliym 

' nd iTrintlGe^r -'/eyr, bp: well as! the Gerinon *JeKl?!1 .^-enjnmin Akzim gnc] the 
French-Jewlrh Charles ii'lneen^i.snn - rilonp''l('c o' the .''urt>"l*^r!s » Adolf 
l^erkl and .^"'fred '/erdroee - olnved in onf^+'^n'-'ün^ onrt ö?i^ln the cene?lfl 
ondhlrtorv of the pchool. shi"- thouc^h the^' contri>::utei ncw Idc-os to 
the dev*^loo cn of ^^elpen* pfpv^te , , he rern??lneo th^ Chief arc itect of 
the Öurv: Theorv o"^' Law. He forinulate'l hl. p "»riew^ for the flr'^t tlme In 
hl^ vrork, ii^iiot ^ ar^bleire-^der -^ f^Qt tPrechtrlrhgPi f ntwlq^jcXt nur der Lehre 
vom ^^echtS'^Ttz i (1550 ,) ciec^nd ed'.'lon IQP.' ) j^nr"! in hin lectnre, Uel? ei7 
Q-ren^^e--! 2wl??ch en Juri st ipche r^ und ro2^j.q^ o»--iqo ''ier- '^ef^odt^ , ( "'.91"' )» 
to he follov;e:J >ip«^rt fvo^' nurer'-^u^ e»- n^' ) b' D»^r i."'ro'b''> m der 
• , ouyer nni^gt_ < 1 ) X ) , Der ^.o.'^Ao^.Of^^.^. «^he qni d r r Virlrtl gehe f^tf^ Ptt^e pTrln 
^ 19P"' ) t >ll<y ' th^ ine ota''!tn lehre ,( 19'^^ ) -^nd b^' the cro nlni.r v.'ork. 
Reine Kecht ^l' -hre ( 193^^» second edltlon 19'^0 ). 1- 19^9 Kelsen left 
t-he ün6ve ' ^-^Ity ^f V'enna -mti follovre : n cnll ^.- ths Unlvernit'^' of 
Colop", ne , Therc he tauj^ht from 193C> tn 193 '>• ^"tJ* -n thl^ ve'::r |^ t ovfth 
he held the of^ice of the -/e^n o^ the Law incult", he vm^ deprived of hls 
l:^Jtof)HB)lberrpi3±^!ttft'ri^ ^ h* p Jewlnh orlrin. ^ Kelren who ''.mci he Q) 
bapt'. zed In w'ienna never co cealed h* ? Jewlph dr<-'^ent. ) C?-lled to 
Cxeneva b^' the inptltut Unlve rpitplr e de ^ H'^ ntc*^ ?.vtirdep I^ter n ntjon ^le n , 
he beca;:e profes^^or of thla Inrtltute in 1933* The Ceru's.n l-nlA/errit.v 
o' i^ra/7U£ v;3'- the lapt uropean Ünivcr-itv whcPf ''Welpen tnurht ( 1936- 
1937 )• ''^ß c-"^tini;ed, however, '-- * ^ »^ctlvlty -^t ^-'-^e Inptltutc In Ceneva 
b fore he erripra^ed to the U.r,A in 19^40. 1^^ th'~ next year ^-Iren became 
Oliver Wendel lHci;i,ir.ffie!^ Lecturerat darvard Low '^chool , Research /.rpocl te 

^ er, ^ 

at the sai. e -c o^.*! 'md Vlsitlrifr PrifeD'or rst ''ellepley Collp-e. in the 
years 19^? to D^^"^ Kelren won Profeoor of thternstlonal Law anü Jurlp- 
prudence at the üniver^ity of Callf"oTTiia in i-^erk ley wherp he tot^^k" s 

Kelj^en*s international reputr^tion ha'- be n flrmlv eotabliphed 
durln(55 thc3c yearn of wanden^nfr an-.* crer^tive work. "'Xelpen of Ooloprne, 
certalnlv the f IrriS^.erman jurlf^t of the da- ," thua »Igrold J, Laski 
referred to hitn In the Ictter to Justice llolrne of üpril 17t 19J)2. -At the 
eair.e tirr.e t-ic- "Vlenna r:chool*' grew into a v;orld-i.'ide "international 
sc ool of Jurirtlc thou ht such ae hod never exir^ e:i in the annain of 
Juri r. Druden ct • '* -othinr oerhapr cnn provc the correctne'-^ of .vllllam 
Ebenctein'r .^u^' quoted Pt'^tem^nt than the fact tbat a serlep of "velren's 
n^aln v/a9»^^^h?^ve neen t analated Into P^ Ipnpru-ifyep» The recoc-nit&on whlch 
Kelpen'r \j-v\ •'^^^'•.nlned wa'^ evcn i^OPt rc entlv conflrn^ed bv the b€Ptowln 
^^ on hirr the reltr ^^---11' priz^' by the It.'^l'nn ..cademla de j i-iJncGi in 1 ^*^6 , 

Vfll;ed In^ernn tlon,"'lv lik«-: th- iM'obel pr'ze. - or- over, it ha qpncd for 
the flrst tlae tha' a prlze oT puch f3 mn giltud«:^ hop be n avrarded to a 
lecal rcholar. 

The fuTJ.nnetal prlnciole of the x'ur^^ Öiiorv of Law consiPtr in 
the dlstine ; io*"» of two lo Ical catecorics : the ^g .gnci the Ou£ht, the rrcin rcl te to ptatementp about ref?i:ty K nature ) „ttht- latt r 
to Ftatem.nts about norm? and eoelety con liitutecl bv nJorimti-e order. 
The dirtinc io... a-ountp to a eharp diff erentaltion bctwe n the law of 
cauFqlitv an ^' the principle of Irrputcation l ^u rcehnun • ) t^r two differcnt 
ways of conneeo'inp" factn ap condition and conoequence« Ih atatemnta 
by v.'h eh t e ccience of law de^cribes itf object, the lepel orderst Kelas 
Keloen call? "ruler of law" ( uec h tg^^' tze > , In contradlp.tinctlon to 
"legal. "orrr:n" i, r^e ehtsnor^en )t Juri^pruden^^e btinp-, llke ethicr^t a 
normatl^^e rcicncc pnr axcel"? cno-? t that is a -cl<^nce v/h^pe ob.^ ctpare 
norms. ectablishec by the lef^al authrity. The :''unctlon of Juri prudence 

- 67 - 

Ip thercfore nothlrif:! eise than the cor^nltion of no-me. it 1. f by vlrtue of 

t-^; or 
thls definit.lon thcil Kelsen* f »clalmp to he a . -Bure theovv odJ law ( Heine 

He chtelehre ). Thlr- uieanp bv the pame to -en n utte>"-^'tlon of 

sociolofTlcal 'ind psyc oTo-lc ^1 niethodB sp mer-n? o:^ .1i;rirr)ri:idence . hi'^e 

not the L-p-ltluacy of a poeir^lo'^y or r)?vvcholo^v of lav/ ond of 

politlcfl of law ( i^ eQhl; ,^ Politik ) harcc: on th re?ultp o-^ theee aclences, 

Keleen i'^siF5l.son the uifference which exipts hetween th.m pnd Juris»ruden 

pnjdence,and consequently betwe-n thc^ resooctive rncthodn nnd principlesl 

Irom t lip orincio^l Dolnt of viev .^oII^T'.'p necep'-arilv thnt 

.deinen concelvep jurlpprudence ap a thcor'^^ of ooritive "'::w. V/htnever he 

useß the ter-ii ?law" he urer it In he penPG of oopltlve law, that a 

V3lid low without r 'j-ardg t-o Itp ritrht^e?'^ -^r m^ral ouility, KicrhtneG or 

Justice CO lu be recoffniped, accajrdlnr to 'Celeen, 9f gn essential 

elGn:.ent of law onlv , if 'in abpolute r'.^htnes'^ or Justice v^erc concevalble 

"hi? is Jurt v;hnt 'Celoen deniep. ^^ba-^lutc Jurtice cnn derive o Iv from 

a tranrceniiental -juthority, frnm God. ^"^arthlv , h^r-nn Justice cn be only 

B relative Jijstice. . Ju-^tice of thln rel-^tivr ohnrao^ter oermsntep an#^' 

positive law tmd gecuren as the mopit orcclour rro^d nn no.oroxiiTte "täte 

of peace and securitv. The all*- nibracin^ mornl orinololc- in*'olvcd in thie 

rclötivirt O'iilosophy of Justice liop in the nr»\ ci'-?1e of tolernnce, 4n 

the gvmpathctio undcrpt -indin«^ of thn oolitic^jl nnr.^ rellriorip bcliefß 

of other"- . Acth5?0ihc^l^Gtbel'4G(fofcn nnt^^%Iripr»l+.^n;7n^o3^btÄ?^t3tfe^tw(3unttSed ip 

eo4i6D&öe bf i%3if lend liodefitj&1iebp3ilfrtfc9^t'n»Fö<3fe^,nGvrnl!blh^oQy'retffleä^nltfen 

pc4^eps,odel0i3raQy ,re3iicaif?nin "f'act, he c^n-iderr indifoenp^ble for hlp 

personal life , ae he co fesped in an emohfltic rtiterent-* 

• . . .i c^nnot savwhat Ju-^tioc ip; the a rT^oliitr: Juntice 
for ehich mr^nkind ip lonp-i pr , i irupt gcoulecce in a relative 
Juetice nnd I can only pav what Ji;rtlc i^ ti Fe, Sirce 
Fclence Ip tny profep'lo-, 3^0 htncc t'ie most irrpl rtant thing 
i^ n;y life , Ju^^tice^to ine, ip tha ' p'^ci^"'. orrlrr undcr w'io pg 
pro + ectloTT^ the pe- ^-ch for truth c?3n oropoer, j^MjÜr Justice , then 
4)5 he Juptlce of frecdom, the In^tico of veece , t^e Ju"~tice 
of deinocrocy - the Justice of tolerance. 

. 66 - 

The ellmftnqtlon of th Roclol- crlcil metho-' f^^r Juri r^ prüdem ce 
and thG limitatln- of thc: Iptter/r 9r)here io th' p^'^ltive Inw affectn 
earentiallv particulßrlyKel aen * « ^heorv nf t/v r^tate. He dlrtln^uiphefl 
two different conceptp: f\ Juriptlc r^.n--^ a PocloloriC'"! conceot of the 
Btate, bot' of wh'Ch rc^er undcr the ^ßme nnriie to tv/o dlf erent ob.lects« 
Conpeauentlv Keiften re.^eotp Jelline^r* p thcorv of th two sld's of the 
State whlch inolle«^ th^i- the pt^teaöP one -..nd the ^•.me thlnc haa f^o 
aspe tfl, a lep-al p.nd a pocIo^ Of75 cal appect. The ptpte Isi aecordlncr 
to K..-;lpcn, neit'ner a'^ or-onl-^T, nor -? collcctlvc ^\?ill ( Oepa irtwille ), 
nor H mapp poul ^ i--as" eipeele ) » /^l.l puch bvpoptritiz'^tions*,"' Includlncr 
JelTiTiek'p power to relpn ( lerrsche^oa ht ; nre, ar naanlvzed by'^^^^een^ 
ÄK« hvpoptatlzi ed oerponi ficntlorjs . ;ie declrr-er iir^tead that the 
etate ip a coerclve order cnd ap such 1 ientic 1 wlt^ th lesrsl order, 
that - in 'hip aenpe • Ptate and popitlve l'w are Idcntlcsl» 

i-lnce v>li(fflty ;s an ersentlal cu?:^llty of pcltive ^av - the only 
one whlch Kelse- recop-nlpop df law - the probLcir. of th'r reaeon for thc 
validlty of the law occuplep an eminent pl«cu In the ^ure T:eorv of Law« 
^^paln pociolop-ic^l or opvi'hol'^'-icnl elirent?^ hav^ to be elimlnated fürrr 
the examlnution . Cn th«: other band it 1p scl"^ evident th??* there 1p no 
further refrrer;^ to a oo'ltlve nirm c6ncelvqble. ^elpen of"^erp the 
polutlon b^vnolntln'T t^ a prepuoooped ba pi,c noTjT. ( Otund nörro / twff&as 
feetfcjQltSiarttyn^f therrbavr ir revealed to be of a h'^'O'^t etlc^l nature : 
If the iDG^lfilt?? Ipw 1p con«lder'::d ar '^;slid, the norm thr,t one have to 
betehvi^e ac^-ordlnT t^ the hl«^torlcallv flrrt co'^ptltutlon'^itPlftiro|)lfcfctly 
prepupooped . 

Krisen emphj^p '.zep ntron,'cr,lv the dlf ''crcnce bctv/een the baplc norm 
of the i^ure Theorv of Law find thc foundytlonr: on whlch the \M:lidit^r of 
the positive law i? baped bv the notur-1 lr?w 'loetrlne. /^ccTdinpc to the 
natural law doctrine - nf whlch Kel Pen ip •^: rharo Opponent - the 

- 69 - k 

reapon whv a po.'nitive law 1b Vfjlld conoi'^t.'^ in It? co-nfonnlt:; wlf' the 

partloulwr contcntr of tlia nntur'^.l law: thc lav; ir v^lld tscauGe It 1b 

Just, in c ntrac^ij^tlnction tne fcop^cTneomvocf ftbav;.'üüe?Thotr(ä^;6frlü|[we 

docF not determine thc- Contents of the porit ve law and hence there csn 

be no confllct between the basic riorn: encl thc poritive law. Xt Is the 

niQin fegture ol' the natural law doctrlne to be a duall^tic theory of 

law by reco nielnp; tvo rphern of law: the positive "^.nd the nr^turnl law. 

xn contr.'}pt t.o the natural IheoflJcrcdjfli^av th^ Pure T e^r-' of Law Is a 

monlntlc doctrlne. It pr clclmp: there ir onlv one lav; - the pc^ltlce 


in fact jt-tiho -jfT"ino r^latlon f=i^<^rri? to exlf?^ tetwc-n the rellpriour 

ephere of oude'pm -and the ratlonel realir of the ?ure Theorv of ^aw, 

the ptlnciple o'' oneneF«, of Q'b?~'"''ute unltv, ir In the Türe Theor^' of 

Law ap dominant bo in Judnlsm. Loreover, Keifen 'r nb'n rrenc: to Identlfy 

l§ggrl nornif? r.nä the ptate wlth eirolric'l ohenf^rvcnn of -^ny ]cind ?how8 

a stranpre f rnil'-jrit^' wit < the llebrcw notfton'^öf ' he Incorp reltv of the 

^ivine. There is even andlrect cxprep-ion o' 'h'.n reljitlo- tr be fovjnd 

i n > .; 1 PC n ' '• «-^er r-oziolo .'. pche und der J uri ft. i rr* he ^tt^rtber^rfeff : "... 

Vla«.tibtioö 4fntb€ onik=^«oli9 v elnip-^cynslr., ) -tote of the "'-^.c^ry of 

ivftw GorreFOondc . . .wlth the notlon of the onlv-one od of he «Jewlsh- 

hrlntl 3 t'Golon-y." /^nd ap early es 1913 elrc-n dec.*rfc'dditnh6iseegaj?y 

lieb er ■>' t "jtsunreehtt • 

^f ■'•n ^^nal^-ry bctwe n thc- iricrdicopiri of the le;ral order 
onc the ordcr of the un.verFe ist per-'-itt d.. .then there i^ 
in the ide'^ lit of one (nö +hee snire or e^ '- i^Irriiny. economy 
of thin>i'>rr inherent ar In the .lurtlticccQntitrDttion! of ^ne . 
the pcrF'nnl uniforrr «t?t.e. 

i-rom t e concentlon of the 1 w ap a nnrnnt've order followp also 

the deniöl of the d'ffercnce bertwen ohypicl in ? lurifctio ( co^'porate ) 

per^'O r, ^r well ap the rclectirnof the ilivl^io'^ of th law Into 

rub'ect-ivc -v-ö oblective, OLjblic and private law. T' e ':nlfvi r tendency 

- 7C^ - 

o^' the Pure Theorv of iaw ir-^nlfe^t^ it^clf fur+ 'crm^-'r^- :n t.h : 
recotnl tion o '^uptoin : r?; 'mrl oll k ndr of ui^v ritten n'-n-rr^'itut :ry I-i^jl 
for anv lo .■ hsr o p Ic.: v/lthii a lefral eye^eir •horc va "ditv ip based 
on the Grun'-:3norrn of thiP sy^-'terc» it 1p in t'^ip oergDpot:-ve ^h?at Addüf 
i^erlcl » one of -elaen's inofrt out'^tondlni? .Au'~triMn r^ jjJ v; followerp» 
concelved thc theorv o:^ the Vi e r q rc h 1 c •:\1 _ t ru 2 1 n r c l '-' t u f e n bo m ) of the 
law wbic'i 'i.oe b-; n adoptec' ty Keleen.'rhiP theorv cnntcmol <.ed t e l^-gal 
Order es a systerr, of super- and pubordin'te': nor;'r, frori the -lifrhest 

ffvps!^ to tho lowept on-'3i cci^Ptitution , tfituter, curto arv law, 
judlci'^l decirlnns, orl^ ate le ^1 trsn oacti onr . '-li^^in thc framework 
of thlF t'neorv evenc the ' Fe<&- Lav; ' chool cr>n -^1 c itP plncc. The la?t 
C'^nFeouence which -elpen deduoc^ fron th : ^''i'^ciplc nf "-he Unlty of 
Lav i? -^'Ini'lly the unltv of internnt 'nnsl 1'.;^* :^nd ^r^tlonnl l-^w,l.c. 
the law of the ^t-^te. "r. Tre?T not onl envl? ^ep tho ore^tlon of a 
World etate nr the ultl 'ate ffoal of the le^-al vo^utioVi» bijt he declnre 
thöt copcnit o>^.'5lly intern-^tiObal law and th l:'il nrdcr'^ of th p'lnp^le 

st'iter iiiust b€ c-n*^ldert:d ar 9 un ' tv .iittlr* , rc^rdj.n^ to thl- cnnceot, 


ge lerv'^l Intern tionsl lav whlch ir.aTrer thc co-exi'---e^'ce of pinple pt'^tes 
•^ 1 1 h '. n t h e s po !3 c e a n d 1 1 m e po r- -^ 1 bl c"- . 

^t wap th' a-'chltectonlc i^r-^ndeur cf 'e'pe^*s co-^ceot, the 
product of a :'aR Inatln' lorrical reaRo-'iinr» v'h'ch hclped the ?urc 
Theorv ofLaw to emer<re fron thv rrest bRt'^le fcr the .lurl^orudencgi^y^ 
the ccurf'c of the firrt decadee of the tv^e^itl th centu v ar the 
fovorlte thecrv of Iflw, 'The lltPRiure o'boufelpen, i^^cludlncr pyGiematlc 
exporltio'^f o^ hlr theor" nnd pyrr.pnria wlth aut^oritalve contrlbutlons 
asnurr.ed plf-antlc '*ro:.XM''tionF. /iceordinTly^-tlle irrpnct of th ^""ure Te 
The^ry of Law on Jurlpprudence wqs farrs^ch ~ ^\cc . it hp.p< be n said by 
\V, l'rie .'inqnn th?^t hardly ony branch of lec.oi theor^' ha? r'-m-^lned 
untou hed bv 'el^en'^ theorrv, --^nd even the bitter t ooponent of the 

"Viennf3 Schocbl'* conceded that It hon forcedlec"?! t'nenry to reconalder 


ItP Position« 

'ihe BODta^e^irflQJevcöhtPhverR'' whlch hnc be n c^l''e':l fort''> b)pv 
-Weisen *s U'hrorVie^Si^^ of Lnwin one of t'ie nor:':, frultfiP ef-'^ects of h48 
teachlriiir. Hie CpanlPb Jurlrt .ecraz y Lnof-ir^ibra runmecJ uo the chnracter 
and clp^nific?mce of the debate b^' decl.'^rlncr th^'t lerr-ni thl>-j'-inff o*^ thls 
Century muri, nccerrarily be a "dlalAp'ue wlth '-^elpc-ni" tho'^rh one must 1 
lo':^k beyon^ th.' borders drswn bv Kel??t:n ^or rrn nnchor^fre of the la\j * 
T'G Tiirrt r ■ai'^l'C.'t'ble c^ntrlbutlon to t'r^ r hl^tprlc "il8lo<ni§/ hör been 
rrade by .Welpen hirrelf In a hupre seauence o' wrltl- -?. lepider of 
cou-^tlep- articlep «nd boo^^-revlewp In which hc? h-^r reolled to hls 
crltlcr*, '^ la>^f?e nur^ber of comorehenrlve ou" "l'^citionr? ha? be n added 
by Kelsen to the ba^ic boo^^p uoted alre-Tdy ^bovf-. ?nlv Forne of the 
nio<^t lr:.portant wor^-ca of thls ana25lnßr or^duc+loi cnn be ii^entioned here: 
^;lg phi l o roohl?c jcn -^unül'^^cn d '. r •<g}tin''^echtp\€brr u nd d ez ^echtr^« 
DOGltlvlnKj;g ^ 19 '^8 ), V er>7e ltün>^r und H-urpU t^r. ^ll-^) ) > .Gen eral 
Tfeeorv of Law anä State ^ 1945 ) ■ '/hnt in Jnptlo eV { 19^'7 )• The 
pc^ itiviptlc vie^v has be n exoounded bv -lelren In there and In hls 
prevln^r workr to the extreire conr-equenceB« "nl^' recently i»^ Uf^trla»- 
frr whlch the fou'^d';:r of the "Vfcenna "chool" liad been bon ed forsso 
many ye-jrc, .Celr^n's jrierltc bp the puprerre theoretiel??n of t!v poritive 
law wcrc rumnarized by i^en*^ i'-arclc In th? >iov6r: "'Thr^ugh Kelsen the 
poGltiv«: law har found itr o''n peculiar m.thod; onT" po pcle^tiflc 
le^"--il popitivi? 'lae becoir.e poBr-lb^i at all." 

The opootttä)0'^ ap-'in^t the ^'vre T -^e^rv of La--' c?' e not only 
froTp theadhercntp of tht: .^oclolo -ical in^' orvch'ln Icnl nnethodn. 
Keinen * rviilent at'acks on the nntur^d la'-^ and hir ir-lVt(-4"^i.!^5 tv^^^ü^t^lj^ 
'I^P to th Idea of jurticecalled fr^th no leG^ critic^«n: o"^ vnrwiv ohilo- 

sophlcally mlnded Jurlntr. Mittjh^kllttihedue recvr^n 1 tion of the 

^«/~ (Ml 

^iiy'^Xu^\>^^ contributiori w^}6c bv rel-tlvirr: tr toler-^ncc ^ncl p^'mDathv 

•^'>r the vrif tler of le^ol Gyptenin ,thc ne^-ntive or merelv pubjective 

sp'^vo^ch to thc b.imin<' oroblcrp of humon erl?^tence In -i torn world , 

whoi?e d1.vlfli.onp hflöerrown to Irreconnllnble ex+remepr, a y-orlcl which 

hgd be n iirnerllleci ^'nd hnrdly epc.-ipet^ th*^ de^-dlv dan» er of belni 

en^^ulfed b^' ß realni of Irj'lep'nef?^' inflpnuer"!din<- ^r a ptat , ^SP'ft^ß^jäuwfeny 

to be 

j.^v'^uf f Icle'^t . T'^e need of po.'HC Qbcfödihö'^ Pt^^H'^^^Ö 'rip? tjot been ef^aced 

frou the rnui.'^ bv the Pure T'ieory of Lavu /^r'^l^-t ^ he neratlon of an 

— -»m 

ab?« Tut'.' V'^luc '-f ,]yjvtic. o^ÄC'-s wer-c ra'.aed rll. over the globe. 

Llke '^mong the co-bullderp. of thp " .'lenn?3 chocl" r»nd leter 
followsrF of .-Ipen, ]urlf?tfi of JewlFh oripln eycelled qIpo aa analv^ts 
of ^cleen'p t'ieorle?. To whl<^h dcrrecfmddvn-rhtlbbpr ot all the traditlon 
of ^udclp^, in whlcht'ie bellff in the dlvine murce of Jurtice and he 
Ide-Q of ^u^tic»:: Itnelf held foCDl po-^ltl-^ r, har co ipcüioualv or 
unconrf?i^u"^lv -. rhare In the «^dvocficy -f nnrurnl law by Jev/ieh jurl:tc, 
1p obvlourlv Tiatter- of conjecture, tut the t^Ptttelvettowticip. tion 
cf Jcw? i»^' lendlnrr role? on both slde? o^ the rtrupr-lc for tne clarl- 
ficrtlon '^f the fund' ■e^iRtfelp of t-:c Inv i'^ ? o^'Off o"^" the vitol 
Intercrt - w^ hrve tnlrcn in the cent'^^ol orob'^em of Juri? prüde nee and 
Oöpetl^tDt^^ fee-O'^ho^örPb^eachaoter 1" the hi^torv of lefrßl philo s^ophy« 

.'imonr the Yor^c of Kelpen*r- /»nrtrlr.n follove^'^ of Jevinh de pc^nt 
[ ne ■ nbove o. ) rmy be DartloularTy irie'^tloned : Felix 'auf r]:ann , '"^o ;l,k 
und K e cht^v.'l' e nsch qf t* ('»rund rl n^ elncR ' vte;: s der rc?inGn Hechtf?l9bpe » 
X9I9?"^WT>r -ind l.ethod enl h re der gozlqlwl^pensc' f '. en td^EJS'^i J^sufmann doe 
dcep, hov;ever, n^t ?-^c-ept -'^eleenV"^ dullrtic vj.ew on th "Is" ond the 
"Oupht" ): Iritz "Chreier, Crun dberrlf e und "^rdn^forre nd der^ F:e"atg; . 
' tri^hji and >/111i?irii -:'benstein ' s con.orehe'^aive "::on'r, jChe t 'u e I^ieor^ ' ^f 
Lnw» 1945. From the ran^:^ of the "Vlenna 'Ch^ol" CF^rre alpo Keleen's 
mo^t veherrent oponeott » Frlt^ ^' ^ nnder « vvhn O'-lrin 11" wap nn enthuBlast'. 

- 73 - 

of the -jp-^fptete a/rolnnt the rna^'ter: iffoBitenKelie e hfee^ Hecht elehre i 
Kp rn ; ' f s c li ri f t ^e g;en die r^orjri.q t •'i^ ' ' ^ * ^y yi g o r u^ e r^ ^ . 1 9 P 3 • '^ '■ a n d e r h, ü ^ , 
howeveriffeftwrTfdifJp publ' clv reco,cr.r)l?ed blr: Oeep indeobtedr^esn to 
Keleen snd p-^ld hirr; the hl^'r.he^''+. trlbz^^ l-^ hlp /t ll^ene- ne GenelIscV,fta-' 

ielirSa. 193^. 

A very dlf^nlflccl crit:l.clj?r. cf KeTsen's doctrlne w&: put forv/r^rd 
by ^d :],f ''>r)zcX • '*'hlle recop^ntsing the nerltp of KelsenVs lonic, he 
exphürlzeL? ''.he ponlti^'e vclne of what ICelper) c-'-illed the ''hypostatlz^ttlon 
of the n*-.5tc. ' uttherir.ore ^-enzel Dclnted o the tap>s of Juri^prudence 
whlch carinot 1:>e fich--€ved by a ^"jurelv nörrr'iti e ructh6d anJ declired 
thpt 3 c-""üt'ous une of the err.oirlcf:!! rr,eth"'d wap^diris^^lble . "^/^jltcy- 
i^c'cpteln in hi?' worV on the 'r^nclcnt rintur?! Inw ( pe^ r.bove p. ) cgiue. 
to' the üonültipi-^v. th^t nr^tunl lav; conRtltT;.t6P p. ooncept whl '■ in the 
part hdP bccorrc the carr'er nf rov^l'jtio^^r'^^ ethiCTl reforr.s anO th^t 
it will co^tinue t^ '^unctlon -n th^p way. /'n.gllv y,R . Jjcrer.fel^l 
( SC'- above p. ) in hl'' nt'jti'' Re cl 1 r c o v e r '^'" o ' " J i ; r t x o e, , lc47» bv an 
analyri« ^"f the frelln«- of .lu'^tice inn^te in chll ren^trlec] to o-^ve 
t^6 WQy fcr finölnf the ver^" e^ eirentfervvcuslitie^ of .^uFtlce. 
V i n .* e rman y -^-?.''ich Kf}^fr-gr in d e v o t e J a ^ pe c i n l Ftüd y t , i'' ri':iv der 

neu^ont ipchen ■ echt sphllp^Qphle , 19'^!. to the ex.Tmination of the 
nDrrrjti-'e trend in -Juri ?oriiöeriCe • -le reco/nlsec that Kelsen hy a 
"orltlc<-l 3CU en vhlch ir unnoralleled in out? liter'" hcF reVeifedd 
the h.onftruth.? in conteT;Oor8ry lcrr;l t'eorle.", ii^ut the work v/hlch, 
ac^TTdinc to i'?ufmr.nn' e' judorment, han to be done r;fter that pMrificati 
hßs been refu?ed by Keinen wit.lout .Justif ication. .<auf -mn contempaiotc 
the lew BP. a divine order - -nn evldently Judnic notion . - vhich urge 
inen to ^ormulate the pr'.ncipler o"^ ju^ ticc ,tthapi^httob«r are pubjected 
to cha ipei' e^-cordinp- to the time nnO territiorv.Pi^orn a different anc;! 

- 72 - 

invaluable contribution made by reltivlam to tolerance 

. 74 - 

Henker cncl ^e rrnan i'"fiv oo'x^red the ?urc T cor- of Lav , nl-ilr, nn- ifhro 

for th norrar li^re for all vjlue^- the ch.'irgter nf n pn'^^-en-^lofy'ic^l 

exintence. .o1,f>? .■nrl'ft'^dcirynnn , in h 1 p Le^-^ ^.I T 'Tc nrv d m(*>n p t r *^ t e ? .0 9 r 1 1 -r 

cu nrlv thcMt tiie orobleni of v^lid fundrTrxntcT norir CBnnot be polved 

witho'.'tin inoziry Into L->olit'icsl and r.':ci'-l f?ct? nnd t!int thup Bptrttty" 

ioornr-^^ohri Harol d ■ , Laekiin iyi^^tMte'^ofl' hiöarlr-^ti^n of 'Welpen 'p 
workf in hl''^ r.r ^mrne.r .c^ ^^QXl t!,Q ^^ ( fcrth edltion ) dccl^red: " r?3n^ed 
ItP poptulat-p.libbilü.'^'e th pun^ theor^' *o "be un9t5FweT''?3ble , bu' I 
b^JÜve g'if^o th/^t itr Ptibpt^ncc-. Ip f^n exerci''e in locrl^ pnd nottin llfe»" 
U» L.:j ute rpac^it . onc of the Pt'^jnc'nept /imeric^n folloucrr of Kf''ßer, 
ut'f-rred hir diP' ent from the pt-^nd of the I'urc Th nrv of L^v^ rf/rardlnr 
th^ re.^ectlon of th" n-^tuml l^w. le r-^'ired tho que:^tion whc-ther 
n?tur?l la\v ^rl'^ciple'^ phpuld not bc Iticluded in the hierrjrch^^ of lep-nl 
norrr-e ßp proPO€Ctl"<»e popitlve normp o^ n hl^hcr oricr. i.opt r'^c^ntlv 
0:Qr?T Cohn . s A^.-^.nl. rh^Jevl ph ,1urlPt, rpire" n criticirrr of 'elpe^T^R 
theor^- ^n the bnrip of exi^ ten*-lrllpt ohlloPO'^hv. Cohn m'jint^inp t ot 
epch cppe v;hich hap to be decic'ed b^ n T"v cr^nrt c-n be Juun-ed only 
by 'Velivinpr'* the concrete renl'it^' of the onrtofcT'^r cape« TVj«;p a dou bt 
1p Cfipt on the ef ectlvenep'' ^f <7e>-'ernlnnorn"r and even on the upefulnegp 
of obrtr et notl'^'^p. 

iipart fro- belnr the foun'^er of t.he Pur-: T orv of ^^pw and the 
Initiator of -^n unorec«^ d^n' f-^d ff'obr'.l dipcu lo-' -^bout the ep'encr; o"^ the 
law - v.'hü'ever ni-^y be itp ultirnrite renultp - Kellen hnp oerforrred llfirip- 
letivc vorkp of ar] undlpputable per'cctio'^. -n the lapt yenrp of t'^.he 
/iuptrlan -mpir-i , Xelpen ap the .luri-^^iC coun-^cl of the PilnSttry of -Var 
and in thir ct^oacltv in Imr.edl-te c^ntnot It'i the :^mperor Kr^rl tnil s 

vi 75 ^ 

leficUnr- prrt In thc •^•n.intrrjted att.cmotr' to rrorrrnlz* thc i'-r.olr^ , /:^ter 

thc v/sr Kelren'r oubllo nciivlty bc^nie, howeve-, 6ne of lantln??- rlf-ni- 

ficancc , for thc drnft of the /juntrlnn renulslicnn Constitution -,'hlc-T he 

preparo.i 1 Cooperation wfth G e o r ^r F ro e hl I c h y the { likeivipe Je'v'lph^born 

head of t!v^. deoartment In th*:^ Tecleral C'i;^mcell^.ir7 , ha? bc n - fter pro- 

tr.'3Cte'J GobatGs mlopteu wlthout eßreritlal chrpn^-'en, 'JlBitootibb ftrr?t.'V t 

conptltutl n 0-^ the i^G^ferlan ' ederyl rie public of OetobGM- l^"^ 1^^ forernÄs-f 

Harns Aelv'ren's xvorl-c« f-lthoiKrh it kae, -at th tii:ic of the regime Döllfusn, 

Tcplaced by snother conj?tltutlonf Itr wae doptlned to b-cconiG re-enactod 

after thc -.bolltion of the N«zl dorr.lnation wlt.) sorrie amcindsrnt'^ öaflöing 

Arr.on: thc rany rnerltP of iCelrön*^^ conccot o« the conf^tltutlon 

the Rhl'^tinp- of the plnt of gravltatlon fr lu the " .L^undeplH'Kler" to the 

'^B utt-3" iiiuct 1)6 pj^rtlcul^^rly ni:ntioned. The mopt outPtondinr fe.'iture of 
the •*•■•"" 

conatitatloi int howevergi 'hc incorpor.r'tlon 6n Itc ctructure of the 
-Ü.V£''_raa;:un' g^^^erlchtnhQfV t'ic- hlrhest conrtitutional court. it war 
modelled accordlnp to ^Celaen's own norn.otive theory and thur enrlched th 
the r'^i-lrr of low public la^v "by an entlrcly new inrtitution« ii^elren hiin«e 
seif callcd it h:U "mop' b*:loved oh". Idfc" nö Ken'S Karcic, the Aurtrian 
Jurlrt, h3F decl^red th^it throur--h It I^elfen ha? mnterialized v;hat nll h 
the '_ corlc^ of the n^itural la-v could not achitve (:.ven in two tho öand 
yearc! tb cccure in ef ective ^niarnntee of thc nbeis-nccbv r?.!! thc ororai% 
cPt^ the Ftate to thc- law« Ther«^~- 1p vet ancther hirtoric orovi:^iori In the 
cop^Etitutlnn '.'hich Kolpen hnp adv- CGteu^ the ab'-^lltinn of the death 
penalty in crcVir.Br^r vreceövre • 'ChuR t'ie laet .^Uc-tro-J.?i;ish lef;iPlntor 
tfo3iLfi5i30(§;j the huir.nnltgrian traoition of -on^cnfela t^nO lilaaer« 

'elecn blro bec^iLe the ruifci oritf^tive Interpreter of the iiuPtrian 
conptitiJtion . .in the ye r^^ 1919, 19"0 and 19^^, he edlted the conft tu- 
tl-nsl lav;a o"^ the Republic witi -^n hi^-tt^Tical '■'"urvcfv -nd oritical co-nren 

«■• t 

- 76 - 


.corn.entr in "^Ive volumer ,/ilre^cVv irj 19?3f th pyr-'teinatic work, 0-ästiferi?elc 
Q^9.%eTTe'Lo:VL?.tih p^ Ctfl?? tsrecht fol\>f^^(^i^ .in adrMtilon to thlP ccho^irly 
^k producti'Dn oerfor ecl nlonp-j^ide of Keleen'? prent thf-.oretlcal worden, 

Keifen servc-;; sr n i etncer snd Perrr.Qnent /civl«-er of the -onp^lt tlonal 
Court. •u'^.:erour crif-er wer: dealt with durinr h'.'c- tenure of the of Ice, 
amonp them eppeclelly thope cnncemin- tr^^ no called"i''ü2QSBSlilEüQG-!l 
( di'^'penpatlon mar' la^^ee )• Tlie deeialonn q-" the ■onrtitutional Court 
decl'^irinr' thot orJincir^' courts were n^t comoetent to decide about the 
1 fsllt:"of -^n administrative act conatltutinr the dir pennution bccame one 
of th(: ir:/-ln rearons of attacks by clericßl cirolei^ nn<^ pr.pere againnt the 
Constlt'jtion^l Court, and - in the end - of an cii.lnour: amendment r^agn^in, 
the an ointn.cnt of the mcmberp of the Co rt, ^>eeply rectnting the impair- 
rcent of hir 'denrert chlld,'* Kelstn decided to Icove /iurtria and there- 


ore gl adly nc eptcd the call to the niverrity of Colcpne 1>'^19?9. 

Kel «en 
But eventually bt* experiencc-d th^ forest sötirfr^ction to eee the 

conntttutio^i hc hnd drafted phortlv after -«'orld -ar I re-enacted nfter 

World WHr III 'v the newly eGt;^bliPhed ^^u trinn Hepublio* i^low ^\UFtria*9 

Indcbtf-dnef^^ 1iQrh«Tc4enin^dtGr wof ■^Jre&oltÄtpe* :)i?odro(fffbciall9rfe«9rofped by 

aolerftea-^fti? nol- r.n actF? on the occsplon of Kellen 'p eir-htieth b^rt•.hdy in 

1961. The -u trim ov rninent bertowed up^n hi:r in recornitl^n "of hl? 

irerlt^- of out-^or of the .uptri-m i'eder-al ^onrtit tion'' the Secoration for 

ScOence anc! rtr ( Certe,rrelQ..iRone{3 -^hrenzc chc-^ f-'r ■irsenac hnf t und 

KuncO nnc v. co-^ -r- tu' nt .rv te'G'-rHni v-a- stnt bv the xrcrldent of the 

Auptr!.Dn ^''enlJblic -n behalf "'«^f the errate ful nrtr^rto the crestor of 

the /iu-^trlon onrtltution ^rj<3 crrc^^t le^-al schoiari'vhilc the President 

of the AcBdeniy of the '"cicncen in a Bpecial bo. ver-^ eirpherized Keleen's 

"merit ^f h^vinp s'^-^^furt^' ic cou>iFeI of the i\eoublic f^urpested to incor- 

porate the idea o;" the bun desverfpsrunff p rericht p h f 1 ot the Constitution 


'^hortly öfter the end of of -^orlC 'Vsr ^x, -elpen had be n apx>lnted 

- 77 - 

Consultant of tbe ü.':. liepatment of ^^r^r f-r the nrep.rntion of tho 
ivureriiber^ trl-^e. üq fc^^läbe^^Mili^^O ^ilr hu-e --rv ■^bo';t m^J^aw of :^he 

in the ye'^rp 105P-53 octlvG sn Vlrltlncr ?rofef^-r - the ^^^ire Or-du-te 
Institute «t -enevai.^feere he had taurht in ^re wnr -e-^rr. T'- next t^o 
yearn naw hUi •:- Prcfesror of Interr: tlon-l I-^w -t the M^val '^r Colle-e, 
^.evp^rt, -hocic irUncl. X t war In th ^nt-nn tionr^l L.w Htudies^* of 
thir -:ollle:rGthat Keleen'r Irr-portnnt txDoV/rMil^ttivcL^Secuiitx^miL^Jter 
In t.Prnotlorol L,v . wa^ publlched in 19^>4. -i-nce then frecuent lecture 
teure in the ü.^ ., in thc iatln fmericrin ^-tfitcr :inc! i- u-ope follnwed, 
and a new ooctlvity -t thc ncvl - cre^tecl l-^titut.e for .^dv^^nced 3tu :7 
in Viennc-^ hbr be-n insurur^ted bv the tlr^-lcr rol> fl hier. 

Lp to t e .'-nnctment of the ContrtlVvÄtiön-^f 1-'^? Br^fes' 1.n^ Jewf^ 

were b^^r^^ed frnir- snv piibTic offlce, B';t evc^ the ecun''it7 '''hl^h w.q«= 

iiri'"licl tlv * 

proDt?€cl to ther; bv thirlrisic civ%lrrirht8' t)ip*pi]n£h!eö^tiat*iiin*SAÄ6flitatl'Tn 

Wd''^Gc? m^^^^nir^öfl inerory ap fnr ar tJ^blt^er t r' Option 4n pulic 

Berv.lcer war» conccmed« An unvrittcn l^^v; r^ thr /»u "tri r.n -Hipir«^ t'^'nope 

emperor mc! clvnnsty were for centurien hc .T<ort devout ordtertorr of the 

Cnthollc Oh rch nd whoct3 pooulition connirted t-^ an overtvhel.ininr part 

of C^t«-iol!cp, mgdc th-s a^hercnce nf Aurt^i.^n publ'o 8er""int? to the 

C-ntholic f^ith^'-^ nlmo*^t indlrj-^enfr^ble conditio^, Thlf^? npDÜed n^rtl cul'^rly 

to the lur^lcll of 'föenot^lirr-to thc orre.^t ^^jthnrit^' judrre«^ enjoyedt to 

thelr im^edi^;te c^ntact wlth tbe pooul,?tion -nd to thc r<?llrioun for^: of 

th€ oath which wnr t-^re^ by Cnthollc« In f^ce of 'he crucufix. It roer 

- in fld Ution - 
wlthout S' vinfT thnt s e-enuirie :inti-J"evi ph binp r^.p^r^e f^^t It^elf ptrono*ly, 

espeoially nftcr the the rlpe of the outr-po'- ^ ^^nti-'>mitic moverrent. 

Kcreover thc l'.Vnirtrv of Jurtice vnp tra- i-' i'^»-H:"^ly "h dor.eine o^ the 

snti— Jewirh CerTan psrty. 


- 76 - 

J''or all thene reRPonn the certificate of b^^DtiPtn becnme - <ja e 
ri:flJ.fee - tHe tncit •reconr^itl'^n o^ thc cidmlrrion to the of^lce nf a Judre. 
AAiini^r'titibcJI'^'By^pb'.'iiho- whether indeoenrient ' 7 fi-Dir t' • Ir latent !o>^ to 
facllitate their c.nreer or rolely for thip ouro pe - rn de the f^teful 
Step out of thelr cor'mumlt^' , the ipo^t fnmo f n<'^r:e'' c^m be f ou^^'J . C- '' tben 
Jo 8 e g f üfan p gr "' c h 1 e v e c'] t''ie hi-hert Position ar' the -resident of the rveic'i^ «' 
<^ericht s whlTe '^'-'mi.\ j "tj^^Q b^c h becnire the ^'rerident of thp uorerr/.- -ourt 
anfj <juliu p G"'"e or held the pofitlon of nn it'ornc-y C-eneral for rnen'' vf.srp« 
Ad the fourth boptlzed Jew vho irai»« roF- to thc top of the Juduclal hier. 
erchy In the -Dp^rian I-^onnrchy ot that nerl(^ / 1 f red Bnvor] von K'rnua 
( b. In Pardubi'zi^ .-oherriia, 18?'S ä.l9C9 ) h-r 'o be -o-^tloned« Hp receive ^!. 
3^ ortitoö6x 'ewi'-'ieducütlori, '-tudicd lav .-^t the Lniverrlty of Tr^pue, 
entereu the cnreer nr a mllltary Invver ( /. üf'^tor )r^r)c] • haviri" erbrnce ■ 
Chrl ?^tinr»ity - pvcne^deö In b cominr en»^obl€d ht^ ao'>olnted Prerldent of 
uprcme '■llit^r;'^ Coi.;rt In 1E81# 

paradocrlc'^ll'^' , nt th<r tlre '-/hen thf^pc ^our eTnln^int nen of Jewirh 
dercent h'?ld the h^^hest .]udlcl^,l of'^lcer o"^ /•urtrin -nd ^ore of them r'':?h 
rerh^ped i-uptrlnr» le^l^latloTi , It ^^^i'^ oractlc^l"! ^' i'oo.^^'lble for orofepf^ln^ 
Jew? to becorc even judrer rf low rrir!>«=? . '^'ot e-^rller th^n ir) the 

firE3t not bn:)tlzcd Jew^ ..^j' .„t^Q^'neyi, wa^ appninted .^ud-e at a Vienrepe 
court« The breni-: thr'^urhthe hltherto Tralnt^lnedoracticc' war demed «o 
epoch mpAinr th^:t d reference to it wa f ino6^p r,:ted in the In-^criptlon 
on Löv/ner's" t'-^mbf tone, . fter L-wrier rr-verrl r>rofe?-^lrr Jcwf b'3C?n"e Judfres 
at the lav/ courts ^f V'lennfs, j'-yen rrre nunierour were ruoh ap ointrnentF 
In the e.'iptern .iu^trla'^ oovinccf? of > nllrip ntr' iiu'rovina .wlth their - in 
poire partr «r-'^ther dcnre -Jev/lrh p^pul ntion."^'^!:^ fnct v.-n^ to have rtronge 
cnseouenceo nfter the di'' olutlon of thG .'.urtri'Mi r*in-lrf^. "ince manv of 
the Jev'inh .judprc^ in thosi^e cou^itrlCR avniled therpelven of the rl^ht to 
make their optio for the mewl^' created Au -tri- n Republlc, the i flu« of ct^ 

t - 79 - 

. /.*r.' 
• ,-,y 

abo'it fiftv ) too> nlace, The i^lnlstry of Jurt i.C€rree?b%Q^ to t^-.if? 

uncier-ired "inv-Tion" by thc aliit^vt compltte p.toppcge of the ^ppolntmentn 

of Jewp to Judlcl.-il Offices, '.ever-n. Jewlsi}' Jucl -es of the "olc^l guard" 

eüVQ :Ged, ho^vGve^'i i" thr. ustrlsn ueoul'lln to ref"^er hirh por^tp. Thus 

rhortiv before thf end of the Ficptiblio V^^ee nrofefrinfr Jeur, :^met 

Be tt!:^h^-t|;) , "H3:trt*?h -i ^^?C|q]qt- ,_ Lo>/; , !?erved a- hefidn of pencitcn at 

the ^;uoerior C'-^T.irt n-^ Vlenn". The pnre of^icc t the s«2 e court was 


Ceor c ^H^urfinn ^ ^ 

while the l Vc v;i pe Jewlph börn Judo^%.; ::r o^ '-v »^e >"^'ed ar councillor. 

Ar to the uorerre Courtf b- ,:)ti0m ren^^ined -ilro durinr' the twenty veers 

of the l^epu':lic p. orereoui^ite of nieir.berphlp in ,ony c'^p*;city« /.ll the 

Jewlnh Tx>rn ^udpep who durinr the d^yr of the Kfou'feTife'' fielä'"\fie^' 

Gf Souncll^iorr of that hirhef't i.urtrl n trdbun.^!" • Bi ^fefeeifi^ii L. ■ 

I ren'ceiy ren'cel * ^robsohcld ^ C'cor- Lcl e - er » v.'ho prevlouj^Iy had 

pervGd ?r Vice i'^-ealdent of the f-upreire. 'lirFirv Court, U adPi-f .^eüollek 
had poid thr.t nrice. Ch^ly r»:^ter thc re-eFtMbllrh::ent of th--: i^ustrian 
liepubllr- in 19^^' acl^^rich ^^l^^nc; uonn hir rcturn fr^rr the concentration 
cani-^ Therepienrtndt was apoo '.nied r^belfl^&at of n Und e of the ^uprenie 
Court t'-.vr- b< ooninr the only profesririfr -eiv who hQS obtainec that 
Judlci^l r.i^n^^. 

it hvonencd , t-> be rure , f5l«^n .qfter the renewal o^ the ^ urtri^n 
Kepublic thnt for thc firrt, tire 'jfter the dsvr nf ..mll ^^tcinbacö a 
Jurir;t of JewÜFh decc-nt, tho'K-h -i devout ^nthol.'.o, K nrl V^hle . bjcaire 
Prpeide'-t of thc .'u-^trinn GuoreiCe^&oiiffct . r>do^v?G.: v/ith an ontst.^nü 

penetr'^tic- intellect '.n-f^^ c; flP-htln^- -oirit, ,ahle h-^d Perved 

ouiitoble ^'/ 

8P p Jud e p.t the C'-urt for •' omrercin"' Zr^^ec in Vienn-i un*.il lljö. hin of jV ce by the .»fly-.i r-.c-imc Ijecaurc ^f hir JgvI h ^ncentrv 
and threatt jed wlth deoortation, he Pucceeded in rem^ininp- in Vie na 

- 6C - 

In hic31.nri 'üth an '•'^t rinllrrlted e>idur?no Gh.? s^-i hin wlfe hnd 

pone tiifeB'^\^"'"^hc orc1e'-jl of Incrcdlble h «»d.'^hlo , Wh--! hc flnally -fter 

tlie end oT thc war emcrfrcc] froni underprou 'rt^i hcevrHQ'-'lmrre'Uotlev 

ib Vienna . 
appointe ■• Prtrldent of the Court for CorT^-ercl'^l >-aP6'*,A-i^v ntually he 

rcnchcd the hlp-hert. Judi^cinl rFiV>.n -le sl-^o b-C'ir.e ''-V^^rldr^t of the 

iHiFtri'^n i^*--' oclotlon o"^* ^ixurep plyr^ In th t c^onclt^' tooV .-re.'-jt prins 

to pecure the obpo^ute indep' ndenc of th'^ Ofud"-'' fror the'lni-trv <S6 

Jurtlce. CpIv h'l'^ ret! rement l>i whlch hc l*^ l.lvl^^- n^'^r termln-'ted 

Wähle' p «^torrnv nd fruitfäiülcarerr. 

A rtJt hör co"''!3lder^b' e nurnber of JC-'-r h'ive be n c?;lled to 
the Beddaya'ierf nr;tüÄatfeei7Si2?htGbof . Ap.^rt froin ^ a ^ ^-c" pen , it" nre jtor» 
vh.? üerve:. 3; i-'c:T;b€r snd --erngt^nt AdT?4r';r 0^ th^r Court, -^nJ frorr. 
JulluF Cf'- ' G V' ho 'va' 3cfive 0^ x^erir.onent ^--oorter, thc Ip.vryere 
/rn o'l,ci - iFlrr .-'- c^b rreun^'l,ich a^d / >rthur ■■enho -^ b-'^cgrre ir. srberr of 
'hir hl h- h tr'buriöl. 

T .e abllit- of the Jewr for t :c Jodicl-a of'dce m-nlf^. Pted 

hlersr-bv. Ihe Jewirh Judf^^e? proved rro'^t nblc nd e-fTlcient al In 

thfe&r actlvlllep sfiC'ßni^^I'^^n'=odJf ^f;etti€lrrloi5oiJrfUolgl penfite? and 

j?s^ sln-T'e Judcree. ^ewfiTsX ^f therr roined ^rc ■ t rcput^tion '.nd 

pooul^r: t^? • 

i-n the . ustrlnn adinlnl<^r^tion "^'b nniBiffel'n « '^ thtetfet?etrt?og'eYUn<rer 

GTt^ Rer an.: ^^t6:!4fefec'o n nd^ehlbittgrv . '^rc oh , ^ ^'\e v gnd 'v-irl ^'^nr njel 

Cpf3nhut bcdo:i..-^ irisrrberF of thc H^r t-enbeys. C -^oup: of Lr^r•^ ) . „Albert 

^l^renyvelfy on^-: ^r; rnu: , I . A d ler e/celled in hlrh Tri>r' r ' erlol poritionpbby 

f> croritlve Ic-girlntive 3Ct^vit••. /e'-.'if-h jnrl^'tr^ pI'^-'gc nlronsnootJ^- 

st.9'^dinr r^le an public servnn'f^ ln/fl3j<id^^ of fln^-nc and ec^rr'^ni" . 


^-uch c3n act'.'^'it-' of trnined Jurtsts wae fncllitstec] tv the lnniG<^cluble'' 
llnr^f ii5i&^^ÖWl^>^%§u«^iV>rmittt^ctiärL^iS(3'iwl<t^h --^ythe ,]olnt facult5?-ßfof 

- 81 - 


du Inr thc i.onarchv ar !pecrttirrvo6''^t!bteG J6fet.t'nfct '-»nc becamc iSfovernnr '^ 

of the le" l>?t7 bRn> £e5.t;£xr^?hl?5.^1©.ifeä.'lDirfi^^^ wes an J 

expert O'"; curtorrjp pollcv an';] - like Jopef Kfdlio'i ^ coirpoacd a "or-r atxDU ; 
öbout ' hc Täifütl ooh'-rc of ^luntrl nn hirtory, yle.^.1 et g_t e rn... j :^ h r 2; ^.j h n t e e 1 er 
litöJIJlIIiflsM » 1."^3^.!_ Ichggd -o b'-ncr (Cb. l&TC^ ; tomtJhetheraäeQ« of \ 

^e -".firt- ent o"^ th . J-^ft3!i5ttl7yvo<?f Fcj>p&r?n iiffj^iirr; '-ind becaifie t"io /iurtrlan - 

delecgte to t'ie Le-^true of ^^'-'tlonr. ile ton vr-^r nn .^uthority in the sphere 
of curtome policv. Mi? v7or> ^. Uje irl.^p- ip-he .^' ti o-rr:il'--^ronoaie unf Ihre 
G ern^ r . IÖ95 wöh tranplnted into the French 1 v-^u^rre, iic publlp'-i6cl 
.lolntl" with Oupt'^v Gr9tz::o- Thc ec^notn' g po l l'^ ' nf I.} hxiBtrii^rduy^fT, ürv d .rlnp ; 
^1^. 'Vl^y. oth -iGrh'^rt ,9nd t^ch^'Uer were^'^rofep' orn -t the Inoverrity of 
Vienn-i • 

ni. Lnwyerf^ . 

xt wn fl'Tln^ the toTer-^jnt rclr-n --^ Joroeh Ii th»^t Je-vp were 
admltted to löeal f?tudie'^ ^t thtj unlvcr^- Itie ^' . The -^cult en d€nie(i them, 
howBFer»thr r.i.<7ht to acoulre tne deiorrcc of c? ..^c"/^r -^f Canon L^w .^ind thup 
preventtd theT fr'^: becojir»'-' lav/vsr^« tnn'^'v cnourh, due to thc ef^ort: 
of a rlnr-].c ev; na*:6d Joel a soocl-^l decre • { .iofc^eVycti „) 1 of '^"> October 
17^, war i-- ued vhlch entitled Jewe who haJ "coulred the dep-re^ ■ f a 
^octor o"r Qlvil Law '0 becorr.e eövocn^e? vri 1 h th rl ht to rcprecent 
'whriF'Aanr". xn f-plte of thir f^ucctr' t only g "!'ew iewlrb lawverc werc 
admltttc. to the hp.r 'urln- the next decflde^i er ::)ec lallv becBure 
bc-f^in-^iin- v-ith 1Ö16 s perl» '= of dccrecn vere proi nlp-ated reetrictln- 
t'*'e nurrbcr of ^he Jbpoctisln- X'-^vr^ers b^^ s nu' '-njr cluru^-« 

i:ven thc revolltlon oT lo46 iid not bri r ^bont 8 mitlr-jrji.ion of 
thepe mcnnurep. ^^ut in the *Gixtie^ of thv^ 19th ce»itury 3 iLovernent for 

the abol'tion of all rc f^trictlan? pet in. T e de nnö :^o^ a dre-^ b?)r 


( Fre ie /dvo'rtur ) wop r^Ueed pi=;ultane-u?ly in '^err'^ rw mm' '■♦trrtria. 


vhlle, however, In er':3iv fnc ntnrt Influential paniohlct a'rout t'-ilF 

eub,^ect was- v.'rltten/i udolf OnGir't, a farou^ eri; -'n'- p'holsr, in .^ui^trla 

one -.f thc inaln r=v5o kennen for the llber3tion of the 1 föI profer:^lon 

fron; brenuc ratio rertrlctionr war the Jewirh l-^/^er de'.'^rl, :-h .«J^gotjeg 

i aee ab'^vc p. j. x*i hir book> .-le ^'ly^ le ^.c:v ^ >'>t^'r un " i' T'. .l^-u"l tlve 

Cyrr;^^n '.p ^tj-n ^ lc''^5 ) he ajvanced "lolitioal sp ^-ell -^p efonomlc rey^öTf 

for t . e int 6^:nctlon of n free b?5r, whlch h^: conpl'iere-J to be ^p-uarnntor 

o^ Haw nn<l frecdom. Tae m-venrnt re^^ulte i i^-» the cre-^tlon o"^ ü now re^ulai 

tlvefor lav;ver'-( ■■d'^-'>,.-3t,e^o rd nu ; i7 ) o^ ^ -Julv 1P^8 bv whlch the • dirdsrlo \. 

t':^ the bnr v;a^ opened to ever^'b^dv w-'o corrpTie'i with th^: leTsl vo^^dltlons. 

Froiri no onv;nr:3 * hc profcp-^lon of a or.^ct 1. Flnff la'->?yer ( ^ Iv^'^gt . ) 
befcere- in th .^eoubllc Dschi^iiQ^^lt .. ) becnie '^nc of th'3moj?t fnvorlte 
ocfa^peti-DF '^f the u' trlan Jewf . xbt« Tie ^-^rtlv In^U'^Tountüble dif'icul- . 
tiep cnccunier. c bv Jewlsh op ^lic-^nt? -^or oubllc 8£rvlcc?, ep^eci llv 
f-^r t e of 1 ct of s Judpe, hcve undoub^ef^lv n-ritrl uted to the tendencv 
of the oe\/{7 'o rrn'-re upeof :h ir .luruptlc^'abllt tier s'- free lav/yers. T' e 
nuniber of Je-;lrh I-rvverr ircrer^f-ed r-'^idlv. 'hil(^ i^i ir''^9 onlv 33 ^ev/leh 
lavj^ers werc oractlFinp on not ri^ro thon 9^ c^nülcV- teö of the bar v/ere 
pDaitidincr ir Vienno, t'ic nunber of Jevlrn "] ■'\:crr .^rr.onr the ^61 Vlenncse 
lawyern gT.ounted tn 1869 to 39''^i thu- to -rc t'-^^^ one half of t':c tot'jl 
nun.ber, wh^jl<i; -^ '' th-'i :j60 er d'i...:Mtep evcn 6C ' ^ 310 ; ver?. Jev: sh. :"he 
nu ber of Je^/i^'n Icwve p' contini^ed to inore w-c j^tc^uilv, A "larteidiifirtiMX of 
•>ewlf^':] la --^r'- f--orr. ialir^l!? and ^i^covlna to vienna t ok olacc- ns a 
ccn£?öouencc --^ ' orld ./ar x. aa tn end the total of Jev.'i^h la yern in 
Vienng -Hlonc airo nteJ o sbo'Jt 17^^ r)rdn4.5'^incr dlaw^er*^ nnd 43" ca-didatej. 

."ithin the :nj-tri'9n ..onr'.lp '-^f tue .^nr i. , ■ vo'-^'et- '^ Inter _lecht£« 
B ) w ü 1 1 n - *>" o 15- .-■ e- r Q I' r-) ) Jev;r took nn .:ut*"tf?ndi^- -^rt-r Ihir? apollGf eppeci^ally 
to the .'iennc^e loord, ^-^r rn^nv ye^^rr Üevinh Im^-yevr. ncted gr ex-ininnlorö 
of the candid.-->t6p of the bar, '::6'^:v them w^re ^O^lf "'lg -- . the ^a'v^'er of 

- 83 - 

thc Cenran l^nbaF^v, ^/'i^ t ^'^ecir^ ^n expe^-t nn tnx I^-t, - e rn ?i -n r ■:? . l-> re c h ex ^ 

au t hör of j; thürou'rh '^'^r.Klv o^ thc Igv. of t.?ie r'^ilv.?,'3'V" , ^n i Kohert K ar ■lu g'» 

'..h€ rer.-.op ^ll>le of'ic^^ cf thc »'rr'drnt of th'.: ^l'^c.'.r)^.l^nrv Coit^cII whf 

h Ici n'mort ^err'f?^' n"lv bv Ifred i-^^ch. it h^ );\?n'-'d fln-^""!^' in 1)2? 

th;it a ^cwir'-! iMwer •a«^ elecle'i ^'r'-: plcient ^^' the .>^"rc] of th? 'ienn:"! i3ar 

-Ic v;a? Vxv pt'^v ^iarnner. t^ out^-ta din^' jürl?~t an:; ■'ornj.i''nnt or-t^r, who 

cn,j07ed ^j f.^r6;3t pooul" "i'ttv wit^^ir qn':'i out'Mv'^c n-"" hl' orofep Ion. Bnrloua 

eocl::il rcfrr:. 9 wcrc due to hlK« ii pyH:i.''9ture de-'th e^i.ied, however, 

i-inroner' ^^ ^ i-vr '■-iG'''^cv ::)'5d^" in 1 "^^4 . -l!ry';t vcht'- 1 ^ier anothrr diewkeh 

rafiuboß^ of thG Vic-n'ia ^^nr, ^Aec frC^^"^ ^ -^'Mior i '^''^r clectei: -rt '-j.dent of the 

-osrd. v.-^ntnr - ji-^ nr.:ent -i'^nif^^t - c^:nbi>^ed rrc-'t --^ö'Mve firfeftt^l 

tlrj': v/l ' h - univcr-'^nl ,]urirtlc lcnowlfci.lf?e ^^nc devote., hl'i^elf to tri'= Office 


tlrele-r^: dev^^' • -ut iiir funcion to^ , wr. brolo^-n üo^.' r-lrc-'-Kn' .-liftcr two 

\earc b^ a decrt.-. o-^ toe ..Inirtrv of ui;ptic-- , n fore bodinr- o^ tie 

ap.^xronchlnf.' c^ts^trophv, ^rcjcrin-- the ter";in.*:!t.3 on o-^ .n1 1 the of'lceB 

held in th- ;UPtrifin ..-oardo of thc i^-nr. .'fter t'-^o reizure of /»utttfca bv 

f»hoto!rz4'?n'-' itor wn- nrrcrtcci b^.]r permlttei t^^ ''.cv the cnuntrv« He died "* 

1'.'^ A'ev; '.'or^' in 

-■>'"' t: . ^'er out'^-et» ^urtrl^m l^'yer^o'^" - *:• 1 rh dfpcv'^t hnve 

:xcc''lec! in -^rlour brnnchcr of th: lepel or- otlce . ■ I mjr-h J-cQue^ 

vjho "HF hei €(] ^n )nv Q tho WRV to p fre b^.r 'n-^eri'ened i • ^ perien of 

crest trialr, :)ubll<^'v i nur goup Jur'i f=tfi^ oo'-^ , o-ir*- * ciu"! 'irl^- nT.i6üt upury * 

gnd th«^^ law o' thc ores- , .nn-- >;«»«=• nemlDcr n-" thr, j^ichrr_t > H^'une of 

Heore-e^t ti^'e- ; f :-o ■ lb79 untn, h' - denth i b^' Pticc^de / i" 16H. One 

of hl^'-» Ic-i'-'l" ' ive achiever entowwa^ thf: dr^^ftin • o'' the nev; lai-zf? on 

t a c p r e r r n nuco o v r 1 ■ • h f' . • -^x -eudn (r^lne . v; o r 1 ■■. • f --^ ' c l"."'; h 1 r ^'^ nl (• n c3 1 d 

foreqrlc p>111 a'.v; clof^u no*-- . «erhsps i:3i''-- •Tt^teFt triurnoh vjne the 

cccultt^l of Ict^-^r '?o ■ Cfenhein, the i^irG-t-^ro^f f? ligllw<"*yf' -ompany, 

f -o;. th. ac "• rßtion t"^ ha'-'in/ coi • itteo frriidr.': fr.'judp l>i co^v";e': t.lon wi*' 

•.••«• 4 

- 84 - 1 

senratioinl bec-iu.'^e the charcrer §r':ir!Rt Ofenhairr: ^'erc backed bv the ^.i^ter 
Kilnieter of con ercc -jn'-l , in f«ct, bv the whol. p-ove rn';,€nt , '• onc Meucia's 
coli c .^ .o-ue G , -^dr -yri'' J-nM^br':!'- er r • ■ i »^ - cl a s lil 1 1; •ir r ' ou t -M: 1 o n ♦ - e o f ^ ■ a •• '*^- 
brt terf: qd u p e s . e c 1 e ovi. r „v: p b hlr deferipe cf the ^^'-ll;^-.!! Citizen 11' er;'^ 
Tourvllle before the urtri-a^^ '-UTircr^e Court, rra;rville ha ■ ef:n condemned 
to deifth b" court in I>'rol for li^ivlnf^ kille hfc^-^ wifc v-rhllc v;hlle tsfhto'nMin 
the /*Il)srby purhin- 'icr into n^i ^bvsr. ^nrl':br' ' er ruc^'ecded in h^vinp- the 
death pen-^'ty crü.uted Into Ibyenrn ir:; ."'rlponriG "t • 

K:'rriund i-^cine'ii^-t ( b. In Vi- nng 1851, (3. lil?') ; h:ldr sn O' t?t^ndlng 
plf'Cc iifl>'XKtFi::{rTx^i:?xxplsrKK in the hip-^r^' of Vae /^uptrinn bar ar, 2 repreeen 
tatlve flrure of the Jurif^tic vorld it the «tt^jre both of the 'irnplre -^nd of 
the i^epublic. ^Ic exccrllcd er g civil e? well ':f « crirr.ln^l lowvcr, urfolded 
a re::;ar^:ablc \l' cvv.ry activity ^r\C ir^'luGncecl /lurtrinn lr?^irl;?tlon i rrany 
fl Icls . hr favo'ite at'omev c^ rrest Indr^-^ripl rtrr , -cnediVt plegded 
In severol tri?lr= of'.BjJor cconoirlc in erent . Thu- h»: defended the 
centr'?! dirrctor nf the -^r&r r ^itrenl-.iclivHrlee-^'c r Gn. rch-^ ^t i-^e'^trsne^tt 
flpsHüst p libcl Fuit '-^f th? ^ouncl^lorp o:^ the ^-rj^r^e -onirrunlfty b*::fore 
th Vvr^fwe Jury, "hortly before the end o' '-'orlr] V.'Dr I, i»^ th-:- 'r.!rl 
ap^üinFt ^'-^^:e 'lennc^pe '"In^ncic^r yi^o vrerc ac u*^cr of ''r--.u*1cCorl"ltfeöd on 
tht oC'"'a?"lon of comrlf^' lonr for the .orrrv ,i]en ediert ^•c-re' -^re^it suc^eJ^p 
by achicv^n^' the ncouitta' of i^r. iCr*?nZi one 0^ th-'. do-^cndontf? , bv the 
r upreme Ooi;rt. xti 2?aet »hhi-ev^r, th dealinr 'vitii ^nrcr '•^f th'-ci\'il Inv 
v;h i c h c on r t ti: t g o th pr": ^^ te r D'ri rt o :^ i3e n e cl i vt ' ^- f i c ^ . in :^r'i c t , hin 1 aw 

rfficG tc itier th^it if hlr aa<oci^te, th U>\vi^e ^ev/irh Invj-'er, Ad olf 

^GChrec h . t ^.c rc. or^ ent'' tlvt o' the h -he^^t r;:ri r tocr-c^/ ,v/'r fr^renort of the 

Vie-Q'-^e^ Ic'-iW of'^iocr'n the l-'^^t tv.n cJec'2d'- r :~) i-^r t^' V/oJS '''^v I. i^enedfilrtil 

hir*'tlf '-^.ir! erc-^t: i ^ uninue monurent o-^ t'.'e'-:- '^Pti-zitier ':.v the oublica- 

tion of :? pelection -^f hlp own forennic roeeo'^e^, ^v"lf '>r'. chtnreden 

- 85 - ■ '" ' . ' 'h. 

Bur- ^ien -Tnhren i:..S0^T911, \ '11*^ ). I--^ hl? theorrtlo"::! wor>?, l^:niieA\t 

deält wlth D^obl ^^f of t--^€ crj.i.lnj:!l ar well «^ of t':- oir.f Inv, Tbt the 

rrort Inrtlnr- llter^r^* ^ucce^-- hron?:*ht t5ln^ h'«^ ho^\, Jj-- .Vlvo ,':.4t>iJr 

fn->-t-) ed. 1)1P 
unge:pcr ^clt i l':)0 5'J whic'i becaie tbc Gl'?^''ic -ib^'jt thc t'-enne of the 

bor. l-r!ir!z 'H ein jtÄb'.orrf^.t'^r of f-'e nev; /'urtrlin l!:>?i'l'f"o^'3tiecilnf^i 

Cölieclfne b^^o'- "t."^'^ mort- i,To6rten^ For^^ In th': h.l'-tnr ^f fne bar, bv 

virtut of ?n h?]po^^ c^mbln-n ' ion of pvntVirlp nnc' imiveralilyijL 3 contribu- 

tlon to tfic hirtor* o^: O'^l.ltlcr- ari'.l c* vll ' z'-^ll'-^n in ^^■. nti2^a ' . *' endulirt's 

reform tlve Gctivitler were clevted p':.rtlrv.i,'^rT^' t,^ ti criiülriBl law. 

-c vjfnF fcr rever^l. earB3 ^Gr:]ber of the l^iet of L^ower Airtrln ( Lnnc'tng ) 

?2r5(l bcCf^r.e i^^ th^ ^.eou 11c thci c'^ni rrnn cf the C(irT:;ir Ion for the conr. 

Contrnlof ^^ubllo cbtF ( "t tprchulJdanir^DtitiiJäl^'roTrTiiii?'- Ion ) ^vblcht 

Gc^crdirv- to ^'elren'r lud.wement »3 fl eoufl in rt'-tup wlth the- rrjrli^.!T)cnt« 

Kroi" the lonp 11 rt o ."' the- outptonüin'^ Jclrh crlmincl la^yerc 

S^iJ! excoT^I enoc who flourirhed in the Inrt decRt.ler of the Monprchy^ilf 

soü.e cn^en ud to f^e (luvr of thr. UepuMlc »onl" n Gcantv se''cctio"' may 

be o-^fcre-; her^; : ,'..r3,e drich It^lbor: ^^'' « Ouc- tpv . ■I g.r^ner , ^ucl vr 1 ^ . H c r :: be rr- 

_r?eiicl, „.Aii, c '-^ r? rO ? rr p ^ bi^ r .^g r > ' i 1<^ ^ • '-^^ en f e 1 d t :• dvnarr.ic apesVer of 

an irrc-sl stib?-e ^-it a^'id irnpc tuorlty jxstat th-:- valliönt >ei--^^rich "^t^eger * 

•■^'u'^.lu-- Ofner har to be be ' en^.lone'-' herc too , not onlv e^ one of the 

mo?t '^utntindin - hnr^^lcter? of t'vit epoch,btut .olro a? the prototype 

of n selflesr -m' u^tlrin.c^ defender nnd ndv' ner of ^eoole in dl-treo-f 

lie war ever nend- tiiTxxnKxx^ to enp?3;Te in the fi^-ht "or ju^tic' 9nd 

thtrc-^ore h?.r ri'htl"" ncouired the n&c^mr^rre, "'--to the ^Ider, rFtöpnnaa 

durln- t:e -onMrchy 
liof-Und GerichtPodv-'cat" ( titl^ of rhe ln*-.'yeiB who proctired in the 

iaiperigl ) • Cfnev v:red ,d1po hin D-f3.Ktion '^? 2 I^eniber of the 

r^rl'.arent to eppoure ]\\p\. caunec. Thu^ he vr-^freä r; deroer-stc J^trug^^'le 

""er the reh-'-nlUtPAtio'-^ o:^ Leopold HiT-ner^ ^> vj.ctin of the r' taul niurder 

of nn 
P0Grsibltt6n'^ ''^n(\ -intl-vlev? ph b "P, vhose d-- .-^th oenriltv hod be^ n co'^utr 


- 8*^ - 

In llfe Ir'Drl^oniren' . Ith a boundlepp tennnlt ■ ^ f -er nur uecl thlp 
Ptru'-""le ■f'or 18 vei*-^^'* it wen i^lnnll;^' 1 he rccuert irroented bv Ofner 
as th-: henu of andeoutption of th i-urtrlDn Je^r'^'h L'ni-n to tho *^dnlPter 
of iluetlce nn -aro'i 1), 1919 tfi'n ;)r'3cccIeJ 'l^'l nri6>"' r amnertv prrnnted 
b.v t he iiiTi oe r r> r -^ ^'i n r 1 e 8 . 

rrorrinent. Jev.'irh lav;yerr int.:r\^~''ie:cl In ??c:ver'jl irajor polltlcnl 
trlalj? rt the ti.rre of the /lURtrian I^onnrc'^v • /'.^ eerly ii^ T680 €hfef_ 
n psf^nblptt nie— ie^l In irnkow for a frrouo oi ^ollnh ; oc l-ilint' ,then 
conpidere ! er 9 rubver'^'vG p-art', -'It,' the re'iilt th-^t all the occused 
v;ere founc not ^ullt-'. i*^ 1'9C9 '--cJirunrl j.encdi'^t ^:?cf nderl the hl?='orlsn 
Hcl'^rlch F>^ijedju^f' ''r-^lnf't th«': oh^^^^ '^ of '^'^ rtcmber'" of th^. -ik.%^ o^^ 

to. h V6 KX 

^'[^greb or n^'un • publlr"'^' n llbell-^ui' •irtlol^riicou'^inp- the •''er^o^ -root*»! 

tln on^'ltio'i '-^ nlnt/liT 3h?in?t the iiur'fTinn, >jn^-'^^l'?r! -rnnirc, The r 

trl?il , m f^rcnric orelude of o-ld v.'.^r 0a» rn ci b^' ft] a^reoirent In whio., 

'rledju^cr'p bo'T' "flder wa • 3tt3rted* '^ho cot; ir- 1 n-^ defence in the 

hifrorlc t"»'lal ?-'^'nrt -^r» '^^rel Ir-irrar nnü the O'her Chech lov-äders 

accused of hi-h treaf^nn befor-: the nilitarv court l»^ Vie -no 1^- 1916 wap 

'-du '^rd X^'rner, t r:<^irbcr of th /iurtrian ^arl * an/ nt , '•'h'^ 1 ter Vccnrne 

the Preftldet 0" the ''uv)rer.e Ac^onntinf^ Court oi Cr'echr ^lovr.^rir . -^izhhai 

howevcri also t^^ be rccorde'i that th /:urtri'.^n ^ overr)^'en* c'nrne ömong 

pll th.: pilit.'.ir^' .luriPtr st Itn dl?o-.ral, feh»'>J§r?l!ir-diH'ttrtctcfctttI:t)rti?y 

y Qr'•'thc-'3^fe IPy^^^t«??gpllBl^aopcl;yt^bblA>ö^^'c>p^feegutcrPwb6 .J'feQ oMectotifjyrfcnl'it^ 

v' tt)(5'l5l0E:fl'^tue 6hirl:«Fl-4^^'!in^'^ the nc-Mced poll tio.1 -.»nr In thst omlnour 

trl.'.l. Cn ö pulte djf^ ocj^rion, *:oto-.y coul."' • hown rrrpeter 

coura -e nn.i -f^oun'* more pov; rful wordr In de^'cnre ^:^" en accusv J X)lltical 

cri'::innl th^^n __Curtnv i^^rnner ^'ben he dell^/ere; ;ir fulmln.'-'nt rnench In t 

1;)17 Ir. 

the triilb'^Ji.'^'ot'ost'^ p^trrtt-r i'-d^er who had ^hot th-^r ."-u^tripn -^'rime Kirnte 

JV..nintGr , Count ^t^rvh i- the irld-le of .'orl". -'Var i. 

in the lart rener- tion of ^ he i\u^ tri"-^ 'cv;: •■ '-i lo^'7er<- r]es tnlent 


vaöe thelr apoe-^rfT^ce In thc crj.-'T:!! fiel.;?, T"n€rc ^-erG - to r.r.ntlon 

thC':ort-iv ^'.on nf hir- 'T^at frther', ^Ujto e'''''n'bX''r-on "in": 'I err----n n T'^rko l« 

• rl-fu-iril "'"i-ure^ nr^p-^: » '^icrhtin^-' v.'i'--^ the ^'oclsr^t v/enponp of hurnor and 
Irony ,'^<?^ t!bht Ir&iFiiurtt ' U^j^rln^bni^e' o ^iill fe^ t .^ItTio t , norl t r r-r ho hä e o r that 
Iney'isurtlble yccir'^'srxx^ •''' 1 1 , ijl.-1uiI2-- ._iltX]2JlI!± ■*• ' t'nc nü'eroue ;>ollt.lc9l 
trlfilr \vhio'- :)rece ied thc alx)lltinn o-^ the ..e Sttbllc uy th-: ^^nzir^, 
thc cefcnec 'f tho accuBed o'Tcnu r' - I.V. r'."".' , roci'^;!! '• tr , cc:.' unl ete 
- wsr fnoPtl"' ."cfor ed bv ^e-.rlr,h l"yer? ?":.onfr who^' bef^lde? AuffQ l^p eybc?!! 
paiHcu arl'- ■ ron c h"nho f, -lei nri eb ,., '"te I ni t. q > C;p:-';Ttf ^^iciit er» Cn^^-pr 
'-"r-e bitten e^rcel^ed. ii'vGn ^^fter the peizure nf Lutri" bv thf r'ozir In 
i n' ch '!.93> pn^c^. n^ thc ÄG^tpfn l^v er' In th<f :-' ^ri" ocT'i-^d v-t-Mch war 
left to ther: untii thev i/crc deprived c"^ t'ie'r rf-":.c: "ulftl^cdJtlhhltr 
dutle^' nvi ■ c-^ ">t'nu'-;' thrl nc'lv't'cr i'-h'ch V7e:-'e -t^tffintfeed.l^ated bv 

^heir ?r^ert ^r\'^ rlr oor+atlon • _rr>r ^ ^-■'^ hr j^ uf^; :^uro ')G rbcr , II: 1 ^iQh 

^•-tclni" - v;er"- n-^n^- th r. /ill thrc-e •.•^erirb ••' , Ti"-c mn^-:-- olhcrr of their 

col^eiruer in the '^r-^conf rntlon cnrro'' • 

in th " pVier^" «^"^ t '^ o'vll lov- Jevlp i l-t-'v-rr' h'-'Ve ^^pined 
cnridencc- '^1 reoutotl'^' In all rt>^'tn ^-^ ' '■ '^o ")ul;^i Ion • »-bovc all 
'in >.'len-T^ vit v'v ü:\^.(: tlrrc w'rrn iirlQUl -/^'''hr^?.'?, ; ■ r" -/r. ' n^e.'! in. aiberr; o'^ 
thr-: .bjptr nn ^:~^erl,3l -oirrt, ths Court o^' '■-'•^burpr -- >th-i anJ the '^Inr 
o"^ -^ul^Tirifen , ^''-~_n --dTri^in-"'! ^•-■eneäivt D\anr\-:-'^ i ^ r~ -'"'i' i.'^nnT c^i^re^ on 
bGhnlf o' thc bic- ^ n ':"tÄ-l • rtr^ , wh'.:>^ ^il^^H .-b^'^^^lcld , ^^ ie ■^rier] ^lanto 
j'snt':.:^,.._"' ■'^r.r)i r^C'^ and i'^h cln. P.osenbei^f^- nettl^::! thc af .nlrs of 
.'^u st .1 '^ n bin''^ > th - n f ^1 ce r^ c "" f-ax A'-I'S^» «■^'■ül "_U/ sf^^^" » jL^2i:£5'"'ö j>gj2fer^f r 
^hL- ..i^-^-..Qti^: 'llM.2 -nd c:fnf?.riny ot'-er ^jevif-h l.-.r-verr In '/ien- r; 'ind ^11 
o-'er urtri'^ t' ened wlth ^'11 -tr of all clf;r' cp l^cl dinf penniless' 
."^ro"" etyri an • . Jevilrh lnt\^Grr :^rccuentlv r-^cci'^l.Lsed nnd brenne rtnownr 

expertf In p'-'rtlcuTnr fleldr, a? Tor InPtnncc P aul Ix. 1 . ^bu\ -<^yrtn , 

He inrich Hjt 1er in thc law of tra-'^e mnrTrn, Felix ^itg c h-ann 1*^ the 

law of patcntr, II inrich Mittler. ^HQh ^^^1 Otto 41n-bler in affairr 

of fair praciripeF. JeA tt»MiblC#t »et Jdeq^ofche^tllKoritz rternbercr in 

thc law of tenantP» hjro Kn(ii3f ma Qher in the In of mininpr sr\6 forwarding 

Paul Klem Derer In the af %ilr'^ of the actorp. ^e^'eral Jewinh lawver? 

became verped In international law and prained renovm a? "ntem^tional 

lawvera as Edmund x:>enedi kt. R udol^ Bienenfeld. I-'^a xirrilinn Ktfasler > 

The partlcipation of Jewf ighlawyerr In public life wa- verv 

conpidcnble, Hei nri ch Jaqqucy war one of th? firrt In the firpt 

pener-jtion of Jewlsh lawyera who became a meirber o' the Ret8? 1iar €tt > 

Very few, if any, m-nibe a of the ?arli?ment loo'-cd back: on nr lonp: and 

as fruitful activity in the ilouse ap Ju liur Ofne r. laxtlÄdllirrt yearn 

of the Republicl'.9«ve#lir«Jewi8h Inwvera- I-^ax Adler » ^elix 'An ge ld . 

A rtqr Lenh^ff » A chill Ha D.)? Part tnu'^ht at the Unlver'^ity of Vienni, 

At the same time the lawverp Jacob -hlic h and Leopold Plapch^rep - both 

^loniptpf were llected memberso^fttfee City Council of Vienna, while 

their colleague, i> e pider Fr' ed mann, like iae a ii^ionipt le der, wa*" 

head of the Jev;ir Comiiunit' of Vienna. -i-hrlich, a man of p-reat cour-^ge 

and bl'^melesr interrrity, wap one of the firpt victimp of the Nazi t rror 

Friedmann was deported to Therepienptadt and did not return. 

Nnthinp- provide«^ a better yerdptic^r for meapurin^ the hicrh 

Standard of thc Jewish me'-berp of the/urtrian bar than the intenplt^' 

andthe rank ^f t'ieir literar^' activitlep. r^ome of their wor^^g p.9 thr^pe 

by Benedikt, Bienenfeld, Kiwe, K^'bl . Lazarsfeld, Lenhof 'r,LohPln<?, Ofner, 

Ml: 8?H1j ^BSffelF; \^M%1 %Ul, urzel, have be n alre dy mentioned 

In ad lition, thoup*'"» by no me^np with thc oretenpion to cover an adequ^te 

part of thir aatoni^hi'^ft outout ^"nß thup well aware of the unavoifnble 

oirispionp of equallv qualifiedworka , a pelectionrof porae ma.]or ptlb'*- 

- 89 - 


tlonp mav be offered here: Pawrli^öbe^, DtetgibaafegatIftegrQftghdiGhfarx ipmug 
lL9?I?^nr€UlhtA, 1908; Wax Adler, Die r:ta?^teauf f a8-^ung de? Kerxl thup^ IQ^t 
Jakob AltBchul. Kr'^rterun^'-en zum '^nter^'eic'n^ heu Urheberp-egetz . 1904; 
Arnold 11.1 sler, i^ie Prozep<^vorauF"et2nn en in d er '^Fterrei c'^ jpchen 
^^.ivilprozegrordnünprt 1699; Heinrich Engl>^t1der. j^l e 5^ta^^t,enloeen , 193?; 
Karkus i^ttinrer, i^ie Kartelle in Oester^eicti 190s; £rril v. Hofmannsthal , 
yer dcut ache und der "Ptcr eichlschc Fr iedenrv er trag; , 19?1 tJJj^fee VigpffttpgHB. - 
abgrabe in Oenter'^elch . der Techechoplovke l , De utrr'hj jbncl und _der_' chw ej^ 
\92l: Paul i^lemperer, ^as ^ chaupoider.c-eretz t 19P4; I axiiriillan Koep^ler, 
Telbetmord und T"tin^ auf ^^erl^myen J? 19?5' üei-^rich l^itf er, Hlov ale . 
Konkurrenz und Markenschutz, 1896: l-'-orltz ^temberp-, ii^ntm''ndiru''^ "brecht « 
191?, i-'ie neuepn ■'ohn un crptrcpetzfeg 19?3: Üupro ^'traur^ . , Die ne uen ^''teuer* 
fre p e t z e ; Moritz Zq 1 m a n , _öle_V alo ri 'ilrun der 'r o :.nfo rd c run^^en n-cl^ 
^'pter^^elchigchem oepctz t 19?4 

it Ir noteworthv that Je^^^l h Inwerr wer^' the authorr ^f the ^P 
rr.ort important v/ork öbout their profep'^ion. i dmund ienediktJ-p 
i^ke. . dvokntur uneer'r ^ej^ bec^rre a et^nd'^rd work on the pub] ct. 
Triedrich IP^bl wr6te the only exiptinp hi'^torv of the Au^^trl^n bar, 
Gepchichtc der ^Vter rei chlrchen .Advo'-atur . 19?5» "nd Ernpt Lo'^rlncr in 
the aut or of the onlv Gf^Bitroihtft^fernoioäcrppp^h^ifeJjott %I35 Au^trian law of 

tte bnr. Dg- Oegt^rrglQ:Ug Qhe;^n ^ q ^ ^ tt?epfat?ht ' '-iT] ^^gg]n^nt?ar» 19?5, which 
har be n re-edlted f^fter Lohnlnfr*? trar^ic deall bv hip Jewiph colleagBe 
Rudolf i^raun in 19^^0 . 

i^quallv iTT.portant a*^ there rlnple ^tudiep wa? the partlcip- tion 
of the tJev/iph lawverp 'n the oublic dipcuppion o"^ the qu f?tionp co-^cerw 
ninr the bar, The countles'- articlea i9»blteheifi)vb^hthe5)r6Äe^b6(PoPoronalon 
iraprazires mlrror the condition and develprnent of the Austrian bar, 
abo^^e all the vivid, active intelM'^t ta'^en hv '. tp Jewlph meiTberr in the 
reform and the legirlrtive ch^nc^ep of th Ir orpanJ a-:^tion . r'ome of the 


- 9Ck - 

new refrulatlone were BCtuallypagie -ested and draftä bv the Jevlsh pr.tti- 
clpants In thlp dobate. Thue t^^CBirrylJia of the Rec ntsanw alt "Ordnung 
dealln^ with the securlty of the Intervclnr l8v;yer of the wlnnln-' party 
for hls Claims ha" be n formulnted ac^ordin'" to the propon^lf' made by 
Josef Schell In a aerler of artlclep et vgrl^nce wlth thope pro^oped 
by prof« OeorfT ."etschek. 

i\ very prntlfylnp work pui prenerir of frreÄtddoanraoA^sryyvvHiee 
for the hiPtoryo(5fttheJ'^w4/fchh /iu^trlan lawyern ^ß? been • thou^h 
wlthout t.hls epeclflc Intention - performed by Ma x Neude ( .lun . ) who, 
In corperitl^n v/ith Leo^chiuelz, edited a eelection of fnmoup Ppec che s 
dellvered before criminal courts« Bernhmte Verteidirung^r reden . 16^0 " 
1918 ) > 1921. ince Jbbre than one half of the ?8 ppenkern wcre 
^ustrlan lawyere of Jewiah orAr&n - Max Neudat ^Uois Herzog, Edmund 

Inp^er, Edmund Karkbreiter, Josef Roeenblattf Edmund ßebedlkti Heinrich 
^te^er, Guatav iorprepnteem » Friedrich E'bof^en, Ludwlfr Herzberp-^Fraenke 
Hupo PC'^nbrunn, Eduard K'*mer, Guptav Harpner, lermann i'ressburp'er, 
Viktor Rosenfeld - the bo^k of^erp a true ecno o^ the forenpic pkill 
exhibited ly Jevp in the last decader of the Su?3trign i^onarc y« 

Imd y t "the eplc of the Auptrian Jewi^h lawvers har etlll /,o be 

writlen» I^or more t'ia'^ the preüt or^tor-^ of the famoun who c-me fTrpm 

thcir ir.idrt the daily totl: of the thousanür of Fiinple servants of the 

law ae friendlv coinrelp and adviperp of the peop'^e, ar fighter- nfr-iint'- 

the routlne , ted tape and indolence of the JurUciary and offlcinldom 

partlcipnted in the Icral llfe of .=uptria "or nTm^Ft a centurv con^titu 

tuten the hi?^^oric ch ivement -^f the AuPtri- n Jewihp lawerr. The" hrwe 

inde-^d fullv Jurtified the lucid wordp of -mold Zweig "that in th^tr 

profep<^ion in which thinfrbfticlfeftelf^tfeajkthji^nkrendAlJraatatöcQlrQ^irtroe^ed/lr^e 

addineirht continuouply haiJleltoeni»p bibediedtth Jewish renufcr bv Its 

embodiment In the piain Jewiph lawver ha^ reached itr mopt lep-itlmate 

materlaliza ' Ion. 


Af?. '^i'S^ 

f^mi t\on£^ Ce^uecrxohl 


1^^ m^oizc^xpr- PMes 



Q Introduction 1 

I . Prelude: Joseph von Sonnenfels 2 

II. Wolfgang Weasoly paves the way for Jewlah Jurlsta 5 

III. Heinrich Jaccues and the struggle for civic rights 6 

IV. Julius Glaser and Joseph Unper - the Clasaics of 

Austrian Jurlsprudence 8 

V. The Pioneers of Social Legislation: Emil Steinbach 

and Julius Ofner 13 

VI. Jewieh Contributions to the Civil and Crlrninnl 

Jurlsprudence from the end of the hineteenth 

Century to the end of the Austrian Republic 

( 1938 ) 19 

1. Civil Jurisprudence ' 19 

2. Criniinal Jurisprudence 27 

• VII. Hiatorianr of the Law , 31 

_., VIII. The Creation of the Sociology of Law 36 

• 1. Julius Ofner' s Social Studies 36 

2. Eugen -c^hrlich's Fundamental Work 38 

IX. Vlslonary Legislators 42 

1 . Jo se f Popper-Lynkeus 43 

2 . Theodor Herzl 45 

X. New Theories of Public Law and new Philosophies 

of Law 49 

1. From Ludwig Gumplowicz to Georg Jellinek 49 

2. The Studies of Public Law go on In Vienna , 
Prague and - at. Harvard 58 



> ' 

3- Hans Kelsen, hls Pure Theory of Law, and 

hls Legislative Work 64 

XI Judges and Public Servants 77 

XI I . Lawyers 81 

■ 1^ 

" ' '"" ' - ■ ■ ■ ■ . I I I .. _ _ 

N., ■ 



Introductlon 1 

1. Prelude: Joseph von Sonnenfela 2 

II. V/olfganp5 Weasely paves the way Tor Jewlah Jurlsta 5 

III. Heinrich Jaccues and the struggle for clvic rights 6 

IV. Julius Glaser and Joreph Unpter - the Classics of 

Austrian Jurieprudence 8 

V. The Pioneers of Social Legislation: Emil Steinbach 

and Julius Ofner 13 

VI. Jewleh Contrlbutions to the Civil and Crlr^lnfl"! 

Jurlsprudence from the end of the* hlnfetöenth 

Century to the end of the Austrian Republlc 

( 1938 ) 19 

1« Civil Jurlsprudence 19 

2, Crlralnal Jurlsprudence 27 

VII. Hletorlanr of the Law * 31 

VIII. The Creetlon of the Sociology of Law 36 

1. Julius Ofner* s Social Studles 36 

2. Eugen ü'hrlich's Fundamental Vork 38 

IX. Vlslonary Legislators 42 

1. Josef Popper-Lynkeus 43 

2 . Theodor Herzl 45 

X. New Theorlea of Public Law and new Phllosophles 

of Law 49 

1. From Ludwig Gumplowlcz to Georg Jelllnek 49 

2. The Studles of Public Law go on In Vlenna, 

Prague and - atrHarvard 58 

3» Hans Kelsen, hls Pure Theory of Law, and 

hls Legislative Wörk. 64 

• ■..■• ' ■ , 

■ . " . » • 

XI Judges and Public Servants •••••• 77 

XI I . Lawyers .•.•*.. .•......•.•..•.*..* 81 

fi ■ . . ' ■ ' >V '•■'••. . ' « ■. i ■■' 

' ' ' ■ * '. * . 

■•'.••;••,■■•. , • . ■,;;.. !•:•■'- '■ •,;•. •■ ..-,. 

■ ■: ■ '■' ■ .' ■■• ■"'""' ■"■\'^ ..■; ■" •■' ., " 

.'■■'• ' ' '•■•■■■■•.' ' ' " ' 








{ ■'■■li 
r • '" 

l S,:| 





Stirfe au« ^ariS 

ionbcru Oidd)id}t«trcibcr. "Jic 3cit läuft mic ein JRfft t»or unä^ 
luv,' iiMi, bif iöiinbc, l)intcnbi-oin. Sic luirb nod) lange laufen, 
dir u'iv fio einholen, C5 luiib nod) lange bauctn, biö mir ©C"» 
iriiirincM'riinibcr merbcn. lud) — id) luill jcfet gc^en, ÜBcct&oücn 
f)öicn. '5ün}, fcd)5 fü((()cr Wcnfd)cu f)at bas Sanb, unter benen 
mir Sdinttcn gegen iöiise, Sd)ub gegen 9?Qffe finben. 25enn bie 
nidit märeii! Tas Monj^ert beginnt um gmei Uf)r. ^Qg fc^eint 
mir beffcr ali obenbj. £\)x unb S^ers finb reiner üor bem (Sfjcn. 
^4>iclleidn bnud)e id) biefe ^ad)t ben Wa^fcnball. 9Jid)t bcn irt 
ber ÖHDf3cn Dper; bcn fcnne id) Don frül)er, bag ift jum ©in* 
idiinfen; fonbcrn ben im XI)catcr an ber Porte St. -Martin. 2)a 
finbc id) mein güte'3 5BoIf in ber ^saäc, bai im 5uli fo topfer 
gcfönunt. Xfl ift i?nft unb Sebcn. Sauge 9iöcfc, lonflc SBeile — 
bfl? hnbc id) immer beifammcn gefunbcn. 



TicnStQfl, bcn 1. ^c&ruor. 

Tn« J^onjcvt Sonntag im tSonfcrfotoirc, ift, ir»ic id) mir 
brnfe, fclir \d>ö\\ gemcfen. 3o ganj au§ (frfabvung meiß id) e§ 
iiirlii. odi }a\) in ber '^lueitcn Üh'ibe l'ogcn, mnrm mie in einem 
Tveiblmiiie «nb iicrflcrft hinter ^•roiicuummeni nuc ein (Partner 
hinirr '^Munifn. ',Hn ber 3ciie frcrrteii mir bnmnic birfe Säulen, -'" 
lun inir i^iiniim" (irone löiite Mc lMn-M"id)t. 'Ji'ir haben ^"Hoiuv 
liitioncM i-ilrlH, bif hinfenbiiibriiic .slöiiine ningoiiiorjen — iinib 
ihh ^eu^ iiiitn oinnial eine ^)ieiiolHtion orbeben, bic bicie fludi>- 
b.laüoiru ^^iVibnhiitc iortiiiiUV 3ie luciben mid) fragen: "Mkx 
luo;- Ihi! iiinii in einem Moiiu'ito \n iclienV ^Hber eben barnm -'■■ 
bnrt ba.> Stflien nidit gellinbevt fein; benn ba^ :i)?id)t=fcbcn' 
foniien befdiiiitigt bie '?(ugcn am meiften. 5i^a'5 mid) aber am 
i'nbiief;lidiiifu mnd)te, nmv, bafj id) feine Sebne für meinen 
:)»iif!en baiif. fo bafj idi innncrfoit ftcif bofitsen mußte, mie oor 
fnni^i.i onlüen ein bentfd)C>3 Wöbd)cn unter ber 3"d)t einer 3i> 
imituM'iidien OHnunnunnte. TaC' bif5ri)en, ma-3 mir uon guter 
^'onne norti übrigblieb, fd)cnfte id) einer jungen Gnglönberin, 
bu" neben mir fafj. *:8Inne \Mngon, blonbeci Sbaar, ein ökfid)t 
von >liofenb!Ättern, nnb mn'3 fie in meinen klugen am meiften 
iieriduinte, ein !önt mit einem ilndien itonenifd)en '2(nh\ Sic 
inoilu< )iHibI eine grofie ^Wiiiifirennbin fein: benn iie baJt; fid) 
niK' ibrem eigenen Mihiier ein fdiöncö ."önu-jdien gebnnt, um 
bor>v.;-: ungeriöri ;n;iiliiM-eii. Tie Aiiüe b.ntc fie nii' bie i\u\\ lun- 
iiu' iHnh aiM'iieni'llr, lm^ Mc >lnii' nn fid) gcuHien. Tic 'i^run 
IHM- .)e!u- Ulli, riMmvg iie i^eu rcihien ijüciiliogen in ^cn Sdioü nnb 
Ih'U bni >(i^»f ani bni ;iiüimmcngefnirften Olrm finfen. Tie 
iitiMie Tnme, io .v'i'in'i'^er, luiiie feiiini ^Tniaii;! unb teiii l£-nbe. 





SinunbbTetßigrtec 93rief 

Sie öcrftoub gcmiß ctW)a§> öon 9!)?atbemati! unb mufetc, boß bic 
.^ugclform unter allen mÖ9lid)en öcftaltcn mit ber flauen SBelt 
om mcnigften in S3crübrung fommt. 3f)re Sdbmeftcr öor il^r l&ottc 
bcn £)ut abgelegt unb faß ganj öorn, in ber Soge ollen Süden 
:> auligcfefct, in \)uum 9?ad)tbäubd)en bo. 3f^ mod)tc fo meine 
'^etrad)tungen, niober e§ fommc, bofe nur allein bic ®nglänber 
nnb Gnglönberinnen ibre Sitten unb Kleiber mit in bog 2lu8* 
Innb bringen unb fid) nidbt genieren? QJemife mar im oötijcn 
Soole feine liome, bic in einer fo bäuälid^en Stellung bofafe 
10 mie meine fd)önc 9^ad)barin, unb feine, bie eg gemogt, firj^ in 
einem 9?acbtbflubd)en ju jeigen mie beren Sd^mefter. 2lbet trofe 
meiner ^büofopbie unb SSerbriefelicbfeit merfte id) bod^ • jumeilen, 
bofe man bo unten fd)öne SRufif macbte. 2)ie ©Qm^j^onie (Sroico 
öon 93eetboDen (id) fonb bie 9[J2ufif mebr leibenb olg ^croifc^). 

15 ©ine 9lrie ous bem „fjreifd)ü6" (mein beutfcbeg $)er8 ging mit 
babei auf mie eine trodcne Semmet in 3JiiId)). Scytctt öon 
93eetI)ooen. ©bor ou§ SBcberg „Suroontbe". ©in SKufifftüd für 
5^IaÄinftTnmcnte. Xrio au§ 9ioffini§ „aSilbelm %tW. .tfoöier- 
folo, gcfpielt nnb fomponiert non .^laübrcnncr. Ouüertüre ouS 

t-Hi „Cberon". 9Iber biefe Stobt ber Sünben, ^arig — ber liebe 
Oiott mnf? fie bod) liebbabcn: wac-^ er nur Sd)öneg bot, mog 
CMnte'3, allC'^ fdienft er ibr. Tie fd)önften öemölbc, bie beftcn 
Sänger, bie iiortrefflid)ften Slomv»oniften. Tiefet eine .Sponsert 
— nm^^ borte man bo nid)t alle» sngleid)! 2)ag befte Orcf^fter 

2.-) ber iK?clt. Tie 9Iuffübrung ber Snmvbonie fo t)oHcnbet, bofe, 
mie mir £»*** fogt, man biefeg gor nicbt merft. ^d) erfläre mit 
ba& in bem Sinne: um cinsufeben, mie oollfommen ctmog fei, 
muü boran nod) ctmoS mongein. Oft bic S^oIIfommenbeit gonj 
erreid)t, ncrliert mon ben Stonbpunft ber 9SergIeid)ung. ^n 

;io einem Äonjcrtc borten mir: folfbrenner, ben crftcn Äloöier- 
lOieler; 33aiIIot, ben erftcn 58ioIinfpieIer; Xulon, ben erften 
(^lötenfpicler; 58ogt, ben crftcn £)outboiften, unb Ü'Jourtit, ben 
beflen fran5Öfifd)en Sänger. %a§> gonge £)rd)€fter erfd)ien in bet 
?^ationaIgarbc4lniform. SBoillot ift Dffijicr, 5fJourrit oucb. 2)et 

3j eine geigte, ber onbcre fang mit ©pauicttcg. 5tb moUte, botmöb* 

rifd)c Cffijiere non ben Siegern uon ©öttingcn mären in meiner 

Soge gcmefen unb bätten nid)t gemnfjt, bafj id) bcntfd) ticrftel^c. 

— '?üfo ofrnel in Tvronffurt b-it loicber einen guten ^og 

gebabt, fein i'ebenv'PuI'3 b^it fid) mieber einmal geI)oben? ^^froel 

4n iammert mid) mnnd)mal, feine Soge ift gar ju betrübt, ilurfe 
oben, slurie unten, mie ber toKe "üi^inb bn§ 9^ab fd)Uiingt — e« 
linb bic Cnafen bc-^ CMiion. '.}(ber ift e«:" nid)t furrf)tbnv Iäd)cr- 
lidi, bnfi bie nicbrigftc nnb gemeinl'te aller Seibenfd)aftcn fo üictc 

2?oriic VI. 10 







> X-, 



■.y« y «~-» ■ »j^ ' t;_ <<«»»yT'<y»^ 1 

_,'..;it.v .••-.1-» i.i_i%v.. £.\.r,iv» •■.a.i\»-.ivi;!.---f -1 f'^•^!••r.'■^lr {..'.^iv'i: 












Introduction 1 

I . OJ;aa?l€«s Beglnning ; Joaeph von Sonnenf ela 3 


II. Volfganp:, Wesaely paves the way for Jewish Jurists... 7 

III. Heinrich Jacques and the struggle for civic rights. 9 

IV. Julius Glaaer and Josef Unger - the Classlcs of 

Austrlah Jurlsprudencel 12 

V. The Pioneers of social Legislation: Emil Stelnbpch 

and Jullu« Ofner 18 

VI. Jewlsh Contrlbutlons to the Civil and Crlmlnal 

Jurlsprudence from the end of the nineteenth 

Century to the end of the Austrlan Republlc 

In 1938 27 

• . 1. Civil Jurlsprudence 27 

2. Crlmlnal Jurlsprudence. 39 

VII . Hlstorians of the Law 45 

VIII. The Creatlon of the Soclolos^y of Law 49 

1. Julius Ofner' s Social Studie» 50 

2. Eugen Ehrlich' 8 fundamental '/^Tork 53 

IX. Vlalonary Legislators 60 

1. Josef Popper-Lynkeua 61 

2. Theodor Herzl 63 

X. New Theories of Public Law and New Philo soohles 

Of Law 68 

1. From Ludwig Gumplowlcz to Georg Jelllnek 69 

2. The work goes on at Vienna, Prague and Harvard 83 

3. Han« Kelaen, hls Pure Theory of Law, and hl a 

Legislative ^ork 88 

XI . Judgeg and Public Servants IO3 

XII . Barrlaters 10 7 

XIII. Jurlstlc Perlodicals 119 

XIV. Jurlits of AuPtro-Jewlsh orl^ln abroad. 


Notes and ßiblio jrraphy 



' . TC 
LAW ANj legal flZCPslES 





//''; j / CONTENTS 

i'' ■'^•:i '■ V^ ' ^ ' ■ Pag« 

IOT»oductlon i 

I • Preludt : Jo seph von Sonncnf ela 3 

II. Wolfganp liVeasely pave« the way for Jewlah Jurlats.. 7 
/ ■/>( 'l,/,, • 

III, Heinrich J^eques and the atrug^le for olvlc rlfrhta 9 

■ i ^.^\ 
IV. Julius ölaaer and Jpief Un^tr - the ClasplCB of 

Austrlan Jurlsprudence 12 

V. The Plpno ro of Social Legislation: Emil Steinbach 

and Juli' 8 Ofner • • 18 

VI. Jewlah öontrlbutlona to the ClvllaimdCf»rtMi8'feil m^m^-A^ 
Juris prudcnce from the end of the Hilneteenth 
Century to the «nd of the Austrlan Republic 

( 1936 ) 27 


lifClvll Jurlsprudence 27 

2^; Crlmin^l Jurlsprudence..... 39 

VII. Hlttorlans of the L-i^w , .. 45 

VXII4 The Creatlon of the Soclology of Ifiw 49 

1^ Julius Ofner's Social Etudles 50 

2. Eueren Khrllch'e Fundamental V;'ark •« 53 

IX. Visionär*' Legi Fla tors 60 

1. JoaefJf Popper-Lynkeua 61 

arTlke#j|ip!^Herzl 63 

X* New Theorie« djf Public Law and new Philosophie© 

of Law , 66 

. 1. From Ludwig; Oumplowlcz to Georg Jelllntk 69 

2. The work goea on It Vlennai Prsgue andHat 
Harvard • 83 

3» Hana Kelaeni Hls Pure Theory of Law, and 

his lefirlslotlve Work 88 

XI. Jud*e8 and Public Servanta • IO3 

XXI . Barrleter« , . IO7 

X5II . Edltors of Law Perlodlcila 119 

«•'i«^* ' 

'"■""•' Pall 

XIV, Jurlats of Austro-Jewlsh Deioaat In Forel -n Countrles .... ipA 

1. Two Forty-Eighter Antl-Slaverv Lawyere .••.•. 124 

2. Justice £raftde£i Bpk^R6tkQM^^c^uMQk%h)itältiili^^ 

and his Era , ; , . . , , . i2Ä 

3*, Justice Fell« Frankfurter and hla Generation..... 132 

4 . The Ref ugeea j^j^ 

5» / LawjTJrra from Austrla In Israel 

Epllogue and 2xcursua: Franz BCafka and the Law 

Notes and Blbllography 

'■•.»•»•■>■ i.». '<, 





»'.:>>ilVW M" 


■V^ i .'^eSI^c^' 



■- *' :. ;''i'/Ä yf CONTENTS , !A^ • , 

',•;..■■■'•■*■• 7 ' Ai'l' ■ 

,.. • • ', '> V P 

Xntroductlon • 1 

I. Glorlous 3eßrlnnln!?;J Joeipl^h von Sonnenfels . . . . • 3 

V/olfgan^ Wes^ely pave^ the way for Je'/inh Jurlsts... 7 

III. Heinrich Jacques and the strug;gle for clvlc rlirhts« 9 

IV. Julius Olöser and Josef ünger - the Clasf Ico of 

AuQtrlan 4^risprudence 12 

V. The Pioneerr of snclgl Le-ilsl-^tlon: Mnll .'?telnbach 

and Juliuß tfner .*. . . 18 

VI. JewlRh Gontrlbutlons to the Civil and Crlmlnral 

Juriaprudence from the end of the nlnete nth 

centurv to tlie end of the Austrlan Hepucllc 

In 199i 27 

,,^^yi^^* 1. civil Jurlsprudence 7.., 2? 

'2. Crlciln?! Juri sprv^ddaoe« • 39 

VIIX Historiana of the Law 45 

VIII. The Creatlon of the Soclology of Law 49 

1 . Julluß Ofner' s Social Studiee 50 

S,: 2. Eug-en Ehrlich ' s undaEen^al V/crk 53 

IX. VlBlonsry Legislators • 60 

l«?>irosef Popper Lynkeua 61 

2. Tüeodor Herz' 63 

X. New Schoole of Public Law and New Philonophlee 

of Law^ • 66 

1. Fröii Ludwig; Oumplowlcz to Oeorr Jelllnek 69 
^ 2. The Work ,^es on *it Vlennat Prs«rue and Hnrrsfrd 83 

■"^- ieglölÄtlte Vork 88 

XI. Judf-ea and Public ßervants. . .'. . • ."^r IO3 

xll . lÄiwtat^Fs . ^f.'M^: .:...... 107 

XIII. Juri Stic PeS^lc^dlcaia 119 


^■'- ,„■'.:, V. III ■■ 

XIV. Jurifite of i^u?5tro-Jewi?3h orlrrln a^towaaidß. 

B^pilogue ..•.*•• • 

Motes an ' BlLllo^^rapliy 

• ,1 





The hlstory of the Jevrlsh contrlTDUtion to the realm o^ law 
off'ers a etrikinj? paradox. Whlle the Impact of the Decalo^ue on man^lnä 
cannot be overestlmated and the Old Testarrent served as b*-!pis of the 
Qanon laW| post-blblical Jewlsh law, thou^h Its development , exe^erls 
and appllcatlon formed the Incessant task of Jewlsh acholars for 
■illennia» remalned to the greatest extent -n Internal feature of the 
Jewlsh people. it Is true that the Influe^-'oe,* whlch, accordlnr to 
a modern theory »Talraudlc law hap exerted on P^Tlan law r-and throuf^h It 
%%tbh'etö5fzöji<t4rt#ltJ9Si^*de8 werfltfeii^iÄlhxictx the classic Jurist f of that 
era, and^tilÄteikiriM^^ifeöe Hebrew origin of some leral Inctitutions and 
modern le.'^al orlnclples have||Ftt)jffe<l^aken Into ac ount when the historv 
of e Stern lepal devolopment Ir being traced doi^ the Qjres, ^\xt In 
c^mparison with the permanent ef(§ectlvenes_iLjaf Homan ond 3erman law 
on the ii-urooean le-al systeinp -ind practlc "^n the one hand and the 
oermeatlon of Jewlsh life by the Talmudic law on the otaer hanJ , onlv 
a secondarv sl^-nifiiiance can be ascrlbed to fie sporadlic link-^ betwe^n 
Jewisi a d estern legal thoup^hts durlnp; antlqulty , the Middle ii -es 
and the firrt centuries of modern tlees« The pubordinrjte role whlch 

... ,1 

the Jews played within the lepal sphere In thepe epochs becomes 
especinllv manifest, if con^rasted with the outst.-inding c^ntribution 
made by Jews to rrjedlcine throu^rh^ut t le aarce periodp. ''le wo Id th-it d 
not refrain fron availlng Itrelf of Jewiph phyriclans h':id no use for 
th madterr of Jewish la v v/ho bv their nr<|nances,ddeliions and respons 

. «• H. -im 

were able to cement the Jewlsh con.munitles anü Imitted tof^ ther the 
dispersed people of Israel. f^^fl;?i when the powerful volce of pinoza 
me^öeltiie'lil^f^hapd outside the Jewlsh coi:-unit", the profound views o' 
t'ie Jewlsh philosophe on th.- State and the 'Irrhts of the intflvidual 

- 2 - 


arouoed attention ittibtiolgfat the Farne tlme, ro flerce aÜG Opposition 

that they rerrnined barred from 'iny Influence on the w-^rld for more th. 

7 'I '^^ ■ 

handred years. J 

A spect cular Chance of the neratlve r latlon between ihw Jews 
and the le-^r^l sphere of "fil^^r env^Wt&mi'Stip t-^ok plaC'^* with the adven 
of the''8ä^nclpatlqiii1*||«!'The impact a^^ainst the separatlnp; barri^"*' 
Game from the Jewa. Thtlfr eÄöcipatlon was in Itr'lf a part of a 
revolatlal>AI||jpii|)t proceaß whch, as a product of enli ^htcnmcnt , almed 
at the e stabil Ehffient of civic rights and the abolltlon of oppresf^lve 
measures •/ The prospect of partlcipatlng In the cre-itlon nd malntenan» 
of 3 new leral order was therefore for no part of the populatlon more 
entlclnr thnn for the *^e"S. Thelr lonrlnr -fter clvlc equality, thclr 
stron,^: sense of Justice, de pl^ rooted In Judaism, thelr trai^ilnfr In 
the Inter .'retSHbtn of law - all the^e factore f.ave a ml -htv Impulse 
to the de? Ire to have an active part in 1 glrlitlon and In the 
administr tlon of justice as well as In all branches of Jurlsprud :nce 
This deslre was indeed part and parcel of Jewlsh enli(Thtenment whlch 
her?.lded and accompanled the emanclp:^tlon of the Jewr. It Is therefor 
not surprlslnf' that the sector of Tiluropean Jewry which gave birth to 
the f^reat ploneers of enl Irht enden t, Moses I^iendeinsohn and hls follow< 
also produced the flrst dieÄrh fiaWÄilff^niQfters of Jurlsprudence: 
E du a rd Gans and F riedrich Juliuf^ Stahhl t who, thouprh; fel0i of them 
empbraced Chrlstlanlty , represent - not lastly Just owlng to thelr 
baptlsm - the very type of the transfon^.ed new Jewlsh freneratlon of 
whlch the modern Jewlsh Jurist was a favorlte &l^«nrtfeBa« 

It was also from the Stock of Ge^man Jewry that the man halled 
who was to becojre epoch makinp" not only in the fleld of Jewlsh 
partlclpatlon in the lepal develo^>ment of Austrla but who by til8 
participatlon • ntlclpated the important role Jewp were abo 't ^zo play 

«.■ *■; 

- 5 - ^ 

In the hl Story of Aus tri an law and Jurlaprudence. ^ — /''^"i '^'-'^ ■^^■l.^/"'-^>^-^^*- 

At the beginnin of the thirtles of the elr^iteenth c ntury 
- ahortly after i^^oree Kendele^ohn* p l*»th -ithe son of Rabbi "echiel, 
ßumamed Haslö ( the PJfous ) , Llpman Perlin ( meanin^, Cl^rm J^änä« ) 
em&grated with his wife to Elsenstadt » then in 'v'eat Hun^ary, and lata: 
to Nlkolsburg in ^.oraviai both eitles with old and renowned comiri\mitl< i 
In Nlkoiebur- two sons, Joseph and Franz» were bom to Llpman Perlin 

*•-•— »-•* 

In 1732 and 1735 respectivelv» A few years later he became converted 
to Catholicism afiJiÄßJriWine<3 his name to Alois ''lattPr. The sons, too, 

were then baptized, whlle their mother retained her Jewiah falth. 
In an amazinfly Short time, Alois ..Mener, by vlrtue of hip ext'^naive 

>mmih^re off Ckrtental lanrua^epH succeeded in becominif apoointed 

^^^ J 

profes'^or of these laniaruages at the Unlversity of Vlenna and offlclal 

Interpreter In Hebrew. In 17^6, he was ennobled und er the name "gfin 


onnenfels," y ^^^ / 

The aplendiid career of the first Sonnenfels wan sOTpansed by tha' 
of his son Joseph, /ifter havlng studied law at the Un.versity of Vleni 
y In the ye rs 175^ to 1756 and practised in a law Office for aeiretal 
years f j^4|#0ph von Sonnenfela became already :.n I763 profespor of 
"Polizei tind Kameralwlasenschaften'V litl.e« ap#t&dd political aclence . 
at the üniversity of Vienna« in 1779» he was appolnted Aullc 
Counclllor» mem^er and rapporteur of the "^'tudien und Zeneur-Hofk 
kommlspion ( ConiiTiiFi - ion on rtudies and Ceiraorship )» and soon after- 

wards vicepresident of th comrisplon of Jiidicial Ref orr: • He served 

. ■» ■ ' 

as a member of this coil'iI slon for decMades und er the reifrns of 
Karia Theresa, Joseph II, Leopold II and Franz /-^^iSi'iiÄW^^ 
commisPion comprised the codification of both» the Au trian e^^iffifmrt^ 

- A - 

and o4vll Code, and Sonnenfela partl^j^tdä in each of these f^reat 
le£;lsl'^.tlon.^. j- 

Aa a dlsciple of Karl v. Martini nnd J.D« Rle^^ger, the 

t * .., ■ 

outatandin'^ teachers of Natural '^aw at th' üniveraityof Vienna, 
^^^onnenfels war; an ard ent follower of thlspchool. His Jurldical cred 
wasunfwuivo ally expressed in the dictun : "Lav; is a5 cid ae human 
nature, It in embed^ed in our fe elinf (?.'*] Sonnenfels's phare in 

o-/ ^'^■^ ^'. 

-, >"■(. 


the Auptrlan noclif icstion was consider-^.ble, The civil code of 1811 
owes t^ hir idea? several provipion? of marital settlement and the 
evaluation o"^ personal Services of Int^inBic vnlues. But the Chief 
merit of Sonnenfei 9 re^ardln^; the All{Tem':ines LHrrerli^hes Gesetzbucl 
which reiD'^ined the Austrian code up to the orepent tirne consista in 
his Guccev^sful Ciforts that the new law shoulcJ he wrltten in a clear, 
simple nnd oure lanrruapre. In thls respect onnmfels had the advanta^ 
of hüvinn" been both an emi ent {Jurist and remarkable man of 1 tter: 
fiis declnred ambitlon war to prove that the ust^ian authora are 
equal to the Gerinan wrlterp, and he nade even up hi?? mind to set thif 
example Vy hp ov;n Uterary pr^duction. .\le ef orts were highl.y 
succesnful. He wa.? n t onlv in his ^wn day? c-^npidered ap one of the^ 
foremost Austrian writers and therefore as early as 1781 ( thus in tl: 
ar.e of 26 ye?rs ) elected ch^irman of the Literary '"-6^y^|feJ.voi 
Vienna, but also by a niodern literary auth rlty as i-rich chmidt, 
with rega«(«lto the Journal "Der Kann ohne Vorurteil" ( The man wlthoul 
Prejudice ) which had been founded and editjfeed by F^onnenfela for 
several year?, recorrnized as **a s'^ilful and couraf^oous Jouimajy.s±,^^ 
The most l^^ptln- fruits of hi.^literar ability rre, howeve>',^in the 
formul.atlon of the Austrian c&^il code. T'ie preclpion and formal 

ele gc^ce nf itg Innfrua^re made the code a "eriran clasfeic. In "^act the 

style of the Auptrian c^ 

i\apol4en and had ot b^ n rurpassed ver since. 

r:can well coppete ith that of the Code 

- 5 - 

Important as Sonnenfelr'o contributlon to the ci'il code 
h' B beoni It was vai^tly overshadowed by hlr? achievement In the fleld 
of the criiiilnal law. In faoti thls feat ren^es far above all the 
activltieg of hi? long and firalrriaa^a.lf e . -md haa secured hlm an 
honorable place amon ^ the gfT at hurDanitarl:inj^ of eil a^en. In hls fi^h 
for the Abolition of torture, t«||^jf^3 inspired b-y the neblest Impulses 
of hiß charaoter ind of hls herltagx. Koreo" er, he rl^keü for the 
sake of IhÖie r oal^tf not hip. pwpsonaT fref^dom, cetalnly hls career 
and p rhaps hi.^ llvelihood in Auntrla. /For hie adver J?arlen texkxdtxtii 
fxKÄ in hls f^trufj- le w re not only the powerful mcRB of the Imperial 

»?Admlnistrat icn , but also celebrated univ r^ity profesaors and Qhurchmen 

- *'- <" 

ainonr them the Influentil Cardiii^GOcBitit Kl^razzi . ' /^Ithr.ugh the Empress 

KatJia Theresa wop ^a^'orably dleposed towards Sonnenf eis , in the (rreates- 

cause of his cv.reer he had to face alr o he r opp'v^ltion. *^en he after 

the Promulgation o^ the new ConstitutlöTiCrimidalia continued his 

attacks apain rt torture, she iPtBntually ylelded to the presnure of hin 

inveterate op.jonentsi Vice Ch-incellor Count '^'ol'^wrnt , Court Chancellor 

Chotek and the Cardinal who denounced Rönnenfels to thiK MarjMi There^ga 

as "the detennlned foe of th^: God-wllled oruer itself ^-iSÜfÄfth her 

miasive of 21 i^ügust 177?» the umprepF oriered Sonnenfels to abstaln 

from further discuF'ion of the quertlons of torture -nd oapltal 

punishaent to whlch he, an adm rer of oeccariat also was opposed. 

£onnenfels v/a^ , however, not deterred by this m^v tro... pursuing the 

iarue further. 'üs response was addressed to the impress her seif. 

He implored her to order an inquirv into the n.atter with each party 

presentinp ItF viev;s by a special repreeent-^tive, -^nd he closed IvBis 

adareas witi the m^vinr apoeal: 

I am not bllnded as to my limited abilities knon-in«:^ well 
that the cause of humanit is entrupted to O'^werles« • nd 
trerrbling^ hands, i>ut I lift myself by the hope t lat my zeal 


. 6 - 

will rlFe me nbove in.vaelf and that Provldence will send rescue 
^topapllh a feeble one In order that one mav recornlfce that She 
has perforired lt. 

/hatever mjji:^/ be the reeult of the Inquir'". - if I would 
be convlcted of havinp erred , I vow at Her i.ajesty*s feet that I 
will rms!9il^^^\>efcre the eves of the, .^a^yöyiiißfcfc I hev^ wrltte-^.... 

.''our throne, the world wouiÄiteli^böpdoubtP about the declnlon 
which the tendernesa of ^our heart v/ould prompt Your Majeaty 
to takf .... ; ; 

The appe'il wa^- not los t uoon the SmpreFB». Already in the next 

year the governrnent reopened the offlclal dellberatlc^^ on the qucptlon. 

^onnenf elg contrlbated to th]fes^d4||gg|^M|l^^ o^skÄötrs ^otu ."Ce parat um whlch 

was publip'aed in 1775 und er t e tlt'^bi "Ue b er die A brchsff un.?. der Folter'* 
and has becom^vthe most famoua -^nd most suc -ep ful amon^ hl? writinps. 
For It was in t'ie followlnp- ye-ir that Karla T eresa ir ued the decree of 
January 2, 1776 oderlng the abolltlon of torture ( except tn the l^nds 
"of the Hunfj-arlnn crown ). The other fcoal -onnenfels had pur^ued , the 
reatriotion of caoital punis'iinont v^nd abolltlon of it?; bnrbarour forms 
was reached only after the death of the "lEpre«^ when Josph II Inzroduced 
these reforr:-^ / 

' Th:;a lon.flr before the new 'ustrlan crlrnln';^ cod--^ wa? draf te«! , 
th^— «aJji- inn o v- tlonf v '^^wnlch w c r o to b e- in co ro ^' r ' t -^ — IMr^ IV, had be n 
eecured mainlv by the ef'^ortp of SonnenfelF?. It was hls preatest triumph 
whlch carrled the name Joseph v. P'^nnenfel? to late nrener-T'.tlons . ven on 
the monument whlch hao be n erected for hlrr in Vienna the br' ken Instru- 
ments of torturelaylnr at hi s f e :t Indicated the t?ure reason of hin 

it la not an exa-^^eratioö» to state that the appearance of 
Sonnenfels m^rks a rrlorlous beglnnlng of th?-: p- rticioati -n of the Jews 
An the leprlslatlon and jurisprudencc in Au'-trla ond , Indeed, even outrlde 
of the Höbsbur/y monarchv. For In no othe' ^\jt>^e 3 man of Jewi^h dercent 
has played a aimllar role at that tiine. v'n the eve of emancipation, 
a^^rcr^ \^^fr^r^^. nny part of the V/est^rn World Jews had attüined clvlc rights, 



a Jew had helpe3 to codify a new law and to purfre leg;;lpl tlon from 
the most cruel Institution. The Jurldlc ablllty of the »^ew, hla sense 



of Justice and hamanness whlch ha^^mi^||§#fesi3fihfe] 

of his own pcople, had proved to be ready for the Gerroces of mantAdd 

at larg-e. <., ^ 

The appeyr:ä'!ce of uonnenfels created, to be^ure, also a- Hpattem 
, *PTr?rir^Jj^isiMwd^ f rrresha<3 ows 

8 i inlL ar 8potg _ In t'ae_hij3torx-Qf Jewl sh. -pai*tlp-i pnt1.o> ln,j the r e a 1 m 

Of A 



' own 
The JewK who only % t h c— a e p a v . ' • t l-on tf^ä^' 
'^'' '•'^^''""' "' useful 

succeeda In :.&\:ir\fj; hlp talente to hl? non-Jewlr'-i enT?!brnnment has entered 

the scene of i^iustrlan public life. 

II. Wt>l ^lt(!IIWi1fe§ §ZX.Y ?AVSS THE laY FCR JiVI'H J URS^'TS 
Several decnde? h^d to pasf' öfter t'e de/^.th of '^onnenf eis In 1817 
untll anoth r Jew b c:me af^^oclated 4n a proniinent manner wlth the ler-al 
affairs of AuRtrl* ♦ . ut whlle In the esse of Connenfels the door to the 
hlg;h Position he was to attain in the mc^wirffchy of i-iorla Tlieresa hos be-n 
thrown wide open throuph early baptlsm»f«K-vxhiRxxh:lKxfÄtbi«Rxw«K>: 

xaspjiÄSliD3cjHJf:tÄ^ iaaijpteir^'' .Jew who at the tin.e when the revolutlor^ of 
1848 for a Short vjhile swept away the dlPcrifr;in.'3tory anti-Jewish 
laeasures tcol-: his Position among the Gentlle juri?4«ts /wa- a profesring 
J ew w* ^'ii. taBS||ft|^*> by a stränge contraat - a m-'n outFt-. ndln;npcaxxws3ci aa 
an Hebrew scholar as ;\rell a^ a lawyer. He; was ''Olfr^üng WeFpely, b^rn 

■^^■m ••«.•(•^ 

in T|;ebitgch, i-iC r.L.'Via , who In his youth recc;iv::d a traditional educatlon^ 

but later studied öt th Ünlverplty of ^-Yague and rraduated there as 


Ph.D ( 162B }^<iipi^ ( 1^34 ). After havlne: s-rved as teacher of 
relifrlon on Jewish sch-^ols \--nd as examinator of betirothed couples - as 
requlred by Austrian law at that tlme -"he wa.- ap.Dointed leturer on 

the Hebrew lanruare and llterature at th-' Unover^lty of Prague. / 



It ha '^pened after the pron]ul{?;otlon ^^f the conw«3tltutlon of 
1849 i#'«n the mlniptry of Justice war? in the hands of rchmerlinfr, a 
devout liberal, that Vci^- youn^ 'mperor Franz Jos^^h, consciously 
deviatlngr from t:ie pr'jctüjces of Karia Thej^.agaii|ji^i|^^3i^i|^'ointed 
Wessely a lecturer of Law at the ünlver^^ity of Pr-jgue. T'ius started 
a career v.ibich was witriout precedent in Auatrian hiatory» Wessely 
himself , on the zenith of his fruitful life 9 nuiriuiaraized the main 
events of his career in a letter to the Je isi ncholar, Leopold L^w, 

of Janu'iir;/ 23, 1862: 

It seema that Prov'idencehas 
in Order to s^tCUre victory to the 1 
quefition of emancipation . I wa? the 
court tranlator in Hebraicts, who w 
conpultation about the oTi'i^nli'ZT io 
ijoheni':^ in 1648, who was pennitted 
criminal court, who was admitted to 
examination for the Judiciary offic 
lecturer at an Austrian unJversit^', 
extraordinary ( aseiPtnnt ) ©roferFs 
ordinnry profe'j^or at a law faculty 

chopen rre as an in Strumen 
iber^l principle in the 

fir"^' ^w«^ ho served a?« 
a pummoned %»o the 
n o:^ the courta in 
to practise law at a 

and pasred the 
e and who wap made a 

to become later an 
or and ^Inally an 

But elDen more important than all thene firiBta was the fact 

that '.'errely was entrusted tof^ether with other Jurintf? with the task 

to investiiTate for the Au trlan ^overniT:ent the reforirs in ppÄalTXpl?^" 

procedure in the >vhine *.'rovince and a^elp;iuni, and that a'^ a conaequenc 

of his repor' the Jury system war introduced in Austria,thouß:h only 

for a Short time. Thus V/eaaely continuc . a? it werc the work which 

r.onnenfels hnd li;iitiated of llfcer':llzinn /-ustri-^n judlcial procedure, 

The Innovator wap, höiwever, this timc a pious Jew monr «hose writing;J 

besidea of ^^''^'"'''^10 mo: ogr- phs amch 3S treatisea aboat the means of 

evidence in the Austrian civil procedure or about emer^^ency and aelf- 

defence, alfio a prajter book wlt;"i Geririan t^.malation in Hebrew 

~ 1 

charactera can be founa» \ ? 

- 9 - 


fwolff'-anF vi^espely ( who di d in 1870 ) became a wondroua 
counterpart of Sonnenfels a^fgcJ.^ another reppect: Ju=^t as i'onnenfel 
the bnptlzed Jewiah reformator of KarMf Therra* s reirrn found no 

■T* * 

succespor in th<r next d rca^Pegyes --ely rem^ined^or a lono' time 
the only confesä^g Jew who held a chair of Lav at an Aurtrian 
üniversitv« In vain tried the outstandinr German-Jewish Jurftet 
Levin GoldGc'amlut to get an appolntmentat the University of Vienna. 
The annulri.ent of the Constitution of 1&49 by the decree of 
ijece::.ber 31, 1851 had thrown the Jews bal^ijLnto the condition 
prevailing b-fore iSAb-f^owe^ger the kno -led^e ^-.'hich the fir^-t Jewish 


..' ..Af' 

Außtrian SwryfrrÄhaü acquired was now put to wor'c in the strug'^le 


for the restoratlon of the lost rights. In fact pimilarly as Gabrie ' 
Rießser Httidlifcßinh^ßtiii^l^^ for the civic rights of the Jews, 
Dr* Heinrich Jacques, a^glfted lawver and writ^r, born :n Vienna 
in 1631 1 who had studied philo'- ophv -it Heidelberr and 
obtained t'ie de^ree of a Doctor of Laiv at the üniversity of Vienna, 
enpaged in a forceful car::palf[;n -irainat the renewed discrimination 
ofthe Jews. He subjected the legal st tus of /•u'^'trian Jewry to an 
acute criticirm in his 'Vbenks chrift f!ber die Ctellun:- der Juden in 
Oesterrei ch" K ^^emorial on the Status of the Jewf? in Auntriil#*") , 
Vienna 1659, which went through four editionjin the course of a few 
weeks./One of the main tdfiillKÜilK Jacquer put forth in the book 
was that Austria, by excludingthe Jews fro.i the basic civil rif^hts, 
especia ly from the attainment of civil and polltfcal Office? not on] 
allowfflp a substa ^tial part of material national caoital to be idle, 
but '^permitfti^/the Spiritual wealta of the Jews ev/aporate aimlesrly 
and inef fectually when by its own laws it forces them to devote 

- 10 . 


their enerrlcfe to a queat for pospesr.lons and ric les." It Ip ^rue that, 

■ 1 

acÄxÜXÄHxl^ittxxxixaxxpBifexit^xj^aaxEi^älliilinBplte of thks proud assert6ilon of ^ 

*'^- '^^ i^/ 

Jewlsh cultural qualltles>iielnrich Jacques, ae Hans TletzÜS^^'put It , 

advocated an uno-^orid i.t :.nal f?Hiibordäination of Jeiii&&3?ic Jewlsh values 

and Jewlsh pecullarity ^o the i\u3fcrlan rtate»j/evert elear he war. tii 
eloquent ^^"""''^ 

npokesman of the nev/ generation w^oae {;^enulne de- Ire to piJ^itlJxftiiJfcfeeiin 

public affalrp was linked wlthe thecertalnty öf beinr able to contrlbute 

to the coEßmon g;oocl«, It was Indeed thle urge whlch Insplred particu'arly 

^ ■^^■•^" " of 

that substantial oart of the fÄ»|fe^|iyouth of those days and the next 

decades whlch took up the legal profeerion 

x.r« Jacquer*R ! emorlil whlch proved to be th<^ fimt '^f hls many 

Jurlstlc works ( see below p... ) Influenced undoubtedlv oubllc oplnlon x 

thus contrlbuted con^lderably to the ibolitlon th^ Je'A'lRh dl9:)bilitlep • 

After GoiKe liberal Innovation^ by the Inperlal Patent of February 26, 

1661 the Constitution of Dece^bĻ31t 16g7 by the prodbrn^tion of the 

Fundamental Äfl*#t9 of all cltlz na broupht the lonsr sou(Tht legal clvic 

efljua^lty to the Jewst Above all, the Offices of all klnds were made 

acceselble to every Citizen, in prlncipl'', the Jews were from onward able 

to practlae law ae lawyerR as well as Jud?res and ndinlnlstratlve offlclals 

of all ran'^a« ^ 

l nfortunotÄ^the appllcation o^' the law was to be found to be 

In a Sharp contra st to the pplrlt of the CftriPtlt'Jtlon. her-ver appolntmer. 

were left to the dlscretlon of administrativ bodles, an evident 

dlscrimination took place to the disadvanta e of the Jewlsh appllc-mts . 

{ i^articu' arly the ■ up rior Courtp which were coinpeten|i> for the nomination 

of Jud^es sh< weo reluctance to recomfflend Jewlsh candld 'tes to the 

Klnlstry of Justice, apart gif the latter* s own lack 4)f Incllnatlon 

to ap.^oint Jewlsh Judres ( sec also below p.... ), 1heiiti|Eht^?5practlce 

• 11 - 

prevalled ar far as administrative offlces and prof e'^eorohlp'^ at the 
unlversitler wwre concerned. The rip^hts of the ^evfk in all theae res )ec 
remained ther fore to a g;reat extent merel^' on the papert ^ 

In apite of theae obstaclca ,the Jewiah element 
conspicuoua withn the realin of law txxsB slnce the onatitutlon of 1867 
both numerically and bv the outatandin^r qualltle? of s-^me J#4rt^Ii Jurist 

and continued to be ao up to the end of the i^ionarchy and of the Hepubli« 

^' an 

Apart from t'ne profea-ion of attorney to whlch every Citizen wa^ entitl« 

after the acquision of the depre of a doctor ofÄßwnfter the prercribec 

practlce and ^ifter passing a special exairiinotion ( '^e ^ bel(M||ppp. . . ), 

the Jews were not deterr d by the dellberate and very ofi^an ooenly ^)XSKI 

antin^en^lc'tion from attempta to aerve in the capacity of 

Judjgea or Judicial of^iciala ( ae below^pp... ). The derire to attain 

such Position p irannot be sufficiently explnined bv e^mmpMc motivea or 

merely by ambltion. There waa indeed in the /aiatri;?n Jewsthat öferonj?; 
deaire prerent of wh ch Heinrich Jacques had apoken ao emphatically . 
It waa thia deaire which prompt ed many juriatlc-aiv minded amönr them tc 
pave their wa'^ to public officea by embraclnr Chriatianity. Koreover, 
times had chsn^eä aince the daya o:'" Wolfg-mg V/eaaely. Aa aimilation was 
In füll awlng. in the centkr^^ of raingr natur- liatic and mnterlaliatic 
tr nde,| Judaiam h-d loat ita hold in v'ide ^trstr of the Jewiah intellifr- 
entaia. For those who feit no attachment to the traditional creed 
baptiaiii aeemed to be a mere formality. Austrian ptriotism and the linl« 
wlth 'erman QiKxxHakx3ticj|literature , pÄXosophy "nd acience, In many 
instances attachment Jrf^ eociallsm had replaced the f eelingaof aolldarity 
wlth the Jewiah people. All these circu; etancea , conibined with the 
proapecta which an activity at the courta, in hi^h adminayttrative Office 
and at the univeritiea offered to younp-, Jewa brourht about an influx of 
neo-Chriatiana to the lepal prefe'^rion which percentually probably 


i .. '^iM' ■■ ' '^ 

•, /!(' l ' ■ • 12 - 

exceeds tmy othef- branch of social llfe. The p.'^,lÄful contradictlons 
inherent ^ the '^ewish existence v/ithin th< uropean society prior to 
the cataJ^'tröphe 'Which enp-ulfed kontinental Jewry towards the mlddle 
of the twentie^tl^ Century ha^dperhaps manlferted themselves nowehjere 
rnore drastloally than in the pöenomena accoTj; »anvinr tt-ie partlcipation 
of the ;mstri<^n ! Jewn in the sphere of law and Jur: pprudence . Of this 
the firpt act lOf that dramatic develoo:. nt l^ a tellinr- Illustration. 

it happened yet in the lifetime of ' olfr.ang legs:ely that two 

Juristife?>eniu:i^eg, Julius GlaseF«#HiuloEre0h^UBgerfftftietke<piid^ th3 

Same tiiDe '■ ^ * .^:,.^-^-^''rw-- 

frofli the ffiidst of Auatrian «Jewry, T-ie simultaneous existence of the twc 
men may pomewh-tt remorrcl of the ^rreat Rabbinic twins of the first centu: 
Riß^Bl, Hillcl and Shamai, who excelled thr-m^fh their akill in the 
interpretation of the Torah.f,ae well aß in their activities. In a truly 
amazinf inanner the two Auatrian Jewish jarls'?-, betwe n whom an intima 
■md fruitful friendship develoi^d, supplemcnted esch other: Jos^piph 
Ung:er t'^kinrr the po?ition in the field of civil law v;hile Julius Glase 
•i.rtVvated thot of criminal law. xj-oth viere clo-^est contemporariea, 
Unp-er,lExtxix born in Vienna in 1828 1 beinr only thrse yearp senior of 
Glaser, bd)rn In Po fit eiber??;, Bohemia, in 1831« ^ oth men were called to 
the hifh et po?tp of the Empir , both earned a laetin^r fane as Jurist; 
and statesmen for bevond the b^rdr^a of .-u^tria. I'' G^kser hap been 
considered the füther of criir.inal preceeJinf^i Unper prained the same 
tit e with reg:Grd io the civil Jurisprudence. By a bitter irony even 
their estrangement fronj the Jewish fold 1?^ a comir.on f esjture of the tw 

friendp» Koreover their bapticm took place in each case in early yout 


thie creatin , like in th case of Sonnenfels, a fa it accompli which 

facilitated their agtoundinp* care- r« 

„Glaeei/was thS ^^^^^'t and only Jews to become Klnlnter of Justice 


•v - 


In an /iustrlan ßablneti that of count Adolf von Auf-ersjjerp. He served 

in thos capacity from I87I to 1879, and ^vas theri imriiedlraely appolnted 

Attorney General of the "^'upreme Crinilnal Coiirt» The general esteÄiii in 

whlch he waf held even (^utside of Auatria was i anif ested when, in I676, 

the conventi.^n of Juriets piSder deutsche Jurlatentag" - , held 

in Saizbur^i elected Glaaer Honorary Preride it of ths* repr^ aentative 

gatherlnp:.. ^ile wap one of the mos' out^tondinr -m . raost prolific authors 

on law, the bibliorrpöhy of hia works - ar .-mr^ed pophumouely -^^ 

widow - c^mprlr^in^ no lesr than 4&7 items. Ar? a youn^-r man öfSfölirearg 

l^'tiiiilfljl^püblifhed the pione- rinp; b^^ok " Dar enrlisch-gchottiache 

^trafvorfahggn ( in^lishwS^iifS^IJlih- Crlmlnal x'^roceedlnir ), 1890, whlch 

■il - - 
was alBo intendecias weapon in the strur^ l-f for Introducing the fiifrlish 

method of criiiinal procedura into the ustrian lerislation whic Glaser 

was desti* e to accompliah. In the 9ame year appeared alpo Glaser* g 

German tranr ntion op Beccarie*^ cl:?.9'ic Ptuöy y pn crimes and punishme" 

it was a tribute to the great Italien huiusnipt vho had Inspired Sonnen 

Like the lat er Glaser too warimbued witn the :^plrit permeatin^ that 

work , particulory conceminr the rejection of capital punishment« , 

Glaser*? piillic care r oroce-ded wlt.i extr^ior.linsry ape d. 

In 1054 - only ^5 yse3?8"i2M|lPShe became "D9z-nt" ( lecturer ) at the 

üniversity of /ie nji, six years later, in lö6ü, when he had not yet 
reached his thirtieth year, he was appolnted f-ll profespor» In the y< 

he strved as Kinister in the Cablnet -f the Couht Carl von 
Auers per/3» The yea I87O saw him ci^a n at the Unlver^ity -md alsof a 
rnember of the I.eicharat in the /»usitrian Psrlic-jnient. In the next year 
Start, ed th'E f^lorloua pe^ lod of his actlvltlc? as Minister of Justicel 

One of Glaser' s main alrns wa^the restoration of the Jurle 
whlch had be n int^oduced in 1849 after '.'es'^ely'ß report ( see above 
p,...) but shortly afterwards abolished, Glaser devoted •; special ^(^«tlö^''^ 


yt ," - 14 - , 

**Ankl -^gre| W'ihrspruch u nd H echtsmittel Im nrl ischen ^ chwur^y '^richte - 
verfahrerii" ( Accusatlon» verdlct an appe-^l in th^? En«ylieh Jury 
procedure ) '%§fyt'Wk^kf\§i an unsurpaa^^ed matter piece up to date. &Ä% 
the revival of the jury-syptem was, however, only one part of the rre 
reforrr; of crirüln'äl procedure which Glaaer purpued . He rejected the 
methois of the secret, Inqulritlve and wrltt. n procedure and advocate 
the pronclpltf? of public, iniredlate -md oral procerdinp; with the part 
the at^orne.7 of State and the defendant, contendinf. Above all» he 
aimeJ at the a olition of the ririd rules of evidence whlch were to 
be pupersedcül by • free eveal sitlon of tttfet^^od^cial proofp,^ The 
advocv^cy of all these nieanurer. v/aa based on Gl:^ser*s philosophical 
and ethical conviction that the task of crln:lnal procedure i' t^ seci 
the findinc of truth« \ -^^ 

Glaoer won a coiriplete victory. 'n J."nusry 1, iS^h - almo?t 
exactly one hun«.^reo ye .rs after the abolitlon od törture thanke to V 
ef orts of 'onnenfelī^ a new (pode of (prlirlnal jprocedure was pronulj^ai 
in Auptria cjs tho outcome of Giaser*p untirlnr «nde-^v^rs. It was th< 
most Hi-^dern len^ir-lation then in edtiptence. xn 3V. espaydex^oted to G^a 
by Karl Larnrip. seh r^rt-i'^^ rrea ^ e^pert q^ the A rtrlrn crlmiml IäVi 
decl^red: "-außtrla, the State that had been ? decade earlier conside 
ae onr of the most baokward on^ as far ar public inatitutions were 
concerned, by one stroke had been p^up'ned in th- f irrt j^'ank of those 

i?(5^^i^ ^1^se le^/lslation bec:)iiie an example for otberr . "^jfß^aer* ? Qode 

of Au'-'trla 
of Criminell Procedure remain^" in force until the seizure" oy the Naz 


Obviously blood^iyypJ^y tyranny which outetripped the cruelty of 
inqul Rition had to aboli^h the humanit^rion law b^ltiate^? by a Jew. 

• '■ ' ■ ■ ■ 

As a macabre additlon to thln wanton deed filasfey^Jl.^lö'ogQMldaughterf 
were deoorted. They did not return, but G^aa-er*n ferÄtAtualüÄilliÄne 
Code of Criiiilnal Proc^^y^k^, was re-installed after the liberstion oj 


,.l .«'tll 


It was not enpu/rh for Glaser to have creatcd the most 
advanced code of criminal procedure. He also produce ' a eclentlflc 
Standardwerk on this matter, the " Handbuch des Ptraf pr ozcssep ^S/hich 

Uaiin^iie#ec'^ jnltlo'' airon^j uptrlan and Intern-ntlonal lawyern and 
ren.ained a landnark in Jurisprudence up to date y/'^laner ol^rSffipxB- 


diaÄfei^<äli^ü4.viJt '6 ye'ir 1664 In his 53rd ye?r. 'le wa^^ mourned ty ■■'hole 
Auptrla.' But nobod,' h'3s aulo^ized hlm more Pincer-ly and more eloquent! 
Jtiitxst than hl^ frl nd Joseph Uni^er,[ip3g|;iinjT hi:r. li x -^ rn:.)st'=:rlv obltra»pv 
as the mo'vt a^^d :nt b.x\.(.\ niost s^cllful de'ender of Hum.rinlt^'. ^ v^/ 

Lllce Gla.per,U^)jffijp. a^'ready In hie youth ■:^xhil:ited hie extra- 
^ ordinär" ^l-fts. As early a? 185^ - in an ar<? of only 22 - he frraduated 
'in phlloRophy 'it the Üniverfit;''' of K;"nir^berr .An rrjtoric 1 and phllo- 
soohical vork ab'^ut niarria e, pubMahci in the P-'üie ye r, was apppireöe; 
by the faculty aa his thosis. THrre year? l?ter, -^ft^-r h-ivin/?; acquired 
the dep^ree of m Docior of law at the Univeriity of Vienna, he ijectTQped 
'^ Oft lawi^ t o: tfeii»ifejil^-0'««©%t y^n^WWl^ isxxix t xH t x9sxf KS X( 

as Istant or -fiPr^por,. ;< t tlie Unlvernltv of Vienna. .e was aopointed füll 
profesp-^r i 167\J^~ i r(:jTini,yao(i--n lumin nr^' ^^f th-: univerpit^' u tll ^y' 
His brllliant Iccturep -anJ hi" f;.aoun '^f^/Hi^'X •itt ^ ac eotvar^^ crowdn of 
Student s . 

n tär wa • onl.v ?6 yearr ol<ä :^'aen hs publi^'-ied the flrst 
volujiie of hlp •■''?ßteiT, des "sterra^chischenv^^^rttrecht'.^ ( Sv^teir of 

~" " — — — _— .~3y(p8' '"^^ "^ — — — 

the Austrieb Civil Lav/ ) which was; followed Ly another volume in 
This wor'^ jr-ved to be one of the finest and iriost In'-^pirlnr ,1uris ic 
works of tho?e'--nd even of futurc days. Ther» w?f^ in /^uptria prior to 
txhe aopearance of Un[-er' e Sy sterii no raethodical preporr. ' ory -i/rv;^ t^'-T^A^-^y--- 
w^crfi^'^one for a rcience of civil l?r,'. Th'. f law hnd be n trep.ted ' or 
decades a? an object of a merely practical cisei line, but not as a 
coher-^nt whole. T-iere did not exlst a b'^o^^ tha explained the pronciol 


- 16 - 



of law, none that taupht thelr hiatory, i\'ecdle9'^ to sav that no 
8Ci ntlfic critlc'sm wapforthcomlnr, To be eure, In all these resoectf; 
German jurlspr^dence hsä madeiiÄi^feä^^ f^reat BtrifeR f -^rwr^rd .; Un^er' who 
froiii hlp youth had b*^ n absorbed In German cultur^ wan t'i flrst 
AuF?trian Jurist ho was stirer and able to applv the scientific inetoiod? 
of Germrnn Jurir. prüden ce to the /lustrlan civil law. In hif5 System , 
ü» drawinp" h-ovily on ■-■omanlstic tudle^, jdemonrtrr.ted the deve^pp- 
v.V'"; ment of lep-al in- tltut'Ons and, at the BD'ue, tin.-, lool^ed upon th- law 
\ ' '. a a coherent whole.'The doctrlne of corpornt'? perpon?^ was oresented in 
It as well a? that of the protectl n of snb]: '■•tiv'?»JM-r^ , thts even 
mattjier'^ whic'n belonred to tae spherc of civil procedure.^ » 

Un^er wan a fol'owcr of the hl^toricn?!. r-chool -^f Cavlf-rny whose 
rreatept disciple h- ha be n c lled. ie war the flr'-t Juri-^t who 
applied Savi-'^n 's lüethod to the Austrian law, Je did -ilso ploiteering 
work on specl':l f leide as the c nt acts in fnvor of third persons, 
damaares for puiltles^acts and actions on ons's ov;n risk, It was in th«f 
mo»30^,raphic studiec that he to^'k corrnizance alpo of Germnanlstic concei 
tions wlthin the i^urtrian civil law. His work r-l'^ed so plfi 


\ 'i 


recoQ-nition in ^ermany that It wa^ rightly saifl of hin that he fully 
repaid Austria's debt to German Juriaprudencc . On the occasion of hia. 
70th birthd .y in the yenr 1896 the ^imftMitlty^.0^0k Univer*ity of 
Viennaedited a special "Festschrift" In th introductory letter 
Unger was prair^eu not only as the Innovator of Auptrian Jurisprudenc 
who "with the weapons of critlcism, philo'-ophy n hl'^torv a1 
what WaR invetcr- te and replaced it by a beautifll new ediflce", but 
also as '-in acade:;ic teac er/*Thousands of nt dentsy" read the let"er,*J 
" for whoin each of your lectures was a Stimulus have been imbued with 



love and warm interest for Jurisprudence." / sJ' 




- 17 - 

Ünger served slmultaneoup^lv with Glaser as a minister wlt^^out 
portfollo in the Cablnet of Count Adolph von Auer^per^^ fro:: I67I 
i V; to 1879. In" the year% 1880, he- war^ appointeu .'resident of the 

"ReichEc;erlcht" ( Courtof the iilinplre ), th highest AuPtrlan tribur 

\ . 



which ha;:' been adjucating que~tions of t'-ie public lai-/. Unrer held 

'" ,' thla pO''lti(in untll hin de?th which occurred in 1913 1 In the 

.1 ; 

\ b5th' jeoT of hip aire. 

unger an^: fllj'fjer werc collaboratorc in msny fieldß. The moat 
lastin^ com^rion work w^s the collection of t'ie deci^lons of the 

Austrlan ^?>rP?%^(^^:1i which were publlshecl in se'les of volumea 
sl^ce 1869. T'-^e colleotion bf^came proverblal unter the name 
"G^aper-Unf-er'* ( G^ ) and we' to prove an Invaluable, Indeed 
indlspensa^lsf "i to*'l for jurlsts all over /lUfiiia. The collection 
wap contlnue«; after Gl^er's snd even Un-er's deat^. One of the new 
two eültora a'q? Joseph Schey v. K;, an outstyndin;^ Jurist of 
Jewlsh ^escent ( see below pp. ) who, tofcther wlth Stepan, edlt 
the collection untll 1919. Glaser* s and Un.^er's compan^hQnßijUfikp fou 
also a splendid llterar.y reco.frnition -It -/as, in fciCt, the hl. hest 
hon*T xvhich posspibl.y could been bestowed upon therr.i 'ffhen the most 
illustrious Gernian Jurist c acholar, Rudolf v. iiering, dedicated 
t^l$ tfi^fy^f^-^e jointly the secoid volum^oT h: s f::!iacus work '^zw^-nV lm 
EiLClit.'* callinr them "the most compete t repreeentatlves of the new^ 
4faind o f J ur i c^" r ud e n c e in A u s t ri a t " ^^^/ 

Jherinf'a words contained a pro ^hecy wiich cair.e tr.'e. Glaser 
0Mt lin^yer becaiiie th. founders of the Austrian school of law, as has 
been al^o attested by f]ttni!li!^.Jiia^,^§;^^^ hictorlan of Gerrnan 

J^,rlPprudence. '^^y^ it would exceed the ^ize and purpose of thi; 
study to Show in detail how he method s of th^ two master? h'^ve beei 
perpetuateü in the wor^^s of later uptrirm juripts and in the 

- lö - 



W^^-yi »,. 



> N 


tt «kv 



iübaequent leglslatlon, some of theae effects may be inentloned here 
in conclu ion. It was the spirlt of Urifer who prompted Joseph Kralnz 
to comp^eee a n?aW: cornplete a.v stein of the i^ustrion civil law. Un^er*B 
idea^" permeatcü llkewlse Stubenrauch* n populär coiiiiiientaryonntthe 

■ V 

AuRtrian civil code. In the sphere of le,«TlHl3tion, a su^^estlon 
which Glaser had iwxie - outslde of hin ppeclnl firld - concernlrifr the 
proce.dlnFPÖTj petty cl£liiis has been materisllzed , rnd Unf^er s vlewn oi 

civil procsdur^e inlluenced Franz Klein, the cr?:^tor of the 






The niaaer-Un^^er traciitlon v/as potent tJnrticu" orly in fhe 

new generrtion of ^^ustrian Jurists of Jewish decent whtocliaösdthl^r 

appearance in tfie second hall of the nlnetc nth C(-:ntur3r. "trancrRly 

enough »xxatocxüt cilso srnlnr' their. g p?ilr of outrtr-.n in*^ Jurists arope who, 

born ßlmost sifhultaneously »pursued wltn utniost enerry rimllar proala 

anJ actuslly becaiiie the leadinc representatives of r. nr:w trend ithi^i 

the sphere of law; iMnil Cteinbach, bftrn in Viennc in 1846, was only 

one year youn^er than Julius Ofner, born in a8A5:lÄ aohamlincfcttJVof 

northern Johemia, who, ho ever, survived hi^- illustrlous contemporary 

by eeven^e -n ye?\rs« kuch as the careera of the two men were differ et, 

that of Steinbach elevatin^ him, like Glaler ard unf-er? to the highest 

Office.^ of the State, vvhile Ofner' s lifflonf public activity remained 

confinedalir.oFt entirely within the liniits of a lav;yer nnd a member of 

the i'arllan".ent , there exists an as it were irystertously ^nalogous 
•*'^^ relation 

betwe n their '^haract rs and fundamental vie^rs. Both were bachelors of 

a nesrly ascütic t pe imbued with a saintly devotion to their taska 

which, Vept;ot?ilir!-fctotthQd)|[isipiiil3inthenv*dt&on,oi?oth&sted in the serv'ice 

ftr t 36 pcople bv creatin Jj new, socl??lly roinded lerisl^tion. 's 

spokesirien of the contemporr3ry tej^dency towards such s. lerlslation and 


- 19 - V 

«w .'Vi 

'- "f- »W*U 


«... t^ymnvit^tlm 

aa tlreles? flf^hters for It S1;einbach and Ofner hold f} unlque place ir 

■%h^ hia'orv of Aa-ptrian Juri9prudeixc.e>?^iJv ' '''^"^^ ■'■' 
tn^enlstry or Austrian Juriapruaence» \;^ 

It wöf=! Juliup Crlaser who, ar mlnlPter of Justice, c.:\llec! 

■• j( ■ 

Stelnbach^ - then (^arf ?r^fl?inf recelved the law depre of the UnlverJ 
of Vienna in 1869 ) teacher et the Collerre of Corr.Tierce in "'«''lenna, an 
ins'^titutiori foundecl bv Heinrich Jacquen - to the de \'?rtn?ent of Justic 

feveral ye^rr later Steinbach -mbrnced C.?t:ioliciRiT, s Step which v^ar £ 

l§^^db /] 

follwea by his ap^olntment aiS the head of thär-deeortmentt/Xn this 

capacity, Steinb-^ch wap able to become In'^^trumental for hin f-ivorite 

ideae by launchiriP' bills on compu^sorv heslthT» ac'ldent- and disabili 

inaurance of wor'^erp which heralded the ers of aoci?l lej^iplntion In 

Austrla. in 1691 ^teinbach was made toini^te of i'lnnncc in thr Cfclnet 

^ÄaCount Taaffej^- The introduction of the <TOld Standard in the Au^^tris 

monetary eyste'-ns and the e xchanp-e of the florin for the crown wpeehÄl 

^^ • J |J V^ C fc> f^ t/ L^ J. O 41 

phlfted the tax • urden fro the financlal weal'^er to the wealthy had 

be n drafted by rteinbach and successfully prese»^ted by him tö the 

jdarlian.ent in hir polendid Speechen Februr^ry 19, l6 9PSj^si8ce(3P(i^2?cice 

with his viewp cn tie autf^g df^^3j^t<??^^<^^- ^tri^^bacn 8 social 

rerleblc-d in vj. 

feelinp-s? an forefi it are alPo^^l^^JW-^S^' a ■ ill which demanded tft 

W*»f'» ';.,-:ti 

egtabllshii.ent in yll factorier' of conrpuls'^r^' worker:^f Councils v/lth th 

purpoae to vrc>tch over the interests of the eii.ployee;? . The subject of 

this bin ^ whlc ^clicl not become o lavP4^^i\?^'lioVl^l<^'^ pr perly to the 

sphere of the ^ inistry of Finance, but ö(beä:f?^5th hcd , ry hi? fore?ifht 

and wlsdom, acquired so rreat sn a;thorit^' thr.t hlr acvlce and Eur^est 

oroved often declsive in matterr of^ other minij?trier, In fact, it was 

tr^e — - 

he who presfed niort for the refrr o "" obeolete Aurtrinn eJ^eÜ^tel^ttion 

System and w wa? the inain driving^ fc^'cf^f^JilÄd^tH$'^i4ll^Ö^t'rf^|Lffg 
-^^ftltoy^^iSmaSi^d t^elnbach hoped that a new riiore deniotratlc house of 

■ representaltives would be more favorabl' to h s social r'^rforms. ' 

• ün ' ortün* tely the rejection of the blll brou-^lnt about tke dovmf alloCl 

' Taaffe an thup ^Xpo j??i}iK the temfonation of ^teinlDabaib'ffllnlGterial 

■ . Stei^ ach 

actl itlea. ' oon afterv/ards k« waü ai)poiated chüirrnan of a dlvision o 

'. the Supreme Court, 'Vid in 1699 Vice ^resident both of the Suoreme Cou 

■■■' ariQ of the Ccjrt of the Empir<r ( "Reichßrrericb t ' )f In the year9ll9^4 

i' tLaoQöljiiie i^iiiQi^EtercIiftrioB* Q^tk&^ttt^ie iiß.iL'tari di*rt'QP proooRltt&ontfe« 

f' »plse^ijßteinbach xrepident of th* SupremeOÖüütt. ie jnotlvöted the oropoj 

eapecially wit-i the expectatlon that '^teinbach' P'rrüt)HtäifeAoHsaa 8C'3o2ioJ 

and hi? ^'u^'fricr popitlon In th-^ world of learninp would ander hin 

t\ • • ■ aecure to t'ie judioMture of the iBupr^iie Court -' new spTendor 

and j?n incr' • psd ei-^rif Icanc . Thua it happeneC Ihat in that yeor for 

( and lart ) 
the f Irpt time u J'utfelt of Jen! ah dece-nt wsn inve^tcd wltitihthe hir^heat 

Judicinrv d -nity f^f the .'ustriHn I'onarchv.f One of t'-r- mopt Intricate 

Judiclal c??ep Vv'hlch c^^.e up duriag Ctelnbac.v p presidency of the 

Jrupreme Court wr»;^ the -^r.'-onatlc narriafre of th-: '^rchduke Franz '^'erdlns 

with thr C-^unte^r Chcte'-» It v/a'- Tteinbac '"'ho v^n? dertined to settle 

this hlatorlc (^u^ntJon by his exoert o-inion. tvinbach held tho offic 

of the pr r^ldrn. 'V 'f the Cuprome Court ut'i hi.r de-^th ihHi909ccU' red 

on Mav ^6, 190?. ^ 

5^:teinbach eppren^-ed hi? Ideas in a series of r )lendid wrltlnfrs 

&^ "i^ie Re chtelc enntnisse d es Publik uiTis" ( 1676 ;, "E rwerb und beruf " 

^ 1Ö90 ) , "R echtgp egch^'fte der wirtschaftlichen ^r<ynnigati^nen ( 1897 ) i 

"Tre u und Glauben iir. Ve rkeh r" ( 1 >01 }"jer i itan t u-'d die moder en 

^.rivatmonopole" ( 19C3 ). :^ut these public tion , mortlv adapted 


lecturea, are in r ner.-il r-:ther concite 2uii:ni:.]ricC of his social philo- 
BOphy than elnborate ntudles. For Steinbach was orincipally a man of 
,. action. He escelled as etatenman, as lefiolator, as Judp-e. it Ip, 

however, not the vr^riety of these cctivites, extr oridnary as they ^ re , 

■ ^•/■' ,.,.■■■■ :,r:. - 21 - 

-■ , '• ■ :;, ■ ■-,■; 's/V '"':• „ '■ ^: .. ,ft . 

what coastitutea the greatnea?": of Cteinbaeh the doer, but the deep 
rellglouF fe^-llng and the stron?:': moral oonvictionc und/rl^'iTif^ all hiß 
actione. Rarel;/ hafü a State?;: n, and, as haa been aaid ,. certainly no 

Auatrian ottteönian ^'O empfiatically rejactec. the inclivldutillGtic orinolplef:' 


. \ ft8 Stein bach* He not onl.y conBldered iHTals ^.nd sociii ideas ap the 

\.\-- . 

: f, foundatl -n of legisl^^tion, but he also dem-mded thnt the indl-ailduGl '^hou'^.6 
V'.' be. limited in the use of v-^^lid ru'-'hts b}' etlli3iccv at^ the tltlr of or. of 
|v;; StainbßchÄR ;>ritin2:s, "I/.igalLora\ alr ßchrßn'^-Ke Cen ' Xechtr un d der R e c.^hlg - 
üu^'lburijy'' C^.orjlp a.'^ barrier of acqui^itio»^ 'ind of us?e of rip-hte") 
ciearly • indicates Thue :^teinbach's foremo^^t rtmvrs^: to link the lav/ v;ith 
ethics atiä j oonH^tuently % to inake Juri^iprudenc' i^r in-trmji'^^nt for the 
**:^"re*yliz:.'tiirt bf thip V'-rv aim« He thsrrfore ^^Pi^Q^idt-ö''- ?fiht''ieubot'61''ditit>ihan o 


of indivi^Öual interer-t^'. unJer those of as'-ocii^Jtionsm feiaewe^ll ae the 
: restrlctlph of ' the fredom of makint?: cc'.itrac.tiss.A''n the other Irmd, ho wa^^ 
one of th^^^ärliest tidvoönte^ of the free lav; [)rinci:)le" In oase': for 


whici the la^' dld not of er a clear Solution» th^? Jud-^Cr aocordini» to 

SteööfeacA&s ODintin, wo'' cntltled to decidfr accordin-^ to his free 

Judpiment, takinr th(? c ntcmpörary social idesl ae atatän^d]»- .. _) 

Steinbach's thou-^lits and deedt; had a c^fl^'^lte in'^luence on the 

nevf goner.-'tion of .luricts and s-^cirl thin'-erfj, portl.cul-^rly on . nt'^n 

.^langer* üiven more, hov/ever, than froT. -teinbrjch's pttblißhoi i\«irk3 n^d 

public HOt^ans -..n in^» drgtiovi oine.^ianted froin hi?; sp'^eches, hir- conver- 

eaticns ,?nd , above all, froff hie personal conduct» '^^rien Franz Kle:. '^ t:.^^: ne 

Bald of St«ln|bech the.t he han "in contra ^tto eouie modern philo opherr? xhj 

extol the inctlnctp proclaimed the hnrsh go' pel of the Cu-ht" he hacj, in s 

nut Shell, c.barc-cliterizv^c the man and his worY. //hat thi« h.^f' been caid 

about a 3on of the Je-^ich peopTe who, though h^Njrft the Jev;i?^i fold in 

m^i^* ■ --'^ upon Tl 

advancec ye^rs, ssr;a??ys?aa|irmBmnhp2n-a2i0riv".?fc.d tD^^eBb^^uM/the rabcin&c c:?,r3':^rjy 

is as dif^'^ieult to i.-^nore as the identity of "the h;rsli ^osoel of the 

Oueht - the ethlc3 - v'ith the foundations of Jui^^isjn.. \ 



Perhaps the Hebrpw rc^tr of Steln"ba?h' f^ social pMlnrophy 
and of his who ■' e perRon.--l.tty wll he one dsj rnorr cl- rified wh<^n the 
life of thiü txtraor'3in')vy m-m '111 " e thoroLvhl^' desoribed ap l^'-:hk0ß;^ 
!/■': been fortunat^iy done by JpÖG- Leh-narj concerning Juliuf^ Cfner Ir) an 

Ofnor'ö own writinf?.sm and npeeches, of whlch a r.=^pre<;'enti.tiv€ ?-;eiectio}: 
% has be %n publiehed hy Walter Eclcsteine, and fron: the i^^^^J^-^of Cfii"ir*r 
%hUKe legislfjtive activitiee, Jullur Cfner emer^ea - beslde Steinbach - 

a$ the eiopdiiiient of the forcep which In the second h'5lf of thc nÄ^teent 

'%. '■■■ ■ '• •■ ■ - ■ ' ' . 

. and öt thc bc[;:iianin£ of the tv^entieth Century aimed at f londamental 

changes of legislation and judicial practice. In a life of alniPr^t QQ yni 

.years, particul'-irly durlnr" the momentous fiv:* decade? that saw the 

lest desperate fis'-ht of the Aus^trian Empire for re^renfration 'md 

survlval, th deadly struir^le of V/orl .Var I -md the crcaticn of the 

f«r!if^i ■■' ^f* 

Auptrlan Rep'^''^lic Cfner took psrt vlrtuallv in .':^11 *uri«^tic oroblems i^a 

hl 3 .. - . , 

capaclty as practislm^'fllwy^r^» a? Irw^'^v-^v ^-n<' scholnr* Ther?^ Is ^ 

fervor for l.?w and Jurtice in Juliun Ofnv?r vhic'i remlnds of the p-re-r.t 

g^aons onu intepl^eter" of the Tor-^h. In f^ct, thour^-h he, follovin.'T the 

trend of the liberal er , nlre?dy a*^ a v^uth ):■■ came ^ freethinker, M'v3 

»w^^'t^wlsh educiitlon v^hioh he received frcai his orthodox f^thnVf n2:.;ni;r$nte J 

• ♦ * ■ 

Itseif in his juristie activlties. '^'- n-iirel?: r-^f)tiothev<Jewl^h-:c.cäij^ti>:^ity 

and confes-ed hi^^lM th"-t the Pi rke Abot ( ''Th^ Sayincrr of th- F-th'ir' 

wer.-: the st^uFftf'e o/ hin ^thocal convictions and thct thc f ounJ -tloa of 

his lefral thinklnp: derived fr^-^rn an anci'^.-^nt Hebrev.' code w'.iiv:^ he Studie'^* *^ 

up to his sixteenth year. 

It iB symb' ÜcrI for thls Champion of a new Au^trlan ler^if^lrftio' 

that hiß one of hi?^ earlient and the «-reat^t scho"5. arlv vork he publit.h- 

v;as the fi^oraugS^a^tiantiffi.the draft afijthe --.ustrian Civil Code auü of 

the perinent c^ntcmporarY ainutes ( ^\p^-r Ur:;?n.tvmrf uii gj-dle i.era_tun>^a" 
.^ygtplolle .äes.__All^eaeinrn Hirgerlichen QMid^^^^^^^Mi^Jlg^ ) l-^i-'^ vdumi' ^ if:^ - ^^ 

- 23 - 

•V*' l?i-M#9 88 It were,wlth nonn^nfels, tho Jewlah b^Jrn colloborat-^r of the 
clas'^lcal law.P'lverp Zeifer and Martini. Ofner hod tvewemcr^me grr at 
obF^tacles untll he wap *^ble after years of pr' parötion? to publlsh the 

, wor^^ of two vol'JM.e?. '^'i?n the edltion rlnally • pee":^red in suc^cfl^ive 

installments betwe n 1867 and 1889, It war? f.TVorablv recclved and sonn 

becanie on* of tae rn-^pt uped s^urce boo\"s f or the Interpretation of the 

©odev The worit haa not lost itp imporianC^i up to t'ae presen day. j 

"4 It wa3 n t the eurioj?lty of th- liistcria'-^ that had promptec! Ofner 

to pursue the edltion of the "Urentwurf" sith 3uci an enerpy. v'h?it he 

Intende.' above all wap to provld^» in^i"-ht in tne i)r'^cep of ljfcie^^i3kfeli)0^ 

and to dernonptrate the exemplary Standard of tris niaker'^ of the Code, 

the suocrioMty 
eepeclakky of the - in ofner's day?=, the dajs of the florioh np" hiptorlcal 

8Chr^ol - much ridiculed adhementsof t^ie natural law,over the c^ntemporary 

positivists/ jThe ubp^ntv/urf " wa?^ alno intended to becoine an inntruinent 

of the revlsioa of the Cod<?, Ofnor' q favorite idea. It waa one of Cfner'a 

flrst actions when he was elected neinber of the .louco of Representaiver 

in 1901 to propose auch a reviaion or rather the crc;itlon of an entirely 

new civil Code. Thua he inouf^ursted a campeirn \\'aich, t'\9^'^)i[i it did not 

lead to the rsüllr.'-tion of that airibl bioLir objectiv:, borrmany eecellent 

fruita*/ In 1904 Unr^r r-^iced hie voice in f^vor of i\ rfvisicxl of the Code 

at v^riance ith Of^-^er^a propop<l by iTiOsaic \\q elnfle corrections. 

Not lonp" afterwordp the ?rime Minister Dr. v. .K"rbe^-- appotmib^ddi co:r.mispion 

of five in6?mberp f^r the revinion of the Code, IaIow Cfner defended hin idea 

of a general revision In an articl* ( published in mnisaejiliBe"/ llj^emeine 

Oesterrelchteöhe ■erlchtpz^ltunp-*' , ihJdi Iso ae an. indeoendent psrr.phlet 

•■• r 

in 1907 )♦ Qnly /after a thoroup-h dlHcufl'ion in A'hici ?everal Jewlah 
Juristen ;;g#- especially K tl ^-^dler, Ariif^^n Ehrenzweip-, Horaz K'racnopol^im 
Rudojk^ 2o\\b\ and -Joseph v. '^chey who als" was a meßibfeprof tne abov-5 mmti- 
oned Comrnis^ion - took a leadinf pari, §ibd aiffter protracted transactions 


in the i':init?trv of Justice the three p.^rtlal ncvels t^^ trie '^ivil Code 

have been oroirulgated durlng '^orld .Var I - m 1914, 1915 and 1916 - 

„,: ■■': ';•'.; ' ... ■ ft 

through imperial decrees .^ 

The reforui of civil law 'aa, however, onl.y ons of tiie nuiiiberlesa 
legrlalative goalo which Ofner puraued finrth? aa^inirst of hia parllamentary 
actlvlty durin(5 alinost two decade.i« The story od Ofner* r? rrtrugn;^e for the 
apppval of flill the bills v/hlch he introduced in the Au p tri an i'arliament 
constitutes a'^fascinatinrT sublime epic# He fou-^ht for thei.n mot only In the 
plenary Besslons of the Houae, but slso In many le/Ti-i;-;t5 ve cojiirilsplonn 

Mir-'' ' 

whosö? dftspll^i^-^ was ovMnr to hla almost ftnlverr^al exoert Imowlööpre Pifn 
Jurldiöaanäoe&eial mytter?. The aubjecta ^tohYiere billn tMwn^ r.^np-e from 
the protection of llörkpppamd children to matter? of the theater and to 
the queetlon of vac^ination* , from crlmlnal to marrlo^-e law, from the 
rifTÄtfl of women to tbe liablllty for caraaccidents . In one ainorle sesFiion 
alone Ofner Introduced no leea than 23 bills. ^ 

Thlr= unparallftile 1 activlty which war! ulwaya colled foth by fifeer's 
hÄmane fec-:lin'['S anci social Ideaa, eomed hiir thr rur-^ame *' the corflnienee 
(^f th(a Pfiril fl;r 6nt/.y ^ut hi^- proper name wai:- actually ured to denote one 
of the moPt importj^nt laws he haa Inltlated* Thla law of .^pril 9, 191Ö, 
the "lex Ofner 't I conceminir the level of the amcunta relevant for the 
clasaif Icrtlon of crimes aprainat peoperty adopted the outdated amounta of 
the cid Crli:inal Code to the actual contemporary values of tne money» Thua 
the dirc ^1^^^%<S^ iractice to condemn pcople for trifllnv/off encea against 
the law to severe penrilties has been abolij?hed y /.fter tht model of this 
lawaeveral othera have been created when the port war infl':tion brourht 
about a continuous de 'eluation of the Austrian money^ \^.^ 

Ofner fou^rht v^ith an Indomitable tenacity for his reforma* A blll 
agalnst the exoloitatlon of (tHcOkMirrifor labor has been introduced by him 


Iready et the be<^inning of hin parllamentary creer in the olÄ Monarchy^. 

■' .'-«^T -'^ '•■' ■!■ 

\ « •-, 


^•^^ triumph came only at the verv rnid of th Xa£i:er . It ' ^ in f act eynibol 
for the continulty of Cfner'n le Inlotive pctlvitic^ tiiÄt- the blll wa?? one 
Of the latest Ahich were approved b^' the old Houer of Rgppref-'nttitlrifefl.tott 
owing to the coll.ep£3. of the Emplr fnllecl +o ret t'ae conf irnntio-^ b the 
House of liOrdej nd bh-^ elfrnature of the Kiri er^>r. It beearne. how.vcr, one of 
the flrst lows of ti>e vounf Austrian Republlc. '-In-li irlv , .nnother of Ofner's 
favorite almp, the odmirrion of warnen to the Juriea, \m^ materiallzed only 
by the rcpublici?n lef^Irilnturet As a meniber of f-if r-putalicnn Pnrliament, 
Ofner, at that tiie a Ko-tualfenerinn , contin e:] tb-j ntrurjrle for the 
re-.liziitlon of his social an'-l polltlcfil lde:4r wlth unrelented vlp-or- 
It ^appened on hla propor.ltion that the censor^hlp crd th^ t?h<-trlctionp of 
the rlght to af^s^'ernbie, hich had be en Introduced drrin.r the wart v/ere 
abollshedt /' 

But, tra^-lccill" , the ardent pursuanc of '^ le^.al r^form whlch was 
particularly Ofn r* j^ concern proved re.«? -jcnGibl' for the abru:!t end of 
bis glorloun parlla;^ nt:n\Y career. Convl?nced that bh.-^ tir.e wap rloe to brea''c 
with tU^a^tlquüted lüorriare lav/ of the /.uptrln«^ Konnrchy v/hich differed 
acfordln»; to th*- r^lijvlous crecdR of the p?artnerp, l'fner en-j^r-rrd uoon a 
porllarr.entarv cjjmp- i.o-n to brlnir about n un'tfi'^cl niarri.T^e Ir^v; for all c^ -?;-, 
denomlnatlon: with an 't)ll,o;atory civil marrla/^e to b'? oer*'ornie:3 by a Gd)1c»ic 
of'icial, thls rrb empt to bpe-.ik with th lerol tr-'-Ution of a rt':it3 with e 
predominantly Qathölic populatlon aroused a Ptor.' of prctest airalnnt Ofnsr, 

partlcuLarly because he as a Jew had dared to onf'-afc in whnt wa;^ toi-^raed 
*'iLhei*eforir-^"^kandal" { I-.arria-e reforni sc^ndr;! ). T^is hif canclidacy for 

/ . V;. 

s membe'r of theCon^titutional N-itional Aö!?»»»!)^ Yi>n 1919 waf^ v hcmently 

oontested bv tie Christian-Social partv* ?j3r ^doxlc^lly he alpo was oppo^ed 
by Ä wT^^"^ part O'^' thr-- JewlF'h votern who rezent '-^d hlp stand in the qu stion 
)f the inar^lar^' l«'-'' becaure it increased the antlee itic wave. Thus Ofner 

LoFt the battle arainnt Rhbert -tric^-^er, the Zloni^-t candidate,in the 

- 26 . 

moatlv Jewlsh second dlatrlct of VlennaW In anQQrtiDleoQtefetittth.^ttb*fetitrlc 

<iK£Kx^ the brllllant Journalifit Anton Kuh eomirented wit' c^ustlc Irony on 

* ' the .^arllameut -' 
C^QtirAistactlfCf^üßaJaii "The old Jr. Cfner hud evldently beco e a thnrn In the 

ilesh of the P.-^yj^rifiiLent . mIw&yp onl7 initiativem, improvsTTentf? , bllla which 

Impeded th* theetrical entertainrnantt^QddeQtJrJgsi'^fstit of the crieis, nothing 
eise than reportp'» J."^^^^'^^'^^ ^"^ el.aborate !^umrr;-^riep of the rar^terials - what 
an opuortunlty f 01*' the bellicose Junlorn to yawn I ... Th^ well-lnfnrrned , 
of courpe, 'Tna>' what 'aniount of l^bor th.1 n innn wlt/i the f::ce ot a pasplonate 
Bcholar tjftrklotl hn hia nhouldrr'fl and hov; nuch the reout*^tion of the Kouse 
owed to hini... Thlp 1? why he wa'^ f.llowed in the iloue? vrhlch abound:- in 
the nobodl'^r» of pinrle fractlona .•.. form the one mnn p?rty "Dr. OfnerV • . . 
He never Icft h' s poPt - even when the circl'- prourid hirr, vnn esfipt^'. Thus he 

remalned youn^ -^rron^ crowd of people who v/ere old • t th(»ir ver- birth. 


it sounded llke an obituar""'. 

But in th'? re'"^lnin - foihr vears of 


hl 8 life, Ofner conti nued to reiain on hir port, t'ion>-h It wn« now shlfted 

to the Senate and to the newlv cr^ated >rf p p ' ^ jn ^-^ '-' ^ e r 1 ch t ghof ( Con'titu- 

tl'^nal Court ), wher'- he served as perm.pnent reoorter.l 4e even nt the bid 


of tht Government w- it in 19? I to L.>rlin for ner-^tl^tlrnr aboüt the 
coorciination of t.h- Aurtria»^ and t h<= Ger^^an L-iw.jAnd there was one activitv 
which ne cont ni-ed u - to hls la^^t d-?yr: in f?':'t, th': liternry production of 
JuliUE Ofner foriiis an almost uninterrupted f^trean of i^inunereble ar^lcl^s, 
esFaya, cou.n.ente , ekcteQ'öf?^^ fenokiurd^Jiewd niUdbßjnöependent bookp »deallnp with 
lernest everv espect of law and ven of lulte different ^ubjectn, like 
Schiller, laotse anc üomlet, from hls first lifted .jublic^tionp In the 
j^uristic weekly ^^Ce richsthalle" of I87I u;» t^ h'^ l.'^nt loocrk, a purriicory of 
hie ba?^ic idea?^ which he published in 19^5 under ^.he titlö: "Das Soziale 
RpGhtsdenke tt" "( • ocial Japalv'^fhlnklnk ) . ^ -^.ile one of hin metftinippt Impor-r 
tant workF, tht ed6tioon of the "Urentwurf/* h.i8 olrra^ry leen ■entioned, 
the li'ersry part of ' f enr' s work haa to be dealt with in connection wlth 

Jewiah contrlbut^-Qns to the varlou^' brancheg of JuriFiprudenco / ?• e ^"^»0. 

■'' " Cfner dled nn Se-Ptember 2^i , 19^4. HiGv;ag:aen ( he~wap cremated 
'^ccordlng to hl8 last will j^'^^iT^eburlea on the Jowl^h cenetary of Vlenna 
in an honorary tonb which under hla name ana the date:- of hls birth.,;yA||pljld 
^^''y}9- bccirs the i^sprlption he hiii;ffelf haa chosen: a i'I an whOwSe -"nil v aim_ ^ 
Vfeg to be fi ii]an->- iVx^ev/ years later a nionu:nent conslatinr- of hia head wa^ 
erecteci in .the oark urroundinr the town hall of 'i-i^nna not far from th« 

L — - ' ■ ji/-Y^ -•' 

iionument of .Sonne^if oIg . It vap a mysterious meetin of the shadows of the 

iN«r*' ' ' ,• ^ to huMMnlze 

two i},en of Jewieh dercent one of whoiü h-üB heloeü tb firrt Auatrian 
Crliiriäniil GQöde, v;hlle the latter left traces of hl' huia-Ltnlt-Tlan e^for-ts 
in prr^ctcrill.v everv a'potJk'ohoiPflSiiJviBla'tionT? 


' ( 


JÜRI5:?RUDiLi^CE F HOl^. T Hi^. ii;i\[U OF TdE. NIiMET liENTH C^l^TUHY TO TH Il iMTw THE 
••- . ■" A Uf^TRI AN RKPUx;LxC "IN *'*'''''" 

iipochrnok'. ngr as the worlcs of ÖÄprerrcndoCTia^^cr w^^re 4ndtif€!:dWMn 
of civil and criTlnal law, the subsequ^nt o'^rtic lost Ion of «JurißtR of 
Jewir.h de3C!?nt in ihepe fi^.^?- - qulte aport froa the unlqu activlties 
of Steinbach anu Cfner - reoulted in remarkable prcduct Ions pome of which 
rank amonp the puprcire feata of Auctrian -nd moder-n Juri: prudence in 
gener&.l . ±n oröer to ?rlve füll credit to then , the hirtorv of Aurtrian 
Jurisprudence v.oDld ha"toe to be written in it*^ e.nt'..rety nad chocied as to 
that p.'3rticu' ü?r eleinent. it-iin the fram work of thi? stu :y only some of 
the maii<ior'jß^ieven:ent?> can be ainrled out ap exL^niplep '.md n t m-^re than 
a scanty öiiUlfoi^ra 'hical nurvey of the other '••orks wlth iWi^W^^rifö]*^'^' 
omiSLions for .viiich apolo/riep -^re of'ered in advance c&n te prepented, / 


r • 

^ < i'/Pte:^ i.inder thin heodinp^. sll kind? of .'orks rel^tinp t^jot 
private rl htr r.j to le';'al procecdin • cncernln»- themifjiiQjjiLiödA-' 
comiiierclal l?w, wor^ririen*? la'Vi p:itentp, copyrirhts: und klii.dred laws 
will be deall. wLth. ) 

/' - 28 - 

Althourrh the flrat möktionv.olrtel fmd tborourh/ coirip^ncllum 
^-.^ZHllrA^^J!^ ^^ "^^^ civil law whlch np^:)e*ired nfter Un er* f work kas -brltten 
by Joaig*^fKt5»*iiÄil^Z'md poethumously editeci "by Leopold .'faff , botli of i'/horr. were 

non-Jewlsh scho^are, th tPilrd editlon of thi'B wor'- , nirrnn^ed ö]^?dtbabllshed 

in 1899 by the , 

outGtandliir Jewlr::i-born Jurist Armi n .ihrenzwoir: ( 1364-1935 )• professrr 

at the üniverRitv of Graz, wa£? alreadv to a i-^reat e..tent a ne'v crcation. 

i^ronzv:elf' produoel 0I.90 the nex' two edltinns vhich were nubatantiall.v 

enlarged^n;' (^ w.j eaf^entially hie own wzyt-Sliif^i^vvot'xti editlon of tttt^l^z- 

P'^af f * r\ Grund ri?^-' > puMlphed in 192S/^,as '~U2ied f i ^*rily ^uch an orlrrinai 

qharöcter t-iat . ;ire»K:.wei.'r,f -It uuly rntitled to puuiir': it or "Gyst eni de f? 

all ireme ine n -" rlv -^ t re e-i t r " unde^- hir^ o'rva n-\e,l hrciZwei-- , a ;rolific 

rjuthor on vsricur 1 '^/jI subject?, i.^rovec 3 -.v'^rth'- ruc'-er^cr of Jos'-ph 

ünrer« Üis: wor'^ - cons: «'tlno- of thre voIuidcc - wa" d: i^tin'^uiF'ied bv n 

examplary dispoGttlon» a clear and penc-t «tin«^ intGrpret'^tion, axeritiasl 

aftdciRüiiiasttunlv-jraal reference ^o th-E- pertinent rTcholorl"' liter-:turt3 nd 

by a rare lucialt^ of fitvle/ köthouffh ,-"Jiir.fnaiiitif-aiidcloirad critlclfjni of the 

current judicial practicfisnd the t leoretlcrrl vi' vr of other .lu'horp vas one 

of the moet chr.r<';L'terirtic fe:j:t'jrer; of the woi*':*/l 'ir'^nav.'cir w-^n th*?rcfore 

fully entltled t--. cl irr in the prefnce thot 'ho unquestion-b' e influ-snce 

of the bool^ on 'uririiction wjn the finert r. 00 •ni ti'^n it could fini.'It 

T- y 

\ uiey even ivild tha t hhrenzwei'^' ^ ^^^^^^M ^r^^rvi-d ar? ^-le mo^t oopu'.'^r .9nd autho 
alifiost authot^it 'tiv-. -vork of refernce for /uirtrlan Inwsr::. The Indisoent 
ssbilty of the worv 'lan be n prov-sd by the f-ct thtil a re-cdition of the 
v/ork ha.^ be-.n innuf'-ur'jted ifter 'he re-c^nrtitütiion of the Au.^trlan Re public, 
jl'iVo Toluniof! h-^vi; Mpoe- red uo to no'.'f in 1951 '."^n 19'3"> eulted ly A^ml^ 
Lnrenzewei,'-' e höh, /^dolf, /ho is acii'^'e -j^? .j'''diio ( •. erl ■nder,-ericht'^rc<t ) 
9.nd le 't rer -t t.v niver'"-ltv of '/'ierfnü.. // 

Anothe outifetfendimgrt:ieoreticl::n ^f th- ci)"il Ira ?;Yio po5p,tefcGe__ 
(rasnopolnki ( l^A- - 190o ) v/ho bec:jnie t le nuccert?or of Joseff .-viSrirliaa 

. i 


- 29 - 


at the Univer'^'ity of Prn.-^^ue . iHe hailed frorr Gallcia und r^ce.lved 'als 

firat ed -cation In a^he^jer, b' t after ntucllen in '^erniwltla 'ind atthe 

Unlvernltl^o of ^^p.jrue and GöMln^en^leVf-'iooed Into iccomplferhed 

le^al acholar i^ho fascinated the ptud ntn of civil Igw by hin cle-ir and 

etimulatl'T": Iccturen. Üi9Mio^ti'iff2Plft?e±ikealQ6" DübtärbyJthorf act that he 

elected - . = - ^ .^ — 

wa8 thrlce denn ( "je\ir\ ) of the Lav facalty of ?rnfrre]v;here he tans/ht 

from 16?'^ un'il. hip de- th In 19f'8. Ap'^rt fmir several pui 1 '■. orieJ works 

( »yttf-Finl -Jt ;^>^' ^1'' (f/l e Lehr' vo*^ d e?!^ i^^e r " Ion von Ff-^ rderunr^cn , 1872, and 

l^a? A nfec htunr^nre^'ht der Gl-'ubl^-er n-3ch '•rtgr' ^ l''«?heir Hecht , IcBÖ ) 

h»3iMft n mnnuRcriot of coinplete textbooV of t'v A'untrian Civi'i. Law whlch 

.-publlBteöd in thr - voluniea bv ;-- runo rC^-f>j, prof^?^ ov nt th^:^ Onlver^ity 

J ew i F h /^ ^^ 

y\raonn|thr . iennene '/.Hirl^tg »-Togef ^chey^ v> ,."or oiril?2 { 1653 V^ ) 

.profeaoüT ^'t hc I.n." ver'^lty of'yinnsstf >rhäbpbecsueh':?J.iPBl5etatroth^hä6uHe . 

bopdaewtiepfertief the Houpe of 'LoY^t\ , Thrre- hc rerved :?s thoort^^vt^r of . 

the Comii.lttee of JuBtlce^^'Ki* Ir- thir; ccpacitj. iieotoil asla^^illknylsepäiTf ^\x_ 

ftn:i.tfliG^'tortnfttot:)of rc-rO sion of the ClvllC66de he h,3Fj rrestly C'ntrJbuted 
to the final formuL'tion of the novcls to the Clvi! Cole ( se ?,bpve 
p.... ). As un author ^' chey holdn an liif> V'm\" to hla numeous 
pabi:ii*afetoQe.Vjljlr^v7otkraif hls ^ör^if^connthe Irxw of ccntrpct* , but <^bove 
all by vlrtuc of hi!5 raisterl edltioa of the Civil Code, Pl'he hirt^rv of 
this stand.i'Ää 'iJitJD-' J?t-rted in 18^^. In IcJ? ."■ii:il ■^teinbach.becüme the 
editor of ItF 12. ^.Itl^n. rcheyundcrtoo - th' I4th '~dltl'"n -['nc frei: now 
oirwaru reinslned V'^: editor of the booV f r four decsdes. He enlar^^ed 
the edition by öftere oertinent new lav;s ,annotntions ond quototions form 
the decipiorpi of the Pnprem Courfe nd th'^r crented not only a verltab''e 
tool for Aurtri^^ Jurlptp but nX^o n model of Plnllar editlons of other 
law?. The ' ook rnn S( inol' üinp th^:- Ü editionp ;.)Ä;lii.=!he'j before TöVie^ 
toif'': over th: edl^ornhip ) Into no lea^^ than 23 e-Jitlonsj flinlipllv 


- 30 - 

as wlth Ehrenzwel^"' s Syste^m , It happcned wlth Stets Allp-emelne Bftr rerliche 

Gesetzbuch * edlteJ by Josef v. Tchey /Yti«ita new edltlon haa been 

publlehed after the endof the Nozl rule. Dr. Hans Kapfer, Auptrian Kl loter 

of Justice, hlmself became the edltor of the 24th edltloij ( 1951 ) and of 

the 25th edltlon ( 195^' ) ;»^hich on th Ir title pnfreB Ptlll be-ir the 

name of Josef v. ■ chey. C^ 

Another sta dard work on tlwltlvll lawv/wasKfehiiBeif tBren t ar zum 

Allgemeinen Bf! rgrerl lohen Gesetzbuch w hlch was edltedCiwrlnr the last 

years of the Austrlan Re public^ 931 - 1935 bv ttte^nrlch Klanur -Ithi 

collabrators the 

Cooperation of a proup of ssxoikxxB predomlnantly conplstlnr oCfh^tiffcHliaor 

Jewl8a-btfrriiev>üir3ietgi*n Emanuel Ad 1er ■ E rnst Bettelhelm ■ /^rtur Lenhof ^ > 

Oskar x'l8 ko>~ AehilitbeüEat)lnqpopt? t Jo^gef Tchel l, v/llhelm S c hleslnir ert 

Eron Weiss ( see pp ) and Jose ff SetUajf yC see p# ).Klanr ( bom 

1675 In Vlenna ) was n actlve Judf'e and[plnce 19^1 ^aurht civil law at 

the Unlversl^y of Vlenna* His varlous publlcatlons deal wlth thelilstws 

of contractSf of propertv »ofnfcupaiTQnce'^anr s authotity war so 

even autslde AuFtrla 
recopnised thathlae severajL tlmes servedas t'ie oflvlal l?epor*^er ot the 

Conventions of the Cer an Juri st s ( Deutscher Jur lstntar.e) • /At the tlr'e 

of Austrla'e oc upafclon by the >iazls, Klnnr war presldinr Judre at the 

IBuperlor Court of Vlenna. 'e was 'n 1938 deorlved of hls offlce and In 

1942 deporteüd to the c^ncentrntlon cniip of Thereslenstadt . He survlved 

the ordeal and retumed to Vlenna In Julv 23, 1945, In the ame year he 

was ap )olnted President of a semte of ' upreme Court ."^^Te also was 

elected President of the l^l ear^ Jurlrtlsche Gesellschaf t , the most 

distlngulshed assoclatlon of Austrlan Jurlsts. On thr oc aslon of hls 

75th blrthday, toaÄji|5C^as ^lanir was honored by a "F estschrlft ^oubllshed by 

the L«w Faoulty of the Lnive^slty of Vlenna. But above all, he exoerfctnced 

the Batisfac^lon of havlnr been able, in 1946, t^ stntt the publlcatlon 


f a newly edlted Kommentar . Klanp died In /*i^ / and was burled In an 

lii-«Tr~honorary grave of the JcwIb . aectln of the central ^^IPßl^f^y in 

Theppls hai4lv' BBy cpec'al subject to be found inkttlhn the sphere of '^Nt 
l ' . • ■ o 

the Augtrlan civil lav^ whlch has not been dealt wlth by ^crlptf? of Jevrlsj?^"' 
descentiln mono^yraphp or contrlbutlons to perlodlcalfi tnd eympoBlo. T ^e 
pre^ent purve^' mu55t thercfore be reptrlcted Q apert fron the alre-^dy 
mentloned 'vor^'s ) t-> a-i^U ploneerin;?! wrl4$vfipiMf\order to llluetrate 

rather the rl^nlfic-mce than the quantlty of the Output of the Jewleh 

partlclpotlon In Austrlan civil Jurlnprudence. ^or doenjthe chopen 

examples claim a au^er'-oity sbove other outsta'Tdin^ achlevementn o^ Jewish 

Jurist 8 whlch a rarore comprehensive '^tudy could and would be obli'^ed 

to rrjÄTÄfiisnt.. 

2hortly a tcr the publlcation of his monumental Pij^entwu rf ( see 

above p. ) whlch bec;ime askey as It were to the treaßuiBhouse of the 

Austrlan civil iav/, / Juli us Ofner enriched the Äuntrlnn lefral llteriture 

by a systematlc work on the law of orooerty, Pa p Sachenrecht ( lö93 ) 

/ mo r. fner*s numerous Inter writinr-e pertinent to civil law, his study 

Der s oiaiale Charaker des Allge mein en i^tJr^e rl lohen Gesetzb u chs" » publl shed 
In t he "Festachrlf t zup^,Jg||,je)^nndfirt^ftie dpn 11 rpreJI^fr^'^I-ifirrprl 1 ohon 
Gese t zbuche s" offere an appreclatio - of the olcl codc in the llf'ht of 
modern ldeas% xt culiiiinated in the cloninf. rentences: 'hlle ( the code ) 
was permeated by f'reat reformist Ideas and relied for thferr deve2)opnient 
upon t'aesreason and natural Juristic prlnclplep of the Judr^er, l-f- has be®n 
for half a centur^' derraded by a <^ull liberal Interpretotio ^ to a rterile 
heap of parajrrpahs. Only the rejuve'j^ed Jurlrtic thlnkinp; of modrm 
tlmeshifestnred to it its due honor." In an-^ther study» Cfne^ prai^ed Josef 
Un^er ar the initia'Or of this new wbbieldm trenu : "The v'ctory f the 
Gchool Unger wan not onlv a vlctorv over the nplrltlesr liter^l Inter- 
pretation i it war alpo the vfccMrv of the moOern solrlt over the reactin^ry 
tendencv of t le /uetrlan jurirprudence« ^' 

- 32 - 

Modem Jurlsprudence web Indeecl In flux In /iuntrla, and Juri st s 

of Jewlsh dencent ccontrlbuted t" It abimdantly In quick ruc^^es^lon. / 

xn lo90 Josef chey publlshed his D ie obllrrat'rl sehen Verhäl tnisse des 

L:gterreiC!i3BChen allgemeinen i^rivatrechty^" , Euren nlhrlioh w ho soon was to 

become the Champion of a new Jurlstic dlBcipline, the 13oclology of law 

( See below pp. .. \ dealt wlt one of the rn^st Intricate Problems of 

the civil lavj in his study 13ie ntillsciwe ifr^ende ^^fill enaerkl^'runi; ( 1893, 

i^rmin Ehren zwei r. published soon afterward s a book about another subject of 

the law of contractSi u l e aorenannten zv/eir^liedri re n Vert r''fye, in r beson d er e. 

die tferfep ^'ffBten unrten i^rltter " ( l895)^f ^sef^fHü^lca (^ - 1941 ')-^Vho 

was to become one of the most esteemed teachers at the Universlty of 

^^ bofthiSslocilpäicit^vpoÖity of bound 

Vienna, thoupli he wad also aa dean ( dekan ) of the faculty to encounter 
and flfTrb-^- ^ , 

the ineolence of German^national t Student corporntlonp , ;iroduced tv;o 

thorou,rrh studieo r^bout authorization t Pie Vollma ch t ( 1900 .?nd 

!^tellver tretunr un c2 Vollmac ht ( 190P j^^^^djp the sphere of civil 

procedure ■eor'^ Petschek who '^ripflnnlly taur it on the Ünlversitv of 

Pr»^«^ Ic^ter ab'*>ve p....), bnfi later,baf terfh^tlpr;of ec^ap fJtllhpr feRPor 

at the 

Univerdity of Czern'-witz, owin- to the outbrea ' of VbrliJ V/ar I oved 

to Vienna where he became honorary profes or of civil procedure, 

excelled as one of the eaUJfeett profound Interpretern of the new Ausrian 

law of civil procedure. lie also becair.e the ed " trr cf the Important 

^atazfcne Ce a t er r eicht s che s Zentr a \blatt ^ f^^ r die .luri ptische _^'ra xi.? 

which edited u t 1936# hUiHHUesucceöd d tn iecv^jlnf tettfiia öigS.A. 


«•W4>' «»■■■■ •»« 

where he was active at fikcvard. üe dled in y(^ ). 

Prior to the above mentloned monograpjohrthe almost authorit;tive 
qork on Austrian marrtiare law, Dan Oesterreichipc he Ehere c t, had be n 
published In 1Ö75 by ,7^^Q^<3 Rittner ( bom in ..uroztyn, Gilicia, in 
1645 ) • a Scholar of Jewlsh descent who had embrnced Cat^)ollcif?m and 
taupht canonical law at the Ünlverity of Lwow. As a ni!?,rp;inal note may 
be renfcfröed her- the paradoxical fact tha* besides Rittner two other 

- 33 - 

Austrlan ^aptlzed Jewa became experte of the cononical law; Heinrich 

^1 -^increr i B, 1855 in L>moi d. 193^ ) who/ first was profespor nt the 

Univerplty of Czemowltzlwhere he In the Year 1Ö67/Ö held the dignity 

of the »ector ) and aince 1696 until 1925 as füll profeasor taught 

can^nicül law at the Universlty of Prague» and Alfred v* Halban 

• ■ " ■' .■<? 

( origlnally ijienenatock ) » b. 1865, d« lÄ25»Ci llkewlse actlve first in 

CzernOwitz and later at the Univeraity of Lwow where he taught German law 

and compafcatlve Jurisprudence.y/ 

ivue to the /lustrian social lefrisl-^tion» which had been initiated 

by Cteinb^ch and develeppeld by later lawp of ^he i-onarchy^nd the Hepubllc, 

the labor law became a a fnvorlte eubject of /mrtrlnn pcholarr , parti- 

cularlv thope "»f Jev/ish dement. Julius Ofne r tooV the leadt As early 

'■-"4 \ / 

as 1885 he published bis feeölrwFepn Das Rech t :^uf rbeit /^hiishictailtifenated 

dlsDlaed / 

forfcbiatfedtlaaentidKInlieppltbfepIeBiafibaböreijiÄththteaatEi^eflcallhat conquest 

is the Bource of all laWT in our code ahould bö v. ritten wlth «frphtyletters 

La bor ig the f oundation of all l a w^ labo r is t he ori.^inal aource of law 

^y— — 

whicn do ea not anyd proof*'* in connection with Id-as ^FfffJi? he üad 
developedin two previous lecturer, Das Recht zu leben d ind Ueber das 
Recht gpri gi?p de? rbeitslohnep ( both oublie leu in 1864 ) , Ofner postulate. 
the duty of society to secure the rlp-hts of the indivlduals to live and 
to work, thua by implicition the rir^^t 6f the worker to Claim thefull 
amoun"^ of hin labor*? produce.lln -m article »ublished n 1914 ( in 
Jur istische i^l ^'tter } C^^ner re^trrned to theee iüeas. ; oon afterwards, 
during Worid V/ar I he founded the Gesellsch?? ^ t f ''r soeiales Recht 

( seep{)«low pp ;. 

The .ro^/rcsrinf? new social leftislatlon was summed up In 
connection with Ur^ioncrp law of the Civil Code by Fip-mund Gr'^nlerp: 
( b. 1863 » j/^\ ^ ^^ ^ comprehensive annotted editlo^ of the Statutes 
concerninfT 1 bor of all categoreis \, 1923 ). Gr^^nberr. also writea 

V ■ '-^^ 

a special oommehtaryon the law of commerclal employeea. j ;<iiJii>^l (M ltf' 

( b. 1873. d. .X.^^ ), Professor at the ün verslty of Vienna, though 

his prlnary '^phere of Intereat were trade marks, namen and patent s Y^f,, 

( System des österreichischen Karkenrech ts ( 1909 ) > Die Namen Im 

deutschen und • )aterreichl schein Recht ( 1921 ), a prlze wlnnln/T work, 

iJas ÖBterrelc i Sc he Patent p:e setz t 1926 ) became Involved In studles 

about the then created Austrlan worker* s Councils/ Adler' s publlcatlons 

about the Austrlan B ct^ttbelgHtf^feepeteBtz arouseJ in'jJrpnational attention 

and were publis :ed in the International Labor Review, Ge-'eva, 1922 and 

19125. Adler' 8 bock on the WapfemÄan Worke-^p* ouncil Law reached the 

thlrii edition In 1929« it was also Emanuel dler ho became the author of 

the most c-^mprehenfilve wofk on the law of empl§^§§ßnWöSwwotkBre: 

Da ^^ np^estellte n und Ar b eiterrecht er läutert, 1930. in the aame year 

^HK ^ij^t'Cl^enhoff , (atfeorbejown^. Profs'J' or -^t the UnLVerJ=?ltv of Vienna 

( See p ) ,also publisehd a book on labor Irvr, tn<? ori^^inal study 

Die Koalition glr Gjpundlare des Arbelt ^rechte . 

^^^ ^ngyMüL ' >' ^y4>he JuPt quoted works, the lapt f^^teful tenryeaf stbi^ the 

Austrlan Republic saw the api:)earance of niany remarkablr publlcatlons by 

Jurlsts of Jewlrh orifrin* Heinrich klanr I wh-^ , o-^ ^ilre d^' mentioned 

edltfcdd at tliat tlme his commentary on the civil code trftt&ht'eö by a phalan'> 

of Jewlsh Jurist?, publi-^hed alone betwecn 1929 and 1936 fplir studles 

töw of which dealt w Ith the aost acutre question of tlie law of leaes, 

a subject ref eri ed to aioo'by Vlenne'^e attomyyaidJoe et^ypehatl l in an 

In^enoup lecture GerechlFkeizsidee und Mieten ^esetabebun,»?; , 1927, nnd bv ^^ 

H&tebptyttl JCiyGfci ibgfefepfcnAlfa^ctnp'en zum Mletenp-esetz, 1929. A pioneerinp: '-tudy 


Haftunp-en ohne Verschli^den < Liabilitles without f ult ), recop-nized as an 

m sterplece by anraward of the Dfeerl endowiiient, t.\DyHtäelf Bienenfeld was 
publis heu in 1932. Another excellent book -^b- t the orobT~em ofTlT bllities 
appeared in 1936 unuer the title' Die Hchu'd h-ftun-T im .^Ichgdeners^lzrecl^ — 



- 35 - 

Its author wap Albert ^j rinln hrenzwe/r , then lectur-r at the Unlverplt.v 
of Vienne, a son of iSlbert bh renz weif» !; (bi. 1875 )> the vounper brother of 
ArHiin ii^renzwe^g an;, b>" hla own nierl'R, an equal to the author of the 
S y stem , in fact, ..Ibert Ehrenzweig, at that time profes^or at the 
Üniverplty of Vienna, was a JüBlistlc luminary of ÄuBtrlai mainly by vlrtue 
of his achleveir;entß in the sphere of the law of Insurance jHe was predestined 

■ -' ■ •■• u 

as It were- for thl^^ br.inch of both Jurisprudence and economlcs since hls 

and Armin* s f-jther, Adolf iLhrenzwelg, had been for manv years the edltor 

ofi an Insurance aln.anach ( ^ AsreVu ranz^^ Jahrbuch ) whlch he ha ! founded In 

1860. T'ie piternal predlilction for Insurance was vl^-'^rously rey.ived in 

his youn^er son and a^sumed a lefrlslatlve ch?rncter. hen Albert hrenzwelg 

in the ye.'ara 1915 '-vas cjilled to the Kinistry-^f Ineriorihe Poon became 

l - the head of the depart: -nt for private- insuranc It was he who draft'?d 

the bill alout pri^'ate in?urance, who Intmduce.i it in the V'iTlln -cnt nnd 

achieved it? apjra^'al. "he feat earned hin one of the hifrhest dintlnctionr 

of imperial Austrin, The lav pi^pvedeeuch a . erf ect ir.aeter ^lece that when 

übout twenty ye;irs l-^te^^ Au?tria v/ar annected by N^^l 'ermanv and Albert 

iihrenzwelg, owwing ^o his Jewi'-h oripln, war: forceu to e.T.ifyrate, hls work, 

the law of jrlvate Insurance, not only \van not abolirhed , but v/as used 

ar a model of a new ern an ' aw conce^ning private Insurance« :\p rt from 

Geru.any, other European countrien, as France.ttee' kkn ^innvian countries, 

CzechoslovQkio ifollowed the cxaraple of Austrla in thir resppct .rT^h Juristlc 

framework v;hich ."ilbert hrenzwei^ had erected crented,f tiffdeedtructs of 

private Insurance was, inde d, to a rreat extent instrumental for the 

World Wide development of thi^ new nooial inrtitutlon* 

had publis'd 
in 19?9, llert ^hren zweig in Vienna^r jie Kechtr ordnu nr der 

V^trgp'SversicheruqJ.j t contained the e-^tire Icgrisi ation pcrtinent to 

private insursnce v/lth r^hrenzweiffp interpretstive coir.irent^, the summorv 

of his expe>^t vlews on the i.atter. uut it'- was by no nieans the last word 

o' the author. iie reached via Holland the U.S.A. wahre his '^on . Ibert 'rmin 


• - 86 - 

ii-hrenzwig had settled and become profes^or of law a'fcthe ünlver^lty oT ""'" 
California In Uerkeley.' After t'rie war, he r turned, however, to Austrla 
and vms appointed Hon. Professor of qivll law nnd c vil procerdlrar az 
the üniversity of Vlenna. There follioWed' two now comprehenslve works: 
JjeutacheB ( ueh'iterr-e ichisches ) Vergicherunpsreciit ( 1952 ) and 
dfee Recht Plehre der Veralche-'unp-gve^tra/yep und d ie Ir lae Inche , Lop;ilc 


{ 195^ ) in the next year Albert Ü2irei?i2vre^ cil^d In Vlenna. 3Btbift?lJy bef 

bef ore iHT had cel btated hia ei^^hteth birtad|ayar \>rell as hls piblden 

^ - ^-»-/iy^^ ^ «^ 4^^ 

weddlnp:. a»€l-,^n th^p'iE oycasion r^frirec elve(Si a ^s^^^F^rt Feetechrift publl^^hed 

ander the tltl .. Interna tionales Veraicheir' n.-^r ec hj;, in hlp honor by 

i'rof. Hana ^i*111er, H mburfr. Tie st^rv of -Ibert .^hrrnzv/eip-. *Haiif e and 

werk waa told tjaer / togetrier wlth an account O^ the JurlDtlc dynasty of 

the Ehrenzweigs which Is still flori shing. 1a -Afcetria and alifomia. !lj/ 

As a towerinfr fi^ure iiustrian Juris prudence and /iustrlan Jewry» 

i •• *f '1 

Karl Samuel GrTtnhut ( 1844 - 1929 )» profesör of law of connierce at the 

). ';\ 


Univerrity of Vfeenna and member of the iioußs of Loriär^» llnked the clasriic 

a^e of Glaeer-Unrer with that of the modern luriots. He was the creator 

of the Auptrlq'n rtatute on bllls of exchanrf and coiEposed the ptoddpachd 

work on thls brarich o^f the low of oomievce: Lehrbuch den Vechpelrechtg « 

2 volumes, 1901.,:^^ «hortened edition of thi? wor'^ becnme otfe of the 

indlßoensa'ble toofg of Aüntrian lawyei^s* Thir sp^cialized expert in a 

pnrticular branch of law perforir;ed, hoV^^eVe , also the his^oric tas'c of 

foundinr in 1874 "the Jurlrtic periodlcal Jlteitschrift f'!r x^rivat« und 

^•f f entli 'hep Recht der Ge/genwart) with the purp s of raj)|)yin the new 

(T.' neration of jurifit£in the spirit, of Un^er. T-ie magaz^ne developed into 

Herrn an 
one of the leadlnr lep:al orban and becane the n.o'ith 3lec'- of th new 


/\u8trian iQi«oöihool'. It was edited for more than forty yearp ( until 1916/ 

by Grünhut hin seif yr^- also was a'prolific contributor to it./") ! 


- 37 - 

Anottier plon€'?r feiö the Äifeid of Ihe law of comn:e "ce v^ar the 

( 1876 - M) 
Jeviah bom OQkkrr'iisko , proiPRsor at the Unlverplty of Viennn, H« 

undertook the preat task o-^ adapiplnp: 't*iö<5^öLniouf^ Ptand-^rd work by the 
l' gemman^^FWJsoiiii JSutrtBthiiiQ r aanäel-ti^Qfeet zbuoh . by the ^."erinan-Jewiph Jurist 
Herrann Staub for /iustiia, He succeedeö, in producinrr a work which 
equaled je in triürou^r'-inesr and lucldlty ' th«^ orir/inol.Thus ^ BtnfabePlak o** 

became a unlveraally pecognised reference bpok for Judpes and